National Library of Australia
The collection contains approximately 300 documents, comprising correspondence and other documents of Sir Joseph Banks. The documents originating with Banks include letters and copies of letters, speeches, notes and minutes of meetings. The remainder of the collection includes correspondence addressed to Banks from some 83 people, including Lord Bathurst (2), David Collins, W.B. Conyngham (5), Alexander Dalrymple (3), James Fleming, Georg Forster (20), J.R. Forster (5), John Hunter (4), Philip Gidley King (7), Lord Nelson, William Paterson (5), W.P. Perrin (11), William Perry (5), William Petrie (7), Arthur Phillip and Lord Radnor. Also contained in the collection are memoranda and journals of Sarah Banks.
This collection is available for research.
Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.
Items from this collection should be cited as '[Title or description of item], Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, National Library of Australia, MS 9, [item number]'.
In a codicil to his will, dated 7th March 1820, Sir Joseph Banks left the care of his papers to Sir Edward Knatchbull, the nephew of Lady Banks. In 1828 Knatchbull passed over to the British Museum the bound volumes of foreign correspondence, but he retained the rest of the papers in the expectation that an official biography would be written. He died in 1849 and, following the death of Lady Knatchbull in 1882, the ownership of the papers passed to their son Edward Knatchbull Hugesson, 1st Baron Brabourne. In 1884 Lord Brabourne offered the papers for sale to the British Museum but, when no agreement could be reached on a price, he sold many of the Australian papers to the New South Wales Government. They are now held in the Mitchell Library at the State Library of New South Wales.
Most of the remaining Banks Papers were sold on behalf of Lord Brabourne by Sotheby's on 11 March and 14 April 1886. One of the successful bidders at the sale on 14 April was E.A. Petherick, the London agent of the Melbourne bookseller George Robertson. He bought 20 lots, including a number of drafts of Banks' letters, his thoughts on the manners of the women of Otaheite, the hints of the Earl of Morton, and the catalogue of drawings and portraits by John Webber. It was unfortunate that Banks' correspondence was divided into several lots on an alphabetical basis. Petherick bought the four lots comprising letters of writers whose names started with C, F, K and P.
In 1909 Petherick returned to Australia and later in the year he transferred title in his large collection of books, maps, manuscripts and pictures to the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library. Most of the Banks Papers held in the National Library at MS 9 were originally in the Petherick Collection.
Banks was a prolific correspondent and throughout the twentieth century letters that he had written or received were sold at auctions in London and elsewhere or appeared in dealers' catalogues. The Library has bought a number of letters at different sales and assigned them distinct manuscript numbers. The collector Sir Rex Nan Kivell also bought several letters of Banks at London sales and gave them his own NK numbers. His collection was purchased by the Library in 1959. At a later date all the manuscripts in his collection were given manuscript numbers, as well as numbers within the MS 9 sequence. For instance, the letter of Mungo Park can be cited as MS 9/117 or MS 4004, while its original Nan Kivell number was NK 5837
On 23 July 1985 Sotheby's in London sold many of the papers of Banks' friend John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Sandwich was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1771-82 and was closely associated with the second and third voyages of Cook. The National Library bought three lots at the sale and the collection was given the number MS 7218. It includes nine letters written by Banks to Sandwich in 1782-84.
This finding aid has been created to bring together in a single listing the Banks material which is held by the National Library in a number of different collections. The series listing is based on an original finding aid for the main collection, MS 9. The order and numbering of the original finding aid has been retained. Some items were listed in the original finding aid for MS 9 but also have their own collection number. In such cases, both numbers are supplied, with the MS 9 number given precedence.
This collection has been digitised, and is available online through this finding aid.
In addition to the main Banks collection, the National Library has a few smaller Banks manuscript collections which were received from various sources and other manuscript collections (including microfilm copies) which contain letters or other materials relating to Banks.
The State Library of New South Wales has extensive holdings of Banks' papers. These are available online at http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/banks/.
Holdings of Banks' papers held in the United Kingdom have been filmed as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project. The main filmed collections are contained in Part 8. Miscellaneous series as follows:
Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1820, British Library. Reel M1192.
Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1819, Botany Library, British Museum. Reel M2662.
Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1773-1815, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England. Reel M469.
Joseph Banks was born in 1743 and was educated at Harrow, Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. While attending Oxford University, the death of his father in 1761 left him a wealthy man and provided him with the means to follow his lifelong interest in exploration, botany and natural history.
Banks became one of the most influential men of his time and was a passionate advocate and active supporter of voyages of discovery and the expansion of knowledge in the natural sciences.
In 1766 he travelled to Newfoundland and Labrador as an independent naturalist and shortly after his return in 1767 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
In 1768, he obtained permission to accompany Captain James Cook on an expedition to Tahiti organised by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus. This expedition on HMS Endeavour 1768-1771 was to become Cook's first voyage of discovery. The expedition collected specimens from South America, Tahiti and New Zealand before reaching Australia in 1770. The expedition sojourned in Botany Bay between 28 April and 5 May 1770 and from there proceeded to navigate and chart the East coast to the Torres Strait. The expedition returned to England in 1771. In 1772 Banks undertook an expedition to Iceland.
Although Banks did not participate in any further expeditions, he took a keen interest in Cook's later voyages and had an active role in publishing accounts of the voyages. He was also involved in most of the British voyages of discovery in the Pacific, including Bligh's voyage on the Bounty to obtain breadfruit from Tahiti for transportation to the West Indies, and Matthew Flinders' voyage on the Investigator which further advanced the charting of the coast of Australia. He sponsored many expeditions and sent botanists to all parts of the globe, including Australia, India, Africa, the East Indies and South America, many of them at his own expense.
Banks maintained a lifelong interest in the Pacific, in particular Australia. He advocated the establishment of colonies on the East coast of Australia, and after the founding of the settlement at Port Jackson, he became, through his myriad of contacts, the acknowledged expert on matters relating to the colony of New South Wales. He encouraged further exploration of the area and corresponded with a wide range of people, including the first four Governors of the colony.
Banks held many influential posts. He became President of the Royal Society in 1778, a position he held until his death in 1820. He was one of the founders of the Royal Horticultural Society, Superintendant of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, a member of the Board of Longitude and a member of both the Trade and Coin Committees of the Privy Council. He was a Trustee of the British Museum and his herbarium became one of the foundation collections of the Museum's Botanical department. He actively supported scientific endeavour and made his unparalelled natural history collections and library available to researchers.
He was created a baronet in 1781. He married Dorothea Hugesson in 1779 and died childless in 1820.
These manuscripts comprise the rough drafts by Banks of memorials to the Viceroy of Brazil requesting permission to make natural history observations in the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, dated 17 and 18 November, 1768, together with fair copies of them; also rough drafts for a memorial, which evidently was not submitted. The replies by the Viceroy are originals, that of the 18th November being in Portuguese only with translation by Banks, that of the 20th November is in Portuguese and English and is accompanied by a contemporary transcript of the English version. The manuscript throws additional light on the episode of the Viceroy's refusal of permission for the scientists to land.
Note that Item 2j is an envelope.
Note that Item 2o is a note by E.A. Petherick.
Note that Item 2q is an envelope.
Note that Item 2t is a note by E.A. Petherick.
Letter describing the voyage from Plymouth to Madeira, where he made collections of plants and of marine zoology at sea; describes the hostility of the Portuguese in refusing to allow the Endeavour party to land in Rio de Janeiro. Banks expresses his frustration at the inactivity and is sending copies of letters sent to the Portuguese Viceroy and the replies.
Written at the request of Count Bentinck, in 1773.
One of the items is a bill for Oedidee amounting to (UK pounds)46.16.3
Banks' handwriting on outside only.
Comprises 8 letters exchanged between Banks and Pancoucke, a Paris bookseller, concerning the cost, quality and procurement of the paper for the publication of Cook's 2nd and 3rd voyages. Some of the letters have enclosures containing information obtained from third parties. The bulk of the correspondence is dated between August 1782 and September 1783. However one document, entitled "Account for paper for printing translation of Cook's 2nd Voyage" is dated Paris 1778 and one enclosure, a letter from Pancoucke to Elmsley, is dated 10 September 1781.
Letter to J.R. Forster in answer to Forster's letter of 6th July, 1782 concerning the repayment of loans of money. See MS 9/78h. Banks is surprised at the contents of the letter and did not expect this refusal of a demand which had been delayed so long. He does not accept the opinion of the lawyers and magistrates and has therefore instructed Durcking to commence proceedings against him.
Comprises a list of agreed responsibilities entitled "Considerations relative to the charts intended for the publication of Captain Cooke's voyage"
Received with satisfaction reports of the success of the first part of the survey. Comments that the French will not be serious rivals. Mentions the proposed settlement at Port Phillip Bay and regrets not having received Flinders' charts and journals which will be needed by the ship being fitted out to found the new settlement.
Original framed in cardboard and located in Map drawer 1
Copy of draft reply endorsed as being in Waterhouse's hand follows the letter. Published in Historical records of N.S.W., Vol.6. p.109-10.
Thanks the addressee for specimens received and congratulates him on his activity. Banks will derive credit for having recommended so useful a superintendant to the specimen garden. Looking forward to receiving more specimens in future.
Tipped into MS 8152
3 letters on one sheet. In the letters to the King of France and Dr. Franklin, appreciative reference is made to the fact that, although these countries were at war with England, they forbade all molestation of Captain Cook. In the letter to the Empress of Russia, acknowledgement is made of the assistance rendered by the Russian settlements in Alaska.
Includes handwritten notes on views dated 11th December 1783 and 21st July 1787; 'List of views of headlands seen on the coasts of America and Asia' which mentions the coast of Van Diemen's Land and New Holland, undated; list of 'Presents made by order of the Admiralty', undated.
Includes a document recording the titles of the plates, the names of the engravers and the prices paid to them; "List of charts for Mr Bayly and Mr Cook"; a list of engravers, some with addresses; a list of plates, etc. entitled "Names agreed upon by Lord Sandwich, Mr. Dalrymple, Capt. King ... to be adopted in the publication of Cook's Voyage". All the documents are undated.
Includes estimates, costs and lists of illustrations
Camelford was flogged on Vancouver's orders. As the Hon. Thomas Pitt, he was a midshipman aboard the Discovery and inherited the title while at sea. The letter was possibly written in 1796 or thereabouts, since Lady Camelford was seeking information about the treatment of her son at this time. -cf. Dawson, Warren R. The Banks Letters. London: British Museum, 1958. p.607.
Sarah was the sister of Sir Joseph. The memoranda (24p.) range over a variety of subjects, including her brother and Omai. Lists those who sailed and died on board the Endeavour. Includes coloured pencil sketch of an Australian Aborigine.
Signed S.S. Banks 1772.
Signed S.S. Banks 1772.
Draft replies by Banks on the back of both letters.
Letters dated: Bear Yard, Lincolns Inn Fields, December 31st 1788; January 3rd 1789; January 7th 1789; January 13th 1789; March 5th 1787; February 17th 1789; July 11th 1789.
Collins is honoured by his appointment to command an expedition to found a settlement on the South coast of Australia but asks that provision be made for his wife if he is lost on the expedition to Port Phillip. He asks Banks to intercede with Lord Hobart to ensure the payment of a government pension to his wife.
Includes an account of a plant Atriplex halimi folia and the production of marine alkali from its leaves. Also includes a 'List of trees observed in the neighbourhood of the River Derwent ... February to June, 1804'.
Draft of reply by Banks on back.
Letters are dated February 22nd 1788, October 3rd 1790, May 7th 1791, May 9th 1792 and January 4th 1794.
Invites Banks to bring Dr. Solander whom Cook does not know and therefore feels he cannot invite directly.
The letters include an original wording and shorter versions if this should be considered too long.
Draft of reply by Banks on back, April 7th 1808.
Is about to visit Moscow and Southern Russia. Has seen a chart of a voyage to the North Pole by a Russian admiral and it accords with those of Lord Mulgrave in 1773.
Last wrote in May 1819 reporting final departure of the second voyage of discovery, now finished. Describes the trip around the East and N. Coast of Australia. They discovered the wreck of the Frederick which had left Port Jackson the previous year. Names places visited, including, Wreck Bay, Cape Flinders, Wessel's Island, Cape Grenville, Cape York, Whitsunday passage. Collection of specimens in the Endeavour River was hindered by the hostility of the natives. Followed the course of Flinders and completed Cook's survey of the N. Coast and then sailed from Goulburn Island to Coeping. Describes the vegetation and his search for specimens at each stop. Estimates that he has around 400 specimens and 260 papers of seeds. Describes the land as "uniformly bad, either the extreme of arid sterility or low depressed flats subject to inundations". Hopes to accompany King again should a third voyage be undertaken.
Draft of reply by Banks on back.
Five letters, two dated July 3 and July 14, and 3 undated letters. Replies by Banks dated July 5th, and July 16th, 1799.
Governor King sent him to King Island and Port Phillip to report on the quality of the land and timber and ordered him to list all plants in the colony of NSW that are indigenous and might be of some use to the colony. During his 3 years in the colony he ascertained the proper seasons for sowing, grafting, etc. Suggests that if the government intends to send articles, they be prepared as soon as possible and planted in boxes ready to go.
Has been requested by the colonists to compile a gardening calendar for the colony and would like to do so if assisted financially. Seeks Banks' support for this.
Letters dated: Buxton, 1st March 1805; Buxton 8th March 1805; Simmerton Hall, 19th May 1805; Simmerton Hall, 21st July 1805.
Draft reply by Banks on back of letter of 20th May.
Requests Sir Joseph Banks to use his influence with Lord Sandwich to gain some recognition for the botanical work performed by his father and him whilst with Cook on the Resolution. Wishes to obtain money to pay their debts (including a loan from Banks) to enable them to go to Germany.
The plants include a Nepenthes from Ceylon which was given to him by Vossmaer, Keeper of the cabinet of the Prince of Orange.
Offering to to obtain new books from Germany. Asks for proofs of the text and plates of Cook's [second] voyage so that he may make a German translation.
Intimates that Professor Litchenberg had compiled, from material supplied by the Forsters, a little sketch of Cook's life and character. Hopes his father may soon be able to come to Germany and thanks Banks for kindness to his father.
Most of the animals in the Landgrave's managerie have died, Professor Soemmerring has dissected an elephant, a camel, a baboon and other animals. Describes loss of his possessions in shipwreck, including his books and herbarium and asks Banks for duplicates. Mentions Omai and Tahiti and awaits news of Cook's last voyage.
Has received accounts of Cook's last voyage from two German sailors. Asks for advance sheets and texts to prepare a German translation of the official account of Cook's voyage. He hopes that Lord Sandwich will approve of this if he is assured that Forster's father has no role in it.
Has received accounts of Cook's last voyage from two German sailors. Asks for advance sheets and texts to prepare a German translation of the official account of Cook's voyage. He hopes that Lord Sandwich will approve of this if he is assured that Forster's father has no role in it. Duplicate of MS 9/77b sent by mail.
Thanks Banks for assistance with obtaining rights to German translation of Cook's last voyage and agrees with Banks' suggestion that the application for permission to translate should be made in the name of the booksellers Spencer and Haude rather than Forster. Describes the problem of pirate works prevalent in Germay; mentions Linnaeus' Mantissa now being printed in Brunswick; mineralogy in Germany; asks if the report of the death of Sir William Hamilton is true.
Asks Banks to present a petition to the Royal Society requesting that he be excused the payment of 5 years arrears of contributions. Draft of Banks' reply on back stating that the Council refused, being afraid to set a precedent which would be injurious to their finances.
Thanks Banks for the plates of Cook's last voyage and agrees not to publish until one year after the original. Asks for news of [Joseph] Priestley's experiments. Mentions discovery of elephant bones in America by Dr. Michaelis and preparation of Lichtenberg's torch. Asks if it is true that the Duke of Bedford is to travel to Asia.
Has received the plates of Cook's voyage. News of scientific experiments in Germany and activities of the French with balloons.
Concerning erroneous statements made by him in the Gottingen journal about the sheets and plates of Cook's voyage received from Banks. He had claimed that they were a gift from the Admiralty when in fact they belonged to Banks. Offers to correct the statements if Banks thinks it necessary. Hopes to be able to pay his arrears to the Royal Society soon.
Informs Banks that he can obtain a copy of his book [Sketches of the Mythology and customs of the Hindoos, 1785] from Nathaniel Smith of Bloomsbury Square. He requests that Banks alone peruse the copy. Bound copies will later be given to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies.
Before he left England he requested Nathaniel Smith to give Banks a copy of his book. He is sending Masson's seeds via [Eyles] Irwin, the bearer of this letter. Irwin is also bringing roots and seeds from India. Asks Banks to arrange for Masson to go to India where he could be of service to natural history.
Is sending plants and drawings via Colonel Polier.
Wants assistance from Banks with drawings for a paper to the Royal Society on oxen, particularly the small African wild ox, the Nghoo. Mentioned to [Jonas] Dryander that he has not been able to see Banks and has been informed by Dryander that Banks will assist.
Is grateful for Banks' offer to assist with the Zoological memoirs intended to be presented to the Royal Society. He has already begun a painting of the Nghoo and will finish it soon. Hopes that Banks will also give similar assistance with papers on animals from the Cape of Good Hope.
Includes a listing of the genus penguin with "all the new and old species" Asks for the loan of books that are out of print.
Sending this letter with his son Carl who is accompanying his daughter to England to be married to the Rev. Dr Schrader. Has prepared the first fascicle of his Spicilegia made during the voyage and it will be published next winter. Asks Banks to procure subscribers and let him know how many there are by Xmas, as subscribers will get coloured plates and others will get black and white on lower quality paper. Has disposed of the plates of his Indian zoology to a bookseller.
Discussion of repayments of Forster's debts and loans of money made by Banks. Opinions given by magistrates and lawyers of the university in Halle are that his salary paid in Halle should not be used to liquidate debts contracted abroad and that British creditors should be paid from the demands he had upon the British government. For Banks reply See MS 9/17.
Draft of reply by Banks on back.
Draft of reply by Banks on back.
Harris was Deputy surveyor-general for Van Diemen's Land. Forwarding drawings and descriptions of two animals of the genus Didelphis.
States that the supposition that he has discountenanced Banks' efforts to secure the release of prisoners in France was the result of a misunderstanding. He hopes that Banks will be successful in the case of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury. See also MS 9/136.
Referring to the failure of the crops, the flooding of the Hawkesbury River, and the losses sustained by settlers, many of whom " have long been literally naked"; and to the discovery of Bass Strait. On the last page are two entries dated July 4th and August 22nd. The former refers to Flinders going "Northward to look into Harvey Bay", and the latter to the return of Matthew Flinders, and gives information concerning Cape Mor[e]ton, the Glass House, and Harvey Bay.
The original has been framed in cardboard and located in map drawer 1
Indicates that he is forwarding, by the Reliance, seeds of trees and shrubs; speaks highly of the ability of Matthew Flinders; also refers to difficulties in obtaining supplies of provisions.
Describes events and conditions in New South Wales; disasters in the Hawkesbury River settlement with the flooding of crops leading to shortages of food; comments on the Irish convicts giving trouble; rationing has led to the stealing of sheep, pigs, goats and poultry. Governor King has arrived to replace him.
Includes letters, accounts and receipts for money given by Banks to house and clothe and provide other necessities for the boys. Also includes notes by Banks.
Intimates that "The hops have a pleasant appearance and are doing well. At Teneriffe I procured some small fig-trees, Orange Lemon and pear trees, with some Vine Cuttings, and two or three plants of Guinea Grass."
Concerns the condition of the stores on board. He indicates that he is about to sail for Port Jackson, which he hopes to reach in eight weeks time. Sorry to say the hops are dead. Procured 200 fruit trees, grape cuttings, etc.
Mentions that there is no copy of Cook's voyages on Norfolk Island, and gives a description of two New Zealanders, who had lived on the island for 7 months, and comments on their language.
States that there is an abundance of food on Norfolk Island; provisions and settlers are needed in Australia and there is a shortage of food in Port Jackson. Will forward some fine flax plants.
Mentions that "of the 620 head of cattle landed at Port Dalrymple only 250 head are left". Also refers to an expedition to New Zealand.
Draft of reply by Banks on the back.
Has had a disagreement with Magellan, who had asked him to translate some comments by Fabbroni on Cronstedt's Mineralogy. Magellan subsequently used this as a pretext for "plundering my Mineralogy" and Kirwan regrets he did not take Banks' advice to beware of Magellan. He has sent a paper on causes of variations in the barometer to the Academy.
Happy to find Banks engaged in experiments on the specific gravity of spirits of wine and brandy of different strengths and temperatures. The weather has been unusually fine. He has just seen Dr. Crawford's book which he believes is very interesting. Elmsley has been remiss in sending him books and he hasn't got his own copy yet, nor a number of others he is anxious to see. Wants news of papers published in Germany.
Is pleased to hear that Crawford's experiments on the specific gravity of spirits and wine are to be discussed. Landriani seems to be injustly prejudiced against his findings, probably because of trying to reproduce them with bad instruments. The reports of a volcano in N. Ireland are untrue. Mentions deposits of lead and copper ore in the Wicklow mountains. He has been studying stones said to be of volcanic origin and his conclusions are the opposite of those of [James] Hutton. Dr Black of Edinburgh is now in Dublin.
Expresses surprise that [Henry] Cavendish now discusses politics, as he remained silent when his family was involved during [Lord] North's administration. Priestley now disagrees the idea of the composition of water, but Kirwan still supports Cavendish. He is analysing the salts used by bleachers. Comments on Elmsley the bookseller's neglect of his business.
On receipt of Banks' letter went to the Secretary to establish the reason for the mistakes in his patent. Omission of Banks' civil title was a mistake, but omission of literary titles was because of an Order in Council that no mention be made of foreign titles except the Royal Society in London. Complains about how poorly the Society is conducted. He is looking at experiments on bleaching as all research not immediately tending to gain is despised. Asks Banks to remind Elmsley he is much in arrears. He is glad to hear the King is recovered.
Recommending Stock, a Fellow of Trinity College, to Banks. Hopes attention to the "puny war" does not check the progress of philosophical enquiry in England.
Regrets he is unable to send the history of the great cold in Ireland in the past winter. He applied to Dr. Usher [Astronomer of Ireland] for the records of the thermometer, but as these were taken indoors, they are useless. Gives his own diary of meteorological observations for Nov 1788 to April 1789. He hears that Berthollet is publishing Chymical Annals. He has not received the Memoirs of Paris for 1785, nor Memoirs of Berlin for 1784 from Elmsley. Elmsley does not answer his letters. He is curious about the experiments on the specific gravity of wine and spirits. He has read his paper on bleaching salts before the Academy.
Has sent, via a London bookseller, a copy of a dissertation to be published in Memoirs of the Irish Academy. Asks Banks to forward copies to a number of people at home and abroad. Hopes his paper can be read to the Royal Society. Thanks Banks for sending the papers of Seguin.
Apologises for not sending the promised paper on hepatic air; it is not yet complete. A trip to the Giants Causeway has revived his interest in mineralogy and he has done nothing else since his return. When his interest cools a little, he will return to other matters and finish the paper. Introduces Councillor Hudson, bearer of the letter and recommends him to Banks.
Congratulate Banks on his appointment to the Privy Council. About 1400 copies of his Mineralogy on their way to London by sea have been captured by a French privateer. He has sent a copy to Elmsley to have it reprinted in London. Mentions various scientific friends - Cavendish, Blagden, Hatchett, Macie, Tenant, Higgins and Young. He has made a new analysis of various kinds of pit coal. Now at work on his Geological essays.
As the chair of natural history in Edinburgh will soon be vacant, he strongly recommends Robert Jameson to fill it. He has lately published an account of the mineralogy of the Shetland Islands and is at present studying under Werner.
Comments on his support for Robert Jameson. Discusses Jameson, Kennedy and Mitchell. Now composing a meteorological essay and asks Banks for information on the location of a frost which occurred in June 1783 that was mentioned in a paper by John Cullum.
Thanks Banks for sending him the valuable papers of Johan Gadolin. Will send Banks a meterological paper he has in preparation. He has laid proposals before Charles Abbot [Chief Secretary of Ireland] for establishing a Board of Mines, similar to those of Saxony, Hungary and France. Lord Pelhan does not appear to think that such a body is necessary as there is none in England.
Has sent a paper on volcanic productions and is now sending an account of some meteorological observations.
Thanks Banks for his hospitality whilst he was in London. This letter is delivered by Thales, a member of the Irish Academy, whom he recommends to Banks. Dated June 24th.
Explains that the pest has already attacked apple trees in Hertfordshire and also attacks oaks.
As Banks has expressed a wish for completion of the Towneley Marbles affair, he has written to Towneley Standish and encloses a copy of his letter. The copy of the letter to Edward Towneley Standish is included and dicusses the the disposition of the collection marbles of the late Charles Towneley and its location in the British Museum. Whitehall, London, May 17th 1805
The object of his work is to demonstrate the pagan origin of many Christian ceremonies. Emphasises that his work is only for the Society and not for the public at large.
Thanks Banks for acquainting him with the Bagvathgita [Bhagavatgita], which he found full of curious matters although a small part only falls within the compass of his present enquiry. A regular commentary is necessary which '...would not only exhibit the principles of the Greek religion, but also those of our own holy faith. It would then appear that many of the doctrines said to have ben revealed to the authors of our religion were imported from India by the Alexandrine Jews together with the silks and spices...'
Describes the plant as found growing near Rotherham.
Indicates that he will write a more expansive letter and if he can finish it in time will include this also with the seeds.
As requested he handed Broussonet Banks' letter and offered him money. Broussonet refused the offer, since he still had some money. Koster was introduced to him by Correa who asked him to appeal to Captain Rodney to take Broussonet on his ship. The appeal having been unsuccessful, Correa has offered him asylum, but only the influence of the Duc de Lafoens had prevented him from being deported. He hopes to depart for England on the Boston when it arrives. Koster is acting Consul General in the absence of Sir John Hart and offers to help in any way he can. He is a friend of Masson, whom he last heard of in the Cape of Good Hope, and asks for news of him.
Banks' account of his friend Correa gave him great pleasure and he immediately sent a copy to the Duke and in return received the enclosed two letters with a sum of money for which he now remits a bill to give to the Abbé. He is glad to hear of the safe return of his friend Masson. He has received a letter from Broussonet on 28th September saying that he would embark for Barcelona on his return home.
Has news that Broussonet has gone to Barbary with the American Consul. Since he has drawn directly on Banks for money there, it is unlikely that he will be asked for more. He therefore asks Banks for the sum he advanced. Asks to be remembered to Correa.
Enclosing a second bill for the Abbé Correa in case the first should be lost. Includes the bill of exchange, dated 23rd May 1795.
Contains enclosures copied by Banks.
Includes detailed instructions on the treatment of native peoples, the aims of the expedition and the observations to be made and objects to be collected. The expedition is to "exercise the utmost patience and forbearance with respect to the natives of the several lands where the ship may touch" and the shedding of blood is a crime of the highest nature. "They are the natural and, in the strictest sense of the word, the legal posessors of the several regions thay inhabit. No European nation has the right to occupy any part of their country ..." It is natural for them to defend their land and if they are hostile there are to be no reprisals. Detailed suggestions are given on how to approach the natives peacably.
The primary object of the expedition is to observe the transit of Venus. Once this has been achieved, attention can be turned to other matters "particularly the discovery of a continent in the lower temperate latitudes". Gives clues on how to determine whether a land mass is a continent rather than merely an island, e.g. high mountains and large river mouths.
The aim is to observe and describe the peoples, their customs and beliefs, the flora and fauna and the "natural productions of the country". Vegetables are to be sought, particularly those with a medicinal use or use for dyeing. Minerals and fossils and the vocabulary of the names given by the natives are also of interest.
Tells of the capture of a French corvette out of Athens containing some cases of Greek sculptures and antiquities, and suggests that these might be acquired by purchase for the British nation.
The Lord Castlereagh has returned because of bad weather and all the vines have died. He will be sending certain trees, plants and flowering shrubs from Persia via the Wellesley.
Includes an account (2p.) headed "The executors of the late Capt. Cook to Wm. Strahan."
Includes "Observations on Iceland, August 1772"; Passport with envelope and seal; extracts from journal of the barometer, thermometer and direction of the winds of Havnefiord in Iceland and Hawkhill near Edinburgh, September 1772; and an extract in Icelandic.
This copy was sent by Paterson to Sir Joseph Banks, and concerns the inadequacy of the military forces in New South Wales and at Port Dalrymple. He felt it his duty as commanding officer of the NSW Corps to draw attention to the need for additional forces. With the present level, if any troops are called away from Headquarters, the government stores would be unprotected and the property of inhabitants under threat. Draws attention to "the shattered state of the gun carriages (in consequence of the White Ants)" and points out that this will always be the case unless iron ones are requested. Outlines the minimum numbers of troops he believes are needed at each location and recommends an additional 500 troops.
Concerning conditions in New South Wales, and of his having left Port Jackson after receiving certain provisions, and of having found Port Dalrymple in a deplorable condition. Requests Sir Joseph Banks to have stores sent from England to Port Dalrymple "as we cannot trust to Port Jackson". Refers to the disaster to 5 men who were sent to Cape Bessen, and to the finding of a passage by land from Port Dalrymple to the Derwent, and describes the country in between.
He has been attending to agriculture at Launceston, and Charles Grimes, the Surveyor-General, is to undertake the task of surveying the country between Port Dalrymple and the Derwent. Refers to the destruction of cattle by bushrangers, and to the capture of two members of the Corps by two escaped convicts.
Concerning the danger from convicts who absconded with dogs and fire-arms. These convicts were employed at hunting kangaroos to supply the settlement with meat. The Guard at the mouth of the river was found murdered. Live stock is in good condition. Menace of bushrangers. Survey between Port Dalrymple and the Derwent completed. Hills where iron ore was discovered examined by Humphrey and found to be "exceedingly rich". Suggests that "worthless characters" be employed to work the mines.
Letters from Perrin dated: 6 April,1797, 12 June 1797 and 5 June 1798; a copy of Banks' reply to the last letter is dated 1798. The letter of 12 June 1797 asks Banks to intercede on Perrin's behalf to secure the position of Land and Tide Surveyor in the Port of Kingston. In the letter of 5 June 1798, he wonders why he has not heard from Banks. Banks draft reply on the back of the letter states that he has no intention of threatening his independence by asking favours for others. The copy of the reply that was actually sent to Perrin is more circumspect.
The bulk of the letters are written whilst Perrin is travelling in Europe between March 1767 and April 1768. They are written from Paris, Aix, Schafthausen and Montpelier and are chiefly about botanical matters. Two letters contain botanical specimens. One letter is dated June 30th 1783.
Draft reply by Banks on the back.
Draft reply by Banks on the back.
The letters are dated: Madras, 28 February 1787 and 29 May, 1787; Cape of Good Hope, 26 January 1787; London, 7 July, 1789 and Bath, 5 May 1796; two are undated. They deal with general scientific matters but focus particularly on Petrie's interest in cobras and their poison, cochineal and petrification. He mentions the famine of 1782.
Draft of replies by Banks on backs of both letters. See also MS 9/86.
Letters from Spencer Lucas and Co., Great Marlborough Street, dated 11th May 1807, 1st June  and 5th June 1807 offering advice on the care of the New Zealand boy and enclosing accounts for expenses. The documents also include a bill for clothes for "New Zealand lad" and a bill for lodging and washing, and an undated draft by Banks describing "The New Zealand boy".
Bears notes in pencil by Sir Joseph Banks.
Also referring instructions to Capt. W. Wilson.
One letter dated Friday noon Gregg's Coffee House, the other Saturday noon.