Guide to the Papers of Lord Sandwich

MS 7218

National Library of Australia

Table of Contents

  1. Collection Summary
  2. Introduction
    1. Scope and Contents
    2. Conditions Governing Access
    3. Conditions Governing Use
    4. Preferred Citation
    5. Immediate Source of Acquisition
    6. Existence and Location of Copies
  3. Biographical Note
  4. Item Descriptions
    1. Item 1. John Hawkesworth. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Bromley, 19 November 1771
    2. Item 2. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 13 December 1779
    3. Item 3. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 16 June [1780]
    4. Item 4. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 17 June 1780
    5. Item 5. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Beckett, 3 October 1780
    6. Item 6. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 11 December 1780
    7. Item 7. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 14 December 1780
    8. Item 8. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 15 December [1780]
    9. Item 9. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 24 April [1781]
    10. Item 10. John Douglas. Letter to Professor A. Shepherd, Windsor, undated.
    11. Item 11. Professor A. Shepherd. Letter to Lord Sandwich, undated.
    12. Item 12. John Douglas. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Windsor, 8 September 1782
    13. Item 13. Lord Sandwich. Notes concerning discussions with Captain King, 9 September 1782
    14. Item 14. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 14 September 1782
    15. Item 15. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 16 September 1782
    16. Item 16. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, undated.
    17. Item 17. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 20 September 1782
    18. Item 18. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 2 October 1782
    19. Item 19. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 9 October 1782
    20. Item 20. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 21 October 1782
    21. Item 21. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, HMS Resistance, 16 November 1782
    22. Item 22. John Douglas. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Windsor, 20 November 1782
    23. Item 23. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, 11 September 1783
    24. Item 24. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Oxford, 19 November 1783
    25. Item 25. J. [King]. Letter to James King, 24 November [1783]
    26. Item 26. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 31 December 1783
    27. Item 27. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, [1784?]
    28. Item 28. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, [1783]
    29. Item 29. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 9 January 1784
    30. Item 30. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 30 January 1784
    31. Item 31. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 6 February 1784
    32. Item 32. Dr. Charles Burney. Letter to Lord Sandwich, 11 February 1784
    33. Item 33. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 11 February 1784
    34. Item 34. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 14 February 1784
    35. Item 35. Dr. Charles Burney. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 17 February 1784
    36. Item 36. Lord Sandwich. Rough draft by Sandwich of footnote referring to opinions of Lieutenant Burney and Lieutenant Phillips on singing of South Sea Islanders. (3pp)
    37. Item 37. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich , Soho Square, London, 31 August 1784
    38. Item 38. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Weymouth, St. Petersburg, 9 November 1779
    39. Item 39. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Weymouth, St. Petersburg, November 1779
    40. Item 40. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 18 January 1780
    41. Item 41. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 25 January 1780
    42. Item 42. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 25 February 1780
    43. Item 43. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 28 March 1780
    44. Item 44. Inscription on plate presented by Board of Admiralty to Major Behm in gratitude to his hospitality to British fleet on its visits to Kamchatka, 1781. (Latin, 1p)
    45. Item 45. Captain James Cook. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Cape of Good Hope, 23 October 1776
  5. Online Items
  6. Related Documentation

Collection Summary

Title
Papers of Lord Sandwich
Date Range
1771-1784
Collection Number
MS 7218
Extent
0.09 metres (3 folders)
Language of Materials
English
Repository
National Library of Australia
Abstract
The papers comprise: (i) a letter of John Hawkesworth, who edited the published account of Captain James Cook's first voyage (ii) a letter of Captain Cook written to Sandwich during the third voyage (iii) letters relating to the publication in 1784 of the account of the third voyage, together with some letters from the British Ambassador in St Petersburg referring to the visits of the expedition to Kamchatka in 1778 and 1779. The principal correspondents are Sir Joseph Banks, the lawyer and naturalist Daines Barrington, the Reverend John Douglas (later Bishop of Salisbury) who edited the publication, and Captain James King who commanded HMS Discovery in 1779-1780, following the death of Captain Charles Clerke.

Introduction

Scope and Contents

For over 150 years the papers of Lord Sandwich were kept at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire. In the 1950s they were transferred to Mapperton House in Dorset. Some of the naval papers were reproduced in The Sandwich Papers, published by the Navy Records Society in four volumes (1932-1936). They were also referred to in the edition of Captain Cook's voyages published by the Hakluyt Society (1955-1968), Warren R. Dawson's editon of The Banks letters (London, 1958) and Phyllis Mander-Jones' Manuscripts in the British Isles relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific (Canberra, 1972).

Conditions Governing Access

The collection is available for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.

Preferred Citation

Items from this collection should be cited as '[title of manuscript item], Papers of Lord Sandwich, 1718-1792, National Library of Australia, MS 7218, [item number]'.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

For over 150 years the papers of Lord Sandwich were kept at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire. In the 1950s they were transferred to Mapperton House in Dorset. Some of the naval papers were reproduced in The Sandwich Papers, published by the Navy Records Society in four volumes in 1932-1936. They were also referred to in the edition of Cook's voyages published by the Hakluyt Society (1955-1968), Warren R. Dawson's edition of The Banks letters (London, 1958) and Phyllis Mander-Jones' Manuscripts in the British Isles relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific (Canberra, 1972).

Many of the papers were sold at a Sotheby's sale in London on 23 July 1985. Of the 17 lots, the National Library purchased three lots. Two other lots were bought by the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich.

Existence and Location of Copies

Also available on microfilm: mfm G 27755.

Biographical Note

John Montagu (1718-1792), 4th Earl of Sandwich. Succeeded his grandfather to the Earldom in 1729.

Sandwich was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and then spent some years travelling in Europe. His political career commenced when he was appointed a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty in 1744. In 1748 he became First Lord of the Admiralty in the government led by Henry Pelham, holding the post until 1751. He was appointed Master of Trinity House in 1749.

In 1763-1765 Sandwich returned to power as Secretary of State under George Grenville. He was again briefly Secretary of State under Lord North in 1770-1771 and then became First Lord of the Admiralty again, holding the office for eleven years. In this post "his conduct was as great a scandal to public as it had been all along to private morality. Throughout his long administration he rendered the business of the Admiralty subservient to the interests of his party, and employed the vast patronage of the office as an engine for bribery and political jobbery". He was held in part responsible for the inadequacies of the British Navy in the American War of Independence. He took a strong interest in the second and third voyages of Captain James Cook to the Pacific. Cook named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him in 1778.

Sandwich left the Admiralty in 1782 and largely retired from public life, spending most of his time at his country seat of Hinchingbrooke in Huntingdonshire.

Biographical Reference(s)

Martelli, George. Jemmy Twitcher : a life of the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1718-1792. London: Jonathan Cape, 1962.

Item Descriptions

Item 1. John Hawkesworth. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Bromley, 19 November 1771

Acknowledges receipt of first volume of journal of Sir Joseph Banks; hopes to have manuscript ready in time for sanction of Banks and Captain Cook; editing the voyages will be his principal business. (2pp)

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Item 2. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 13 December 1779

Thanks for information about discoveries of Captain Cook; suggests expedition against Canary Islands; if any of French sugar islands were seized, white inhabitants would leave and Britain might afterwards form alliance with negroes similar to French alliance with North Americans. (3pp)

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Item 3. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 16 June [1780]

News that Resolution had reached Macao in December 1780 (sic); natural history specimens collected on voyage were destined for Sir Ashton Lever's museum; suggests when Captains King and Gore arrive they be given directions to give specimens to Leicester House. (2pp)

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Item 4. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 17 June 1780

Acknowledges letter; suggests that crews of Resolution and Discovery should not be immediately turned over to other ships, as after such a voyage this would be used as argument against pressing. (2pp)

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Item 5. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Beckett, 3 October 1780

Reminds Sandwich of Sir Ashton Lever's interest in specimens collected on Captain Cook's voyage. (2pp)

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Item 6. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 11 December 1780

Received from Magellan account of Spanish voyage to north west coast of America in 1775; accurate charting of many ports; offers it for service of Admiralty. (3pp)

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Item 7. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 14 December 1780

Journal of Spanish expedition; Barrington interested in translating and publishing it if not required by Admiralty. (2pp)

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Item 8. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 15 December [1780]

Intends to translate and publish Spanish journal, as not required by compilers of new voyages of discovery. (2pp)

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Item 9. Daines Barrington. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 24 April [1781]

Interest in Captain Cook's chart of north Pacific; although Empress of Russia is permitted to have a copy, suggests publication in Russian should not be permitted until Admiralty account of voyage is published. (2pp)

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Item 10. John Douglas. Letter to Professor A. Shepherd, Windsor, undated.

Sends part of manuscript; before printing wishes to have charts and maps, a list of drawings to be engraved, and Captain King's part of the work; work has been hampered by not having access to charts. (2pp)

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Item 11. Professor A. Shepherd. Letter to Lord Sandwich, undated.

Work at Windsor with Captain King and Dr Douglas; suggests Sandwich meet King and offer assistance 'or the work may sleep again'. (2pp)

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Item 12. John Douglas. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Windsor, 8 September 1782

Returns list of engravings which he has transcribed. (1p + 3pp list of engravings)

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Item 13. Lord Sandwich. Notes concerning discussions with Captain King, 9 September 1782

Insufficient paper for engravings; J. Webber ready to superintend rolling press; promise by King that his work will be finished before he goes to sea. (2pp)

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Item 14. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 14 September 1782

Progress with publication of journal of Captain Cook's third voyage; cost of French paper; difficulties with Strahan. (4pp)

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Item 15. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 16 September 1782

Cost of French paper; draft letter to P. Stephens; suggests the bookseller Nichol be used in preference to Cadel. (4pp)

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Item 16. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, undated.

Information about engravings for Sir Joseph Banks; shortage of paper; predicts it will take a year before impressions completed; suggests Sandwich meet Webber and Byrne. (2pp)

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Item 17. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 20 September 1782

Thanks for assistance with publication; division of proceeds between representatives of Captain Cook and Captain Clerke and Captain King; claims of J. Webber. (4pp)

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Item 18. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 2 October 1782

Suggests Dr Douglas be asked to write inscriptions for each plate; weather and crops in Lincolnshire. (3pp)

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Item 19. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 9 October 1782

Procurement of paper; suggests it be sought from Paris bookseller in return for printed sheets for translation; Webber and Byrne. (3pp)

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Item 20. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Revesby, 21 October 1782

Procurement of paper in Paris. (3pp) For Sir Joseph Banks' subsequent correspondence with Pancoucke concerning the procurement of the paper see MS 9/16.

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Item 21. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, HMS Resistance, 16 November 1782

Papers left with Dr Douglas; hopes publication will not be hurried at expense of all embellishments originally intended. (2pp)

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Item 22. John Douglas. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Windsor, 20 November 1782

Checking of Cook and Anderson's journals to ensure accuracy of description of engravings; meeting with J. Webber, King and Roberts; reasons for wording of three inscriptions; seeks reprieve of condemned name 'King George's Sound' at Nootka. (6pp)

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Item 23. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, 11 September 1783

Return to England; progress with publication; suggests Sandwich read King's part before publication; differences between Dr Douglas and Sir Joseph Banks; risks that French and German translations might follow closely on English edition; suggests Sandwich speak to Banks; division of profits; Banks' suggestions on price. (7pp)

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Item 24. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Oxford, 19 November 1783

Thanks for letter of Sir Joseph Banks; King and the engraver have written to Roberts. (2pp)

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Item 25. J. [King]. Letter to James King, 24 November [1783]

Books on Kamchatska; King's health. (2pp)

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Item 26. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 31 December 1783

Sends draft on Captain Cook's life and services; welcomes expert advice on geographical and nautical observations. (2pp)

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Item 27. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, [1784?]

Failure of Dr Douglas to print a sheet in last ten days; meeting with Captain King; King wishes to take manuscript now with Sandwich to Dr Douglas at Windsor. (2pp)

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Item 28. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich, [1783]

Discussion with A. Dalrymple about charts; suggests Sandwich arrange meeting between Dalrymple and Captain King to resolve outstanding matters. (3pp) [Minutes of the meeting dated December 5th 1783, see MS 9/18].

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Item 29. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 9 January 1784

Sandwich's approval of King's life of Cook; proposed amendments. (2pp)

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Item 30. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 30 January 1784

Discussion with Dr James Burney about singing of South Sea Islanders; ideas of Burney on subject; engraving of map. (2pp)

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Item 31. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 6 February 1784

Sends letter of Dr James Burney on counterpoint of South Sea Islanders; hopes to include portion of letter in publication; Roberts hopes he will be in time for publication. (2pp)

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Item 32. Dr. Charles Burney. Letter to Lord Sandwich, 11 February 1784

Extract from letter of his daughter on opinion of Captain Phillips on music of South Sea Islanders; bamboo story implies infancy in music similar to ancient Greece; has asked whether singing in parts is peculiar to any one place in Pacific. (1p + 2pp extract)

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Item 33. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 11 February 1784

Acknowledges papers; believes singing was very different from that of American Indians, Negroes in West Indies, New Zealanders or any other islanders except those of Friendly Islands; Manby will deliver further four chapters. (2pp)

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Item 34. James King. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Woodstock, 14 February 1784

Singing of peoples of Sandwich and Friendly Islands; alterations to note by Captain Phillips. (2pp)

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Item 35. Dr. Charles Burney. Letter to Lord Sandwich, London, 17 February 1784

Sends extract from letter from Mrs Phillips with further information on music of South Sea Islanders; Captain Phillips was referring to Friendly Islands. (1p + 2pp extract)

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Item 36. Lord Sandwich. Rough draft by Sandwich of footnote referring to opinions of Lieutenant Burney and Lieutenant Phillips on singing of South Sea Islanders. (3pp)

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Item 37. Sir Joseph Banks. Letter to Lord Sandwich , Soho Square, London, 31 August 1784

Unable to attend meeting; has communicated all he knows on subject to Lord Howe. (3pp)

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Item 38. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Weymouth, St. Petersburg, 9 November 1779

Report from Commandant at Kamchatka of account of visit by two ships to Aleutian Islands in autumn of 1778; crews were received with great hospitality; likelihood it was Captain Cook. (copy, 3pp)

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Item 39. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Weymouth, St. Petersburg, November 1779

Sends report from Commandant at Kamchatka; ships must have appeared in 1777. (1p extract + 3pp enclosure in French)

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Item 40. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 18 January 1780

News of death of Captain Cook; will forward logbooks and maps when received from Behm; interest of Empress Catherine in Cook's voyage and concern at his death; her interest in charts relating to her remote dominions. (4pp)

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Item 41. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 25 January 1780

Sends letter received from courier from Siberia; Major Behm expected in May. (1p)

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Item 42. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 25 February 1780

No further information about expedition of Captain Clerke; Empress Catherine ordered fleet to be ready by summer; her animosity towards Spain; opportunity for britain to improve relations. (4pp)

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Item 43. Sir James Harris. Letter to Lord Sandwich, St Petersburg, 28 March 1780

Allegations that Harris communicated narrative of Captain Cook's discoveries to Professor Pallas; news of Captain Clerke returning to St Peter and St Paul; forwarding box for P. Stephens. (3pp)

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Item 44. Inscription on plate presented by Board of Admiralty to Major Behm in gratitude to his hospitality to British fleet on its visits to Kamchatka, 1781. (Latin, 1p)

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Item 45. Captain James Cook. Letter to Lord Sandwich, Cape of Good Hope, 23 October 1776

Arrival at Cape; Omai and animals intended for Tahiti in fair health; Discovery not yet arrived; Omai's debt to Sandwich. (2pp)

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