Guide to the Papers of Sir Joseph Banks

MS 9

National Library of Australia

Collection Summary

Title
Papers of Sir Joseph Banks
Date Range
1745-1820
Collection Number
MS 9
Extent
0.48 metres (various containers)
Language of Materials
English
Repository
National Library of Australia
Abstract
Approximately 300 documents, comprising correspondence and papers of Sir Joseph Banks. In addition to letters, papers and speeches by Banks, there are letters to Banks from some 83 people, including Lord Bathurst (2), David Collins, W.B. Conyngham (5), Alexander Dalrymple (3), James Fleming, Georg Forster (20), J.R. Forster (5), John Hunter (4), Philip Gidley King (7), Lord Nelson, William Paterson (5), W.P. Perrin (11), William Perry (5), William Petrie (7), Arthur Phillip, Lord Radnor and Lord Sandwich. Also contained in the collection are memoranda and journals of Sarah Banks. Topics covered include general botanical and zoological matters, descriptions of conditions in the colony of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, publication of the accounts of Cook's voyages, and correspondence with the Viceroy of Brazil while the Endeavour was held up in Rio de Janeiro.

Introduction

Scope and Contents

The collection contains approximately 300 documents, comprising correspondence and other documents of Sir Joseph Banks. The documents originating with Banks include letters and copies of letters, speeches, notes and minutes of meetings. The remainder of the collection includes correspondence addressed to Banks from some 83 people, including Lord Bathurst (2), David Collins, W.B. Conyngham (5), Alexander Dalrymple (3), James Fleming, Georg Forster (20), J.R. Forster (5), John Hunter (4), Philip Gidley King (7), Lord Nelson, William Paterson (5), W.P. Perrin (11), William Perry (5), William Petrie (7), Arthur Phillip and Lord Radnor. Also contained in the collection are memoranda and journals of Sarah Banks.

Conditions Governing Access

This collection is available for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.

Preferred Citation

Items from this collection should be cited as '[Title or description of item], Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, National Library of Australia, MS 9, [item number]'.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

In a codicil to his will, dated 7th March 1820, Sir Joseph Banks left the care of his papers to Sir Edward Knatchbull, the nephew of Lady Banks. In 1828 Knatchbull passed over to the British Museum the bound volumes of foreign correspondence, but he retained the rest of the papers in the expectation that an official biography would be written. He died in 1849 and, following the death of Lady Knatchbull in 1882, the ownership of the papers passed to their son Edward Knatchbull Hugesson, 1st Baron Brabourne. In 1884 Lord Brabourne offered the papers for sale to the British Museum but, when no agreement could be reached on a price, he sold many of the Australian papers to the New South Wales Government. They are now held in the Mitchell Library at the State Library of New South Wales.

Most of the remaining Banks Papers were sold on behalf of Lord Brabourne by Sotheby's on 11 March and 14 April 1886. One of the successful bidders at the sale on 14 April was E.A. Petherick, the London agent of the Melbourne bookseller George Robertson. He bought 20 lots, including a number of drafts of Banks' letters, his thoughts on the manners of the women of Otaheite, the hints of the Earl of Morton, and the catalogue of drawings and portraits by John Webber. It was unfortunate that Banks' correspondence was divided into several lots on an alphabetical basis. Petherick bought the four lots comprising letters of writers whose names started with C, F, K and P.

In 1909 Petherick returned to Australia and later in the year he transferred title in his large collection of books, maps, manuscripts and pictures to the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library. Most of the Banks Papers held in the National Library at MS 9 were originally in the Petherick Collection.

Banks was a prolific correspondent and throughout the twentieth century letters that he had written or received were sold at auctions in London and elsewhere or appeared in dealers' catalogues. The Library has bought a number of letters at different sales and assigned them distinct manuscript numbers. The collector Sir Rex Nan Kivell also bought several letters of Banks at London sales and gave them his own NK numbers. His collection was purchased by the Library in 1959. At a later date all the manuscripts in his collection were given manuscript numbers, as well as numbers within the MS 9 sequence. For instance, the letter of Mungo Park can be cited as MS 9/117 or MS 4004, while its original Nan Kivell number was NK 5837

On 23 July 1985 Sotheby's in London sold many of the papers of Banks' friend John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Sandwich was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1771-82 and was closely associated with the second and third voyages of Cook. The National Library bought three lots at the sale and the collection was given the number MS 7218. It includes nine letters written by Banks to Sandwich in 1782-84.

Arrangement

This finding aid has been created to bring together in a single listing the Banks material which is held by the National Library in a number of different collections. The series listing is based on an original finding aid for the main collection, MS 9. The order and numbering of the original finding aid has been retained. Some items were listed in the original finding aid for MS 9 but also have their own collection number. In such cases, both numbers are supplied, with the MS 9 number given precedence.

Existence and Location of Copies

This collection has been digitised, and is available online through this finding aid.

In addition to the main Banks collection, the National Library has a few smaller Banks manuscript collections which were received from various sources and other manuscript collections (including microfilm copies) which contain letters or other materials relating to Banks.

Separated Materials

The State Library of New South Wales has extensive holdings of Banks' papers. These are available online at http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/banks/.

Holdings of Banks' papers held in the United Kingdom have been filmed as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project. The main filmed collections are contained in Part 8. Miscellaneous series as follows:

Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1820, British Library. Reel M1192.

Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1819, Botany Library, British Museum. Reel M2662.

Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1773-1815, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England. Reel M469.

Biographical Note

Joseph Banks was born in 1743 and was educated at Harrow, Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. While attending Oxford University, the death of his father in 1761 left him a wealthy man and provided him with the means to follow his lifelong interest in exploration, botany and natural history.

Banks became one of the most influential men of his time and was a passionate advocate and active supporter of voyages of discovery and the expansion of knowledge in the natural sciences.

In 1766 he travelled to Newfoundland and Labrador as an independent naturalist and shortly after his return in 1767 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1768, he obtained permission to accompany Captain James Cook on an expedition to Tahiti organised by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus. This expedition on HMS Endeavour 1768-1771 was to become Cook's first voyage of discovery. The expedition collected specimens from South America, Tahiti and New Zealand before reaching Australia in 1770. The expedition sojourned in Botany Bay between 28 April and 5 May 1770 and from there proceeded to navigate and chart the East coast to the Torres Strait. The expedition returned to England in 1771. In 1772 Banks undertook an expedition to Iceland.

Although Banks did not participate in any further expeditions, he took a keen interest in Cook's later voyages and had an active role in publishing accounts of the voyages. He was also involved in most of the British voyages of discovery in the Pacific, including Bligh's voyage on the Bounty to obtain breadfruit from Tahiti for transportation to the West Indies, and Matthew Flinders' voyage on the Investigator which further advanced the charting of the coast of Australia. He sponsored many expeditions and sent botanists to all parts of the globe, including Australia, India, Africa, the East Indies and South America, many of them at his own expense.

Banks maintained a lifelong interest in the Pacific, in particular Australia. He advocated the establishment of colonies on the East coast of Australia, and after the founding of the settlement at Port Jackson, he became, through his myriad of contacts, the acknowledged expert on matters relating to the colony of New South Wales. He encouraged further exploration of the area and corresponded with a wide range of people, including the first four Governors of the colony.

Banks held many influential posts. He became President of the Royal Society in 1778, a position he held until his death in 1820. He was one of the founders of the Royal Horticultural Society, Superintendant of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, a member of the Board of Longitude and a member of both the Trade and Coin Committees of the Privy Council. He was a Trustee of the British Museum and his herbarium became one of the foundation collections of the Museum's Botanical department. He actively supported scientific endeavour and made his unparalelled natural history collections and library available to researchers.

He was created a baronet in 1781. He married Dorothea Hugesson in 1779 and died childless in 1820.

Item Descriptions

Series 1. Correspondence and papers of Sir Joseph Banks

Item 1. Sir Joseph Banks. Extracts from the transactions of the Royal Society relating to sending people to observe the transit of Venus in 1769, 5 June 1766 to 9 June 1768

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Subseries 2a - 2u. Sir Joseph Banks. Correspondence, together with replies, sent to the Viceroy of Brazil while the Endeavour lay in Rio de Janeiro, November 1768

These manuscripts comprise the rough drafts by Banks of memorials to the Viceroy of Brazil requesting permission to make natural history observations in the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, dated 17 and 18 November, 1768, together with fair copies of them; also rough drafts for a memorial, which evidently was not submitted. The replies by the Viceroy are originals, that of the 18th November being in Portuguese only with translation by Banks, that of the 20th November is in Portuguese and English and is accompanied by a contemporary transcript of the English version. The manuscript throws additional light on the episode of the Viceroy's refusal of permission for the scientists to land.

Item 2a. "Memorials sent to the Viceroy of Brazil with their answers while the Endeavour lay in Rio de Janeiro"
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Item 2b. Sir Joseph Banks. Memorial by Joseph Banks to his Excellency Count Rolim, Viceroy and Captain General of the Estates of Brazil. Dated on board his Britannic Majesty's Ship of War Endeavour in the Port of Rio de Janeiro, 17 November 1768
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Item 2c - 2f. Sir Joseph Banks. Rough drafts of the memorial sent to the Viceroy of Brazil on November 17th 1768
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Item 2h. Reply by Viceroy "Pro memoria do Conde de Azambuja Vice Roy do Estado de Brazil em reposta da do Snr Cavalliero Joseph Bancks [sic]", 18 November 1758 [i.e. 1768]
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Item 2i_j. Translation of the Viceroy of Brazil's reply of 18th November 1768.

Note that Item 2j is an envelope.

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Item 2k. Sir Joseph Banks. Note by Banks.
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Item 2l. Sir Joseph Banks. The memorial of Joseph Banks Esq to His Excellency Count Rolim Vice Roy and Captain General of the Estates of Brazil in answer to his Excellency's of November 18, 19 November 1768
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Item 2m - 2n. Sir Joseph Banks. Draft of reply to the Viceroy of Brazil's letter of November 18, undated.

Note that Item 2o is a note by E.A. Petherick.

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Item 2p. Reply by Viceroy, "Pro memoria do Conde Vice Roy do Estado do Brazil em reposta da do Snr Cavalliero Joseph Brancks" [sic], 20 November 1768

Note that Item 2q is an envelope.

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Item 2r - 2s. Two copies of translations of the Viceroy of Brazil's reply of November 20th 1768.

Note that Item 2t is a note by E.A. Petherick.

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Item 2u. Sir Joseph Banks. Rough draft of memorial to the Viceroy of Brazil, undated and not submitted.
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Item 3. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Earl of Morton, Rio de Janeiro, 1 December 1768

Letter describing the voyage from Plymouth to Madeira, where he made collections of plants and of marine zoology at sea; describes the hostility of the Portuguese in refusing to allow the Endeavour party to land in Rio de Janeiro. Banks expresses his frustration at the inactivity and is sending copies of letters sent to the Portuguese Viceroy and the replies.

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Item 4 - 4e. Sir Joseph Banks. Thoughts on the manners of [the women of] Otaheite, written in Holland for the amusement of the Princess of Orange, 1773

Written at the request of Count Bentinck, in 1773.

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Item 5 - 5b. Sir Joseph Banks. Accounts of presents to be sent out with Omai, undated.

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Item 6. Sir Joseph Banks. Account of the bills for Omai, undated.

One of the items is a bill for Oedidee amounting to (UK pounds)46.16.3

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Item 7. Sir Joseph Banks. Account of the presents intended to be sent to the inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, undated.

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Item 8. Sir Joseph Banks. Account of the bills for Oedidee, undated.

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Item 9. Sir Joseph Banks. Expenses on account of Omai in 1774, undated.

Banks' handwriting on outside only.

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Item 10. Sir Joseph Banks. Expenses incurred on account of Mr Omai in the course of the year 1775, undated.

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Item 11. Sir Joseph Banks. Expenses incurred on account of Mr Omai in the course of the year 1776, undated.

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Item 12. Sir Joseph Banks. Goods that Captain Cook may carry out for the benefit of the Society at large, undated.

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Item 13. Sir Joseph Banks. Account of presents for Omai, undated.

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Item 14. Sir Joseph Banks. Things intended for Omai [and] Things intended to be sent to Oedidee, undated.

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File 15a - 15z, 15(1) - 15(20). Sir Joseph Banks. Addresses to the Royal Society, London the first on being appointed to the Chair and later addresses on presentations of the Copley Medal, 1778-1796

Item 15a. Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on being appointed to the chair, [1778]
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Item 15c - 15k. Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to Samuel Vince, 1780
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Item 15l. Sir Joseph Banks. Note by Joseph Banks on the transfer of assets to the British Museum and requesting approval for the transaction.
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Item 15n - 15q. Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to R. Kirwan, 1782
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Item 15s - 15v. Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to John Goodricke and Hutchins, 1783
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Item 15x - 15(2). Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to Edward Waring, 1784
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Item 15(6) - 15(7). Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to Benjamin Thompson, 1792
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Item 15(9) - 15(12). Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to Ramsden, 1795
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Item 15(14) - 15(17). Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to George Atwood, 1796
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Item 15(19) - 15(20). Sir Joseph Banks. Notes for an address to the Royal Society, London on the awarding of the Copley medal to Sir Astley Cooper, 1801
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Item 16 - 16r. Sir Joseph Banks. Correspondence between Sir Joseph Banks and C. Pancoucke concerning the paper used for the publication of Cook's 2nd and 3rd voyages, 1778 to September 1783

Comprises 8 letters exchanged between Banks and Pancoucke, a Paris bookseller, concerning the cost, quality and procurement of the paper for the publication of Cook's 2nd and 3rd voyages. Some of the letters have enclosures containing information obtained from third parties. The bulk of the correspondence is dated between August 1782 and September 1783. However one document, entitled "Account for paper for printing translation of Cook's 2nd Voyage" is dated Paris 1778 and one enclosure, a letter from Pancoucke to Elmsley, is dated 10 September 1781.

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Item 17. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to J.R. Forster, Soho Square, London, 22 January 1783

Letter to J.R. Forster in answer to Forster's letter of 6th July, 1782 concerning the repayment of loans of money. See MS 9/78h. Banks is surprised at the contents of the letter and did not expect this refusal of a demand which had been delayed so long. He does not accept the opinion of the lawyers and magistrates and has therefore instructed Durcking to commence proceedings against him.

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Item 18 - 18a. Sir Joseph Banks. Minutes of a meeting held at Lord Sandwich's house in order to facilitate the finishing of the charts supposed to be delayed by misunderstandings between Dalrymple, Capt. King and Lieut. Roberts, 5 December 1783

Comprises a list of agreed responsibilities entitled "Considerations relative to the charts intended for the publication of Captain Cooke's voyage"

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Item 19 - 19d. Sir Joseph Banks. Instructions to two Botanic collectors, James Smith and George Austin who sailed in the Guardian for New South Wales, 1 July 1789

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Item 20. Sir Joseph Banks. Introduction, to an unnamed person, of the bearers, Mssrs. Vere and Hill requesting that they be allowed to visit "your botanic garden", 29 July 1792

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Item 21 - 21a. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord --- concerning Grenville's shipwreck and the effect of icy conditions on navigation in the North Sea. Soho Square, London, 27 December 1799

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Item 22. Sir Joseph Banks. Manuscript copy of a letter to Capt. Matthew Flinders, Soho Square, London., 10 April 1803

Received with satisfaction reports of the success of the first part of the survey. Comments that the French will not be serious rivals. Mentions the proposed settlement at Port Phillip Bay and regrets not having received Flinders' charts and journals which will be needed by the ship being fitted out to found the new settlement.

Physical Location

Original framed in cardboard and located in Map drawer 1

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Subseries 23(1) - 23(6). Sir Joseph Banks. Six letters, 1803-1815

Item a. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to William Herschell introducing a Mr Valentine and asking that he be allowed to view his apparatus. Soho Square, London, 5 May 1803
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Item b. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Henry Ellis regarding customs of the ladies of Knights of the Garter, Spring Grove, 10 July 1812
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Item c. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to [Frederick] Robinson regarding Comptroller of the Mint, Soho Square, London, 21 July 1815
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Item d. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Richard Westmacott concerning subscribers to the Duke of Bedford's statue, Soho Square, London, 22 June 1816
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Item e. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter concerning botanical specimens, Soho Square, London, 14 January 1820
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Item f. Sir Joseph Banks. Note accompanying an account, Soho Square, London, August 20th, undated.
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Item 24. Sir Joseph Banks. Manuscript copy of letter to Capt. H. Waterhouse, relating to the introduction of Spanish sheep in New South Wales. Soho Square, London, 8 July 1806

Copy of draft reply endorsed as being in Waterhouse's hand follows the letter. Published in Historical records of N.S.W., Vol.6. p.109-10.

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Item 25. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter concerning botanical specimens, Soho Square, London, 1 March 1819

Thanks the addressee for specimens received and congratulates him on his activity. Banks will derive credit for having recommended so useful a superintendant to the specimen garden. Looking forward to receiving more specimens in future.

Physical Location

Tipped into MS 8152

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Item 26. Sir Joseph Banks. Manuscript copy of three letters sent from Lord Howe at the Admiralty, on behalf of George III, accompanying presentation copies of the history of Captain Cook's last voyage, to the King of France, the Empress of Russia, and Dr. Benjamin Franklin, [1784]

3 letters on one sheet. In the letters to the King of France and Dr. Franklin, appreciative reference is made to the fact that, although these countries were at war with England, they forbade all molestation of Captain Cook. In the letter to the Empress of Russia, acknowledgement is made of the assistance rendered by the Russian settlements in Alaska.

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Item 27 - 27e. Sir Joseph Banks. Documents relating to the publication and distribution of Captain Cook's voyages, between December 1783 and July 1787

Includes handwritten notes on views dated 11th December 1783 and 21st July 1787; 'List of views of headlands seen on the coasts of America and Asia' which mentions the coast of Van Diemen's Land and New Holland, undated; list of 'Presents made by order of the Admiralty', undated.

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Item 28 - 28e. Sir Joseph Banks. Documents concerning engravings for the publication of the account of Cook's 3rd voyage.

Includes a document recording the titles of the plates, the names of the engravers and the prices paid to them; "List of charts for Mr Bayly and Mr Cook"; a list of engravers, some with addresses; a list of plates, etc. entitled "Names agreed upon by Lord Sandwich, Mr. Dalrymple, Capt. King ... to be adopted in the publication of Cook's Voyage". All the documents are undated.

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Item 29 - 29j. Sir Joseph Banks. Documents concerning publication of plates and plans for Captain Cook's journal.

Includes estimates, costs and lists of illustrations

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Item 30 - 30f. Sir Joseph Banks. Statements of expenses in connection with the publication of Captain Cook's third voyage, undated.

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Item 31. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to an unknown person regarding a voyage to New Zealand and the harsh treatment of Lord Camelford by Captain George Vancouver on the Discovery.

Camelford was flogged on Vancouver's orders. As the Hon. Thomas Pitt, he was a midshipman aboard the Discovery and inherited the title while at sea. The letter was possibly written in 1796 or thereabouts, since Lady Camelford was seeking information about the treatment of her son at this time. -cf. Dawson, Warren R. The Banks Letters. London: British Museum, 1958. p.607.

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Series 2. Papers of Sarah Banks

Item 32 - 32k. Sarah Banks. Memoranda on various subjects, undated

Sarah was the sister of Sir Joseph. The memoranda (24p.) range over a variety of subjects, including her brother and Omai. Lists those who sailed and died on board the Endeavour. Includes coloured pencil sketch of an Australian Aborigine.

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Item 33. Sarah Banks. Copy of Journal of an excursion to Chatham, Rochester, Sheerness. Sheppey etc. began February 21st 1767 ended March 4th 1767.

Signed S.S. Banks 1772.

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Item 33a. Sarah Banks. Copy of Journal of an Excursion to Eastbury Bristol, etc. in May and June 1767.

Signed S.S. Banks 1772.

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Series 3. Letters addressed to Sir Joseph Banks

Item 34. Lord Bathurst. Letter to Joseph Banks on the scarcity of flax seed, Strand, London, 2 February 1781

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Item 34a. Lord Bathurst. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on tokens and the rising price of silver, Strand, London, 13 October, 1812

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Item 35 - 35a. Lord Blandford. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning certain plants. Piccadilly, London, 28 May and 19 June 1805

Draft replies by Banks on the back of both letters.

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Item 36a - 36j. William Cobbe. Letters (7) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning an invention for catching fish, (with original water colour drawing). London, 5 March 1787 to 31 December 1788

Letters dated: Bear Yard, Lincolns Inn Fields, December 31st 1788; January 3rd 1789; January 7th 1789; January 13th 1789; March 5th 1787; February 17th 1789; July 11th 1789.

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Item 37. Thomas Cochrane. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a collection of zoology from the West Indian Islands, St. Christopher's, 29 April, 1781

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Item 38. G. Colebrooke. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on the religion of the Brahmins. Nottinghill, London, 19 May, 1787

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Item 39. David Collins. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning provision for his wife. Beaumont Street, London, 24 December 1802

Collins is honoured by his appointment to command an expedition to found a settlement on the South coast of Australia but asks that provision be made for his wife if he is lost on the expedition to Port Phillip. He asks Banks to intercede with Lord Hobart to ensure the payment of a government pension to his wife.

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Item 39a - 39c. David Collins. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks sending specimens and descriptions of plants and animals via the Lady Barlow. Hobart, 19 August 1804

Includes an account of a plant Atriplex halimi folia and the production of marine alkali from its leaves. Also includes a 'List of trees observed in the neighbourhood of the River Derwent ... February to June, 1804'.

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Item 40. Cologan. Note to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a parcel of plants. Leicester Square, London, 14 December 1791

Draft of reply by Banks on back.

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Item 41. Rev. Thomas Combes. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a living snake found inside a sheep. Somerset, 21 January 1803

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Item 42. Taylor Combe. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the framing of an Egyptian Roll. Soho Square, London, 10 January 1804

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Item 43 - 43d. William Conyngham. Letters (5) to Sir Joseph Banks, chiefly on botanical matters. Dublin, 22 February 1788 to 4 January 1794

Letters are dated February 22nd 1788, October 3rd 1790, May 7th 1791, May 9th 1792 and January 4th 1794.

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Item 44. Cook. Note to Joseph Banks inviting him to view Long's collection of drawings of the natural history of Jamaica. Poland Street, London, 15 July 1774

Invites Banks to bring Dr. Solander whom Cook does not know and therefore feels he cannot invite directly.

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Item 45 - 45c. William Cooke. Letters, (2) , to Sir Joseph Banks submitting wording in Latin for a proposed memorial to be erected at Kamchatka to commemorate the assistance and hospitality given to Cook on his 3rd voyage, ., 29 October [1789]

The letters include an original wording and shorter versions if this should be considered too long.

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Item 46. E. Cooper. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks intimating that the Government had decided to liberate two Iceland ships. Downing Street, London, 26 February [1808]

Draft of reply by Banks on back, April 7th 1808.

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Item 47. Thomas Cooper. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning an application for a patent for bleaching, [June 1788]

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Item 48. J. Cope. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a sea unicorn, Boston, 22 February 1800

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Item 49. Charles Cordiner. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning species of Laplysia Linnaeus. Banff, 3 May 1787

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Item 50 - 50a. Malcolm Cowan. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a medicinal grass found in Jamaica, Plymouth, 8 February and 4 March 1805

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Item 51. James Cox. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning American botany, Philadelphia, 18 September 1785

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Item 52. William Coxe. Letter unsigned to Sir Joseph Banks sending pamphlets. St. Petersberg, 3 January 1785

Is about to visit Moscow and Southern Russia. Has seen a chart of a voyage to the North Pole by a Russian admiral and it accords with those of Lord Mulgrave in 1773.

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Item 53 - 53a. William Coxe. Letter unsigned to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the exhibition of a unicorn. Birmingham, 31 May 1787

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Item 54. Allan Cunningham. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Coeping Bay, Timor, 8 November 1819

Last wrote in May 1819 reporting final departure of the second voyage of discovery, now finished. Describes the trip around the East and N. Coast of Australia. They discovered the wreck of the Frederick which had left Port Jackson the previous year. Names places visited, including, Wreck Bay, Cape Flinders, Wessel's Island, Cape Grenville, Cape York, Whitsunday passage. Collection of specimens in the Endeavour River was hindered by the hostility of the natives. Followed the course of Flinders and completed Cook's survey of the N. Coast and then sailed from Goulburn Island to Coeping. Describes the vegetation and his search for specimens at each stop. Estimates that he has around 400 specimens and 260 papers of seeds. Describes the land as "uniformly bad, either the extreme of arid sterility or low depressed flats subject to inundations". Hopes to accompany King again should a third voyage be undertaken.

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Item 55. Alexander Dalrymple. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning charts of the Sandwich Islands which he has had reduced for John Webber, 12 December 1783

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Item 56. Alexander Dalrymple. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning plates of Kerguelen's Land, etc., with reductions for John Webber, and reporting that he has found the longitude of Eimeo to be wrong, 13th December, 1783

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Item 57. Alexander Dalrymple. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning views of Sulphur Island and Japan, with reductions for John Webber, also referring to charts sent to him by Captain King, 15 December 1783

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Item 58. Lord Dundas. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning subscription on behalf of Sir John Sinclair. Aske, Richmond, Yorkshire, 21st December, 1814

Draft of reply by Banks on back.

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Item 59 - 59f. Dowager Lady Essex. Letters (5) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning proposals to sell her estate. St. James' Place, London, 1799

Five letters, two dated July 3 and July 14, and 3 undated letters. Replies by Banks dated July 5th, and July 16th, 1799.

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Item 60. James Fleming. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks referring to his residence in N.S.W. for three years, and seeking assistance from Banks. St. George's Fields, London, 24 December 1803

Governor King sent him to King Island and Port Phillip to report on the quality of the land and timber and ordered him to list all plants in the colony of NSW that are indigenous and might be of some use to the colony. During his 3 years in the colony he ascertained the proper seasons for sowing, grafting, etc. Suggests that if the government intends to send articles, they be prepared as soon as possible and planted in boxes ready to go.

Has been requested by the colonists to compile a gardening calendar for the colony and would like to do so if assisted financially. Seeks Banks' support for this.

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Item 61. G. Foersch. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Upac tree. London, 24th July.

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Item 62 - 62f. George Follett. Letters (4) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning sheep and wool. Simmerton Hall and Buxton, March-July 1805

Letters dated: Buxton, 1st March 1805; Buxton 8th March 1805; Simmerton Hall, 19th May 1805; Simmerton Hall, 21st July 1805.

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Item 63. Henry Foot. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning importation of wines. London, 26 September 1788

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Item 64 - 64a. James Forbes. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks requesting permission to dedicate to Banks his "Letters from France". Stanmore Hill, 20 May and 25 June 1805

Draft reply by Banks on back of letter of 20th May.

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Item 65 - 65c. James Ford. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning canvas for sailcloth, and the use of hemp. London and Montrose, 18 June 1801, 30 March 1802

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Item 66. T. Fordyce. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks thanking him for the loan of a book on tombers. London, 19 September 1795

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Item 67 - 67a. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks discussing natural history and botany of Lithuania. Vilno, 22 May 1785

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Item 67b. Georg Forster. Autograph note to Sir Joseph Banks accompanying the presentation of a copy of his Voyage round the World. Perry Street, London, 18 March 1777

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Item 68 - 68a. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks intimating that his father and he had been offered positions as teachers in an institution in Germany. London, 4 January 1778

Requests Sir Joseph Banks to use his influence with Lord Sandwich to gain some recognition for the botanical work performed by his father and him whilst with Cook on the Resolution. Wishes to obtain money to pay their debts (including a loan from Banks) to enable them to go to Germany.

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Item 69 - 69a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks concerning certain botanical specimens he is sending from Germany. Amsterdam, 11 November 1778

The plants include a Nepenthes from Ceylon which was given to him by Vossmaer, Keeper of the cabinet of the Prince of Orange.

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Item 70 - 70a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks imploring him to use his influence with Lord Sandwich to grant his father a sum of money sufficient to satisfy his creditors, and so enable him to leave England to accept a position in Germany. Berlin, 9 February 1779

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Item 71 - 71b. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks concerning the financial plight of his father. Seeks money to enable his family to move to Halle leaving the debts unpaid. Cassel, April 1 1779

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Item 72 - 72a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks concerning certain botanical books he was procuring for Banks. Cassel, 27 June 1779

Offering to to obtain new books from Germany. Asks for proofs of the text and plates of Cook's [second] voyage so that he may make a German translation.

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Item 73 - 73a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks regarding natural history works published in Germany. Cassel, 25 November 1779

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Item 74 - 74a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks forwarding a printed account in German of the death of Cook. Cassel, 20 January 1780

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Item 75 - 75a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks, Cassel, 27 March 1780

Intimates that Professor Litchenberg had compiled, from material supplied by the Forsters, a little sketch of Cook's life and character. Hopes his father may soon be able to come to Germany and thanks Banks for kindness to his father.

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Item 76 - 76a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks thanking him for the assistance rendered to his father and discussing botanical works. Cassel, 13 August 1780

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Item 77 - 77a. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks, Cassel, 26 November 1780

Most of the animals in the Landgrave's managerie have died, Professor Soemmerring has dissected an elephant, a camel, a baboon and other animals. Describes loss of his possessions in shipwreck, including his books and herbarium and asks Banks for duplicates. Mentions Omai and Tahiti and awaits news of Cook's last voyage.

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Item 77b. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks, Cassel, 10 January 1781

Has received accounts of Cook's last voyage from two German sailors. Asks for advance sheets and texts to prepare a German translation of the official account of Cook's voyage. He hopes that Lord Sandwich will approve of this if he is assured that Forster's father has no role in it.

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Item 77c. Georg Forster. Letter to Joseph Banks, Cassel, 10 January 1781

Has received accounts of Cook's last voyage from two German sailors. Asks for advance sheets and texts to prepare a German translation of the official account of Cook's voyage. He hopes that Lord Sandwich will approve of this if he is assured that Forster's father has no role in it. Duplicate of MS 9/77b sent by mail.

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Item 77d - 77f. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cassel, June 20 1781

Thanks Banks for assistance with obtaining rights to German translation of Cook's last voyage and agrees with Banks' suggestion that the application for permission to translate should be made in the name of the booksellers Spencer and Haude rather than Forster. Describes the problem of pirate works prevalent in Germay; mentions Linnaeus' Mantissa now being printed in Brunswick; mineralogy in Germany; asks if the report of the death of Sir William Hamilton is true.

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Item 77g - 77h. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on natural history matters. Cassel, 5 July 1781

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Item 77i - 77j. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cassel, 2 June 1783

Asks Banks to present a petition to the Royal Society requesting that he be excused the payment of 5 years arrears of contributions. Draft of Banks' reply on back stating that the Council refused, being afraid to set a precedent which would be injurious to their finances.

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Item 77k. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks thanking him for the plates of Cook's last voyage, undated

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Item 77l - 77m. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cassel, 27 October 1783

Thanks Banks for the plates of Cook's last voyage and agrees not to publish until one year after the original. Asks for news of [Joseph] Priestley's experiments. Mentions discovery of elephant bones in America by Dr. Michaelis and preparation of Lichtenberg's torch. Asks if it is true that the Duke of Bedford is to travel to Asia.

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Item 77n - 77o. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cassel, December 1 1783

Has received the plates of Cook's voyage. News of scientific experiments in Germany and activities of the French with balloons.

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Item 77p. Georg Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Vilno, December 11th 1785

Concerning erroneous statements made by him in the Gottingen journal about the sheets and plates of Cook's voyage received from Banks. He had claimed that they were a gift from the Admiralty when in fact they belonged to Banks. Offers to correct the statements if Banks thinks it necessary. Hopes to be able to pay his arrears to the Royal Society soon.

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Item 77q. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Margate, 20 September 1785

Informs Banks that he can obtain a copy of his book [Sketches of the Mythology and customs of the Hindoos, 1785] from Nathaniel Smith of Bloomsbury Square. He requests that Banks alone peruse the copy. Bound copies will later be given to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies.

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Item 77r - 77s. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cape of Good Hope, 30 January 1786

Before he left England he requested Nathaniel Smith to give Banks a copy of his book. He is sending Masson's seeds via [Eyles] Irwin, the bearer of this letter. Irwin is also bringing roots and seeds from India. Asks Banks to arrange for Masson to go to India where he could be of service to natural history.

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Item 77t - 77u. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning botany in India. Lucknow, 22 July 1787

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Item 77v. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning natural history in India. Lucknow, 2 October 1787

Is sending plants and drawings via Colonel Polier.

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Item 77w - 77x. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning botanical specimens in India. Nagpour, 28 August 1788

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Item 77y. George Forster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning botanical specimen Cyprepedium bulbosum received from Sweden. Mayence, January 10 1790

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Item 78 - 78a. Johann Reinhold ForsterLetter to Joseph Banks on zoological matters. Paddington Green, London, 22 March 1780

Wants assistance from Banks with drawings for a paper to the Royal Society on oxen, particularly the small African wild ox, the Nghoo. Mentioned to [Jonas] Dryander that he has not been able to see Banks and has been informed by Dryander that Banks will assist.

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Item 78b - 78d. Johann Reinhold ForsterLetter to Joseph Banks on zoological matters. Paddington Green, London, 7 April 1780

Is grateful for Banks' offer to assist with the Zoological memoirs intended to be presented to the Royal Society. He has already begun a painting of the Nghoo and will finish it soon. Hopes that Banks will also give similar assistance with papers on animals from the Cape of Good Hope.

Includes a listing of the genus penguin with "all the new and old species" Asks for the loan of books that are out of print.

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Item 78e - 78f. Johann Reinhold ForsterLetter to Sir Joseph Banks, Halle, 14 August 1781

Sending this letter with his son Carl who is accompanying his daughter to England to be married to the Rev. Dr Schrader. Has prepared the first fascicle of his Spicilegia made during the voyage and it will be published next winter. Asks Banks to procure subscribers and let him know how many there are by Xmas, as subscribers will get coloured plates and others will get black and white on lower quality paper. Has disposed of the plates of his Indian zoology to a bookseller.

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Item 78g. Johann Reinhold ForsterLetter to Sir Joseph Banks offering a copy of his book on Indian zoology. Halle, 22 November 1781

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Item 78h - 78i. Johann Reinhold ForsterLetter to Sir Joseph Banks on his debts, Halle, 6 July 1782

Discussion of repayments of Forster's debts and loans of money made by Banks. Opinions given by magistrates and lawyers of the university in Halle are that his salary paid in Halle should not be used to liquidate debts contracted abroad and that British creditors should be paid from the demands he had upon the British government. For Banks reply See MS 9/17.

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Item 79. John Foster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding the engraving of the Duke of Bedford medal. 25 Wimpole Street, London, 27 June 1802

Draft of reply by Banks on back.

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Item 80. John Foster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a memorial to the Duke of Bedford. Collon, 24 October 1802

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Item 81. George Gilpin. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding a request from Richard Kirwan for a description and drawing of the Royal Society's mace for the Society at Dublin, 18 October 1787

Draft of reply by Banks on back.

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Item 82. Baron Glenbervie. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning an experiment with Bombay hemp. Pay Office, [London], 20 January 1803

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Item 83. Henry Goulburn. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding a botanist already in N.S.W joining an expedition led by Lieutenant King. Downing Street, London, 4 February 1807

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Item 84. George Harris. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Hobart Town, 31 August 1806

Harris was Deputy surveyor-general for Van Diemen's Land. Forwarding drawings and descriptions of two animals of the genus Didelphis.

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Item 85. Lord Hawkesbury. Manuscript note of thanks Sir Joseph Banks for a letter received, 20 March 1795

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Item 86. Viscount Howick. Letter to the Earl of Radnor commenting on Banks' interference with prisoners in France. Admiralty, 2 October 1806

States that the supposition that he has discountenanced Banks' efforts to secure the release of prisoners in France was the result of a misunderstanding. He hopes that Banks will be successful in the case of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury. See also MS 9/136.

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Item 87. John Hunter. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning conditions in New South Wales. Sydney, 1 June 1799

Referring to the failure of the crops, the flooding of the Hawkesbury River, and the losses sustained by settlers, many of whom " have long been literally naked"; and to the discovery of Bass Strait. On the last page are two entries dated July 4th and August 22nd. The former refers to Flinders going "Northward to look into Harvey Bay", and the latter to the return of Matthew Flinders, and gives information concerning Cape Mor[e]ton, the Glass House, and Harvey Bay.

Physical Location

The original has been framed in cardboard and located in map drawer 1

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Item 88. John Hunter. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks forwarding seeds and plants, Sydney, 20 February 1800

Indicates that he is forwarding, by the Reliance, seeds of trees and shrubs; speaks highly of the ability of Matthew Flinders; also refers to difficulties in obtaining supplies of provisions.

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Item 89. John Hunter. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks requesting that a chart, which he is forwarding by Matthew Flinders, be offered to Major Russel. Sydney, 26 February 1800

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Item 90. John Hunter. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning events and conditions in New South Wales. Sydney, 5 April 1800

Describes events and conditions in New South Wales; disasters in the Hawkesbury River settlement with the flooding of crops leading to shortages of food; comments on the Irish convicts giving trouble; rationing has led to the stealing of sheep, pigs, goats and poultry. Governor King has arrived to replace him.

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Item 91 - 91f. John Johnson. Correspondence with accounts and receipts to Sir Joseph Banks regarding a New Zealand boy and two Tahitians in distress in London, 13 July 1806 and 19 July 1806

Includes letters, accounts and receipts for money given by Banks to house and clothe and provide other necessities for the boys. Also includes notes by Banks.

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Item 92. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, HMS Gorgon, Port Praya, May 3rd, 1791

Intimates that "The hops have a pleasant appearance and are doing well. At Teneriffe I procured some small fig-trees, Orange Lemon and pear trees, with some Vine Cuttings, and two or three plants of Guinea Grass."

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Item 93. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Cape of Good Hope, 26 July 1791

Concerns the condition of the stores on board. He indicates that he is about to sail for Port Jackson, which he hopes to reach in eight weeks time. Sorry to say the hops are dead. Procured 200 fruit trees, grape cuttings, etc.

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Item 94 - 94a. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning conditions on Norfolk Island. Norfolk Island, 24 May 1793

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Item 95. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Norfolk Island, 10 November 1793

Mentions that there is no copy of Cook's voyages on Norfolk Island, and gives a description of two New Zealanders, who had lived on the island for 7 months, and comments on their language.

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Item 96. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning availability of food and provisions. Norfolk Island, 31 July 1795

States that there is an abundance of food on Norfolk Island; provisions and settlers are needed in Australia and there is a shortage of food in Port Jackson. Will forward some fine flax plants.

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Item 97. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks relating to the affairs of a deceased friend, Col. Gordon. London, 27 May 1797

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Item 98. Philip Gidley King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks referring to the bad season and the condition of the crops. Sydney, 8 January 1806

Mentions that "of the 620 head of cattle landed at Port Dalrymple only 250 head are left". Also refers to an expedition to New Zealand.

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Item 99. Rufus King. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks enclosing passport for Mason, Botanical Gardener, who, by His Majesty's order, is going to America. Great Cumberland Place, London, 3 August 1797

Draft of reply by Banks on the back.

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Item 100. Andrew Kippis. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks referring to statements in Kippis' Life of Cook and Biographica Britannica based on information provided by Banks. Westminster, 10 August 1795

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Item 101. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 8 April 1788

Has had a disagreement with Magellan, who had asked him to translate some comments by Fabbroni on Cronstedt's Mineralogy. Magellan subsequently used this as a pretext for "plundering my Mineralogy" and Kirwan regrets he did not take Banks' advice to beware of Magellan. He has sent a paper on causes of variations in the barometer to the Academy.

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Item 101a. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 27 May 1788

Happy to find Banks engaged in experiments on the specific gravity of spirits of wine and brandy of different strengths and temperatures. The weather has been unusually fine. He has just seen Dr. Crawford's book which he believes is very interesting. Elmsley has been remiss in sending him books and he hasn't got his own copy yet, nor a number of others he is anxious to see. Wants news of papers published in Germany.

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Item 101b. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 30 June 1788

Is pleased to hear that Crawford's experiments on the specific gravity of spirits and wine are to be discussed. Landriani seems to be injustly prejudiced against his findings, probably because of trying to reproduce them with bad instruments. The reports of a volcano in N. Ireland are untrue. Mentions deposits of lead and copper ore in the Wicklow mountains. He has been studying stones said to be of volcanic origin and his conclusions are the opposite of those of [James] Hutton. Dr Black of Edinburgh is now in Dublin.

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Item 101c. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 10 January 1789

Expresses surprise that [Henry] Cavendish now discusses politics, as he remained silent when his family was involved during [Lord] North's administration. Priestley now disagrees the idea of the composition of water, but Kirwan still supports Cavendish. He is analysing the salts used by bleachers. Comments on Elmsley the bookseller's neglect of his business.

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Item 101d. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 17 March 1789

On receipt of Banks' letter went to the Secretary to establish the reason for the mistakes in his patent. Omission of Banks' civil title was a mistake, but omission of literary titles was because of an Order in Council that no mention be made of foreign titles except the Royal Society in London. Complains about how poorly the Society is conducted. He is looking at experiments on bleaching as all research not immediately tending to gain is despised. Asks Banks to remind Elmsley he is much in arrears. He is glad to hear the King is recovered.

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Item 101e. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 10 July 1790

Recommending Stock, a Fellow of Trinity College, to Banks. Hopes attention to the "puny war" does not check the progress of philosophical enquiry in England.

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Item 101f. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 19 April 1789

Regrets he is unable to send the history of the great cold in Ireland in the past winter. He applied to Dr. Usher [Astronomer of Ireland] for the records of the thermometer, but as these were taken indoors, they are useless. Gives his own diary of meteorological observations for Nov 1788 to April 1789. He hears that Berthollet is publishing Chymical Annals. He has not received the Memoirs of Paris for 1785, nor Memoirs of Berlin for 1784 from Elmsley. Elmsley does not answer his letters. He is curious about the experiments on the specific gravity of wine and spirits. He has read his paper on bleaching salts before the Academy.

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Item 101g. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 4 July 1791

Has sent, via a London bookseller, a copy of a dissertation to be published in Memoirs of the Irish Academy. Asks Banks to forward copies to a number of people at home and abroad. Hopes his paper can be read to the Royal Society. Thanks Banks for sending the papers of Seguin.

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Item 101h. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 29 September 1791

Apologises for not sending the promised paper on hepatic air; it is not yet complete. A trip to the Giants Causeway has revived his interest in mineralogy and he has done nothing else since his return. When his interest cools a little, he will return to other matters and finish the paper. Introduces Councillor Hudson, bearer of the letter and recommends him to Banks.

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Item 101i - 101j. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 9 April 1797

Congratulate Banks on his appointment to the Privy Council. About 1400 copies of his Mineralogy on their way to London by sea have been captured by a French privateer. He has sent a copy to Elmsley to have it reprinted in London. Mentions various scientific friends - Cavendish, Blagden, Hatchett, Macie, Tenant, Higgins and Young. He has made a new analysis of various kinds of pit coal. Now at work on his Geological essays.

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Item 101k. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 9 April 1801

As the chair of natural history in Edinburgh will soon be vacant, he strongly recommends Robert Jameson to fill it. He has lately published an account of the mineralogy of the Shetland Islands and is at present studying under Werner.

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Item 101l. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 24 April 1801

Comments on his support for Robert Jameson. Discusses Jameson, Kennedy and Mitchell. Now composing a meteorological essay and asks Banks for information on the location of a frost which occurred in June 1783 that was mentioned in a paper by John Cullum.

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Item 101m. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 15 March 1802

Thanks Banks for sending him the valuable papers of Johan Gadolin. Will send Banks a meterological paper he has in preparation. He has laid proposals before Charles Abbot [Chief Secretary of Ireland] for establishing a Board of Mines, similar to those of Saxony, Hungary and France. Lord Pelhan does not appear to think that such a body is necessary as there is none in England.

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Item 101n. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, 6 October 1793

Has sent a paper on volcanic productions and is now sending an account of some meteorological observations.

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Item 101o. Richard Kirwan. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on scientific and experimental matters. Dublin, undated.

Thanks Banks for his hospitality whilst he was in London. This letter is delivered by Thales, a member of the Irish Academy, whom he recommends to Banks. Dated June 24th.

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Item 102. Richard Knight. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks thanking Banks for his letter on the insect pest which he has sent to his brother. Whitehall, London, 21 June 1796

Explains that the pest has already attacked apple trees in Hertfordshire and also attacks oaks.

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Item 102a and 102c. Richard Knight. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Towneley marbles affair, Whitehall, London, 18 May 1805

As Banks has expressed a wish for completion of the Towneley Marbles affair, he has written to Towneley Standish and encloses a copy of his letter. The copy of the letter to Edward Towneley Standish is included and dicusses the the disposition of the collection marbles of the late Charles Towneley and its location in the British Museum. Whitehall, London, May 17th 1805

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Item 102b. Richard Knight. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the need for careful use of language in a work he is writing to avoid giving offence, Whitehall, London, 18 June [1785]

The object of his work is to demonstrate the pagan origin of many Christian ceremonies. Emphasises that his work is only for the Society and not for the public at large.

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Item 103. William Knight. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks on matters of religion. Whitehall, undated.

Thanks Banks for acquainting him with the Bagvathgita [Bhagavatgita], which he found full of curious matters although a small part only falls within the compass of his present enquiry. A regular commentary is necessary which '...would not only exhibit the principles of the Greek religion, but also those of our own holy faith. It would then appear that many of the doctrines said to have ben revealed to the authors of our religion were imported from India by the Alexandrine Jews together with the silks and spices...'

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Item 104. Charles Knowles. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the purifying of bad wheat. Halls Farm, Beaconsfield, Bucks, 14 March 1802

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Item 105. Thomas Knowlton. Letter to Joseph Banks with description of Fraxinius Foliis Simplicity, accompanied by pencil drawing, 4 April 1775

Describes the plant as found growing near Rotherham.

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Item 106. Odser Knudsen. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks asking for assistance in securing the release of his ship and a passage to Leith. His ship was driven ashore by gales and detained by Customs Officers while on a trip from Iceland to Copenhagen. Stornoway, 16 January 1808

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Item 107. Johan Gerhard Koenig. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks intimating that he is forwarding a box of seeds, Calcutta, 6 December 1784

Indicates that he will write a more expansive letter and if he can finish it in time will include this also with the seeds.

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Item 108. Charles Komis. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding his employment in Banks' library, Oxford Street, 31 December 1803

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Item 109. John Koster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Abbé Correa and loans of money to him. Lisbon, 31 December 1794

As requested he handed Broussonet Banks' letter and offered him money. Broussonet refused the offer, since he still had some money. Koster was introduced to him by Correa who asked him to appeal to Captain Rodney to take Broussonet on his ship. The appeal having been unsuccessful, Correa has offered him asylum, but only the influence of the Duc de Lafoens had prevented him from being deported. He hopes to depart for England on the Boston when it arrives. Koster is acting Consul General in the absence of Sir John Hart and offers to help in any way he can. He is a friend of Masson, whom he last heard of in the Cape of Good Hope, and asks for news of him.

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Item 109a. John Koster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Abbé Correa and loans of money to him. Lisbon, 16 October 1795

Banks' account of his friend Correa gave him great pleasure and he immediately sent a copy to the Duke and in return received the enclosed two letters with a sum of money for which he now remits a bill to give to the Abbé. He is glad to hear of the safe return of his friend Masson. He has received a letter from Broussonet on 28th September saying that he would embark for Barcelona on his return home.

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Item 109b. John Koster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Abbé Correa and loans of money to him. Lisbon, 8 August 1795

Has news that Broussonet has gone to Barbary with the American Consul. Since he has drawn directly on Banks for money there, it is unlikely that he will be asked for more. He therefore asks Banks for the sum he advanced. Asks to be remembered to Correa.

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Item 109c - 109d. John Koster. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the Abbé Correa and loans of money to him. Lisbon, 30 May 1795

Enclosing a second bill for the Abbé Correa in case the first should be lost. Includes the bill of exchange, dated 23rd May 1795.

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Item 110. John Latham. Letter to Thomas Pennant relating to Sir Joseph Banks and the flora and fauna of New Holland. Dartford, 16 August 1789

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Item 111. Lord Liverpool. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks summoning him to a committee meeting. Addiscombe Place, Sunday, undated.

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Item 112 - 112b. Lord Macartney. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, with enclosures, regarding plants left by the French naturalist of D'Entrecasteaux's voyage. Castle of Good Hope, July 24 1797

Contains enclosures copied by Banks.

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Item 113 - 113h. Lord Morton. Hints offered to the consideration of Captain Cooke, Mr. Bankes, Doctor Solander and other gentlemen who go upon the expedition on board the Endeavour. Chiswick, 10 August 1768

Includes detailed instructions on the treatment of native peoples, the aims of the expedition and the observations to be made and objects to be collected. The expedition is to "exercise the utmost patience and forbearance with respect to the natives of the several lands where the ship may touch" and the shedding of blood is a crime of the highest nature. "They are the natural and, in the strictest sense of the word, the legal posessors of the several regions thay inhabit. No European nation has the right to occupy any part of their country ..." It is natural for them to defend their land and if they are hostile there are to be no reprisals. Detailed suggestions are given on how to approach the natives peacably.

The primary object of the expedition is to observe the transit of Venus. Once this has been achieved, attention can be turned to other matters "particularly the discovery of a continent in the lower temperate latitudes". Gives clues on how to determine whether a land mass is a continent rather than merely an island, e.g. high mountains and large river mouths.

The aim is to observe and describe the peoples, their customs and beliefs, the flora and fauna and the "natural productions of the country". Vegetables are to be sought, particularly those with a medicinal use or use for dyeing. Minerals and fossils and the vocabulary of the names given by the natives are also of interest.

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Item 114. Lord Nelson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Amphion off Toulon, 9 July 1803

Tells of the capture of a French corvette out of Athens containing some cases of Greek sculptures and antiquities, and suggests that these might be acquired by purchase for the British nation.

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Item 115. Evan Nepean. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Bombay, 2 August 1814

The Lord Castlereagh has returned because of bad weather and all the vines have died. He will be sending certain trees, plants and flowering shrubs from Persia via the Wellesley.

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Item 116 - 116f. George Nicol. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning statements of expenses in connection with the publishing of the accounts of Cook's voyages, Strand, 13 January 1782, 22 February 1783

Includes an account (2p.) headed "The executors of the late Capt. Cook to Wm. Strahan."

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Item 117. Mungo Park. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks apologising that "any misunderstanding should have taken place respecting my present voyage to New South Wales". Bloomsbury, London, 15 September [1798]

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Item 118. Passport given by Baron Diede of Furschenstein to Sir Joseph Banks and others, and observations on Iceland, 2 July 1772

Includes "Observations on Iceland, August 1772"; Passport with envelope and seal; extracts from journal of the barometer, thermometer and direction of the winds of Havnefiord in Iceland and Hawkhill near Edinburgh, September 1772; and an extract in Icelandic.

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Item 119. William Paterson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks intimating that he is forwarding, for the Kew collection, a box of seeds from Port Dalrymple, by the Alexander. Port Jackson, 1 November 1806

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Item 119a. William Paterson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the conditions at Port Dalrymple, and a collection of plants he has sent by the Buffalo. Port Jackson, 26 January 1807

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Item 120. William Paterson. Copy of a letter to Governor Bligh sent to Sir Joseph Banks, Sydney, 16 March 1807

This copy was sent by Paterson to Sir Joseph Banks, and concerns the inadequacy of the military forces in New South Wales and at Port Dalrymple. He felt it his duty as commanding officer of the NSW Corps to draw attention to the need for additional forces. With the present level, if any troops are called away from Headquarters, the government stores would be unprotected and the property of inhabitants under threat. Draws attention to "the shattered state of the gun carriages (in consequence of the White Ants)" and points out that this will always be the case unless iron ones are requested. Outlines the minimum numbers of troops he believes are needed at each location and recommends an additional 500 troops.

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Item 121. William Paterson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning conditions in New South Wales, Port Jackson and Port Dalrymple. Yorkton, Port Dalrymple, 20 April 1807

Concerning conditions in New South Wales, and of his having left Port Jackson after receiving certain provisions, and of having found Port Dalrymple in a deplorable condition. Requests Sir Joseph Banks to have stores sent from England to Port Dalrymple "as we cannot trust to Port Jackson". Refers to the disaster to 5 men who were sent to Cape Bessen, and to the finding of a passage by land from Port Dalrymple to the Derwent, and describes the country in between.

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Item 122 - 122a. William Paterson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning conditions Tasmania. Yorkton, Port Dalrymple, 19 August 1807

He has been attending to agriculture at Launceston, and Charles Grimes, the Surveyor-General, is to undertake the task of surveying the country between Port Dalrymple and the Derwent. Refers to the destruction of cattle by bushrangers, and to the capture of two members of the Corps by two escaped convicts.

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Item 123. William Paterson. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning conditions in Tasmania. Yorkton, Port Dalrymple, 13 November 1807

Concerning the danger from convicts who absconded with dogs and fire-arms. These convicts were employed at hunting kangaroos to supply the settlement with meat. The Guard at the mouth of the river was found murdered. Live stock is in good condition. Menace of bushrangers. Survey between Port Dalrymple and the Derwent completed. Hills where iron ore was discovered examined by Humphrey and found to be "exceedingly rich". Suggests that "worthless characters" be employed to work the mines.

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Item 124. Peck. Note to Sir Joseph Banks thanking him for the use of his library, Adelphi, 20 August 1805

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Item 125. F.W. Pemberton. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks offering plants and seeds from India. Ship Henry Dunbar, off Deal, 31 March 1790

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Item 126 - 126a. W.H. Pepys. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning a platina knife and extolling the advantages of platina over gold and silver. 4 Finsbury Square, London, 30 May 1805

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Item 127. H.B. Percy. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning stitleback and other fish. Boston, 27 December 1804

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Item 128 - 128c. J.B. Perrin. Letters (3) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning botanical matters and the position of Land and Tide Surveyor in the Port of Kingston. Kingston, Jamaica, 6 April 1797 to 5 June 1798

Letters from Perrin dated: 6 April,1797, 12 June 1797 and 5 June 1798; a copy of Banks' reply to the last letter is dated 1798. The letter of 12 June 1797 asks Banks to intercede on Perrin's behalf to secure the position of Land and Tide Surveyor in the Port of Kingston. In the letter of 5 June 1798, he wonders why he has not heard from Banks. Banks draft reply on the back of the letter states that he has no intention of threatening his independence by asking favours for others. The copy of the reply that was actually sent to Perrin is more circumspect.

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Item 129 - 129u. William Perrin. Letters (11) to Joseph Banks chiefly on botanical matters, March 1767 to April 1768

The bulk of the letters are written whilst Perrin is travelling in Europe between March 1767 and April 1768. They are written from Paris, Aix, Schafthausen and Montpelier and are chiefly about botanical matters. Two letters contain botanical specimens. One letter is dated June 30th 1783.

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Item 130. George Perry. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning natural history matters in India. Calcutta, 30 September 1783

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Item 131. William Perry. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning interest on money in India. Chiswick, 16 June 1788

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Item 131a. William Perry. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks requesting Banks to forward a letter to Lord Chatham. Chiswick, 7 October 1790

Draft reply by Banks on the back.

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Item 131b. William Perry. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning surgeons for the Navy. Hillingdon, 25 March 1803

Draft reply by Banks on the back.

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Item 132. William Petrie. Letters (7) to Sir Joseph Banks largely on scientific matters in India, 28 February 1787 to 5 May, 1796

The letters are dated: Madras, 28 February 1787 and 29 May, 1787; Cape of Good Hope, 26 January 1787; London, 7 July, 1789 and Bath, 5 May 1796; two are undated. They deal with general scientific matters but focus particularly on Petrie's interest in cobras and their poison, cochineal and petrification. He mentions the famine of 1782.

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Item 133 - 133a. J. Petty. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding the making of a presentation on natural history. Vienna, 25 April 1784

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Item 134. Arthur Phillip. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks stating that about fifty tubs of plants are ready to go aboard the Atlantic to sail to England next month". Sydney, 15 October 1792

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Item 135. J.F. Prendergass. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks concerning plants on board the Hope. Ship Hope, 31 August 1806

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Item 136 - 136a. Earl of Radnor. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the detainment of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury and their daughter in Paris. Longford Castle, 23 September and 3 October 1806

Draft of replies by Banks on backs of both letters. See also MS 9/86.

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Item 137 - 137a. Lady Rockingham. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks regarding a plant from the East Indies now in full flower in her hothouse. Hillingdon House, 22 October 1787

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Item 138. Duke of Somerset. Letter to Sir Joseph Banks enclosing a letter from Wishaw concerning [Mungo] Park's journal. Park Lane, London, 8 April 1814

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Item 139 - 139d. Spencer Lucas and Co. Letters to Sir Joseph Banks regarding a New Zealand native Ma Tanai, son of Tippahee, 1807

Letters from Spencer Lucas and Co., Great Marlborough Street, dated 11th May 1807, 1st June [1807] and 5th June 1807 offering advice on the care of the New Zealand boy and enclosing accounts for expenses. The documents also include a bill for clothes for "New Zealand lad" and a bill for lodging and washing, and an undated draft by Banks describing "The New Zealand boy".

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Item 140 - 140b. John Webber. Catalogue of drawings and portraits in oil by Mr Webber

Bears notes in pencil by Sir Joseph Banks.

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Item 141. Edward Young. Letter concerning Joseph Banks. Eton, 6 February 1757

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Item 142. Contemporary copy of a letter to Sir Joseph Banks referring to missionaries, convicts, Port Jackson, Tahiti, etc, 4 March 1800

Also referring instructions to Capt. W. Wilson.

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Item 143 - 143a. William Perry. Letters (2) to Sir Joseph Banks concerning the publication of Captain Cook's journal, undated.

One letter dated Friday noon Gregg's Coffee House, the other Saturday noon.

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