Guide to the Papers of Sir Douglas Copland
National Library of Australia View Catalogue Record
- Copland, D.B. (Douglas Berry), 1894-1971
- Papers of Sir Douglas Copland
- Date Range
- Collection Number
- MS 3800
- 25.6 metres (159 boxes + 5 folio items)
- Language of Materials
- National Library of Australia
Scope and Contents
The collection spans the years 1907-1971 and covers most facets of Copland's immensely active academic and public life. The correspondence is especially valuable. Most of the letters are accompanied by typed copies of Copland's replies and were received from a great variety of correspondents. Secondly, for the 1920s and 1930s, almost every significant Australian economist is represented. Thirdly, Copland's interest in all of the social sciences and participation in organisations with similar interests are documented principally via the correspondence.
There are nevertheless some important gaps. There is virtually a total absence of documents on Copland's wartime work as Commonwealth Prices Commissioner and Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister. There is nothing on his term as a Commissioner with the State Savings Bank of Victoria or his trips to America in 1944-1945, 1946 and 1951, the former including membership of the Australian Delegation at the first United Nations General Assembly. Finally, the collection is silent on his membership of the New Zealand Committee on Budgetary and Economic Policy in 1932.
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is available for research. Not for loan.
Conditions Governing Use
Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.
Items from this collection should be cited as '[Title or description of manuscript item], Papers of Sir Douglas Copland, National Library of Australia, MS 3800, [series and file number]'.
Lady Copland presented the personal papers of Sir Douglas Copland to the National Library in September 1973. Additions to the collection were received from the Copland Family between 1977 and 1981.
There is a small amount of correspondence between Sir Douglas Copland and Gerald Packer dating from 1952-1956 in the Packer Papers (MS 780). Correspondence between Copland and Frederic William Eggleston can also be found in the Eggleston Papers (MS 423). The J.A. Lyons Papers (MS 4851) also contains some correspondence involving Copland. Copland also wrote obituaries and tributes to Professor L.F. Giblin that can be found in the A.E. Melville Papers (MS 6225).
A 1968 interview with Sir Douglas Copland is held in the Oral History Collection at ORAL TRC 574.
In 1960, at the end of an article on Sir Douglas Copland's career, A.A. Calwell referred to 'the diversity of his abilities, the range of his activities, and the extent of his associations'. What follows is of necessity and is the merest outline of Copland's extraordinary life and work. In the absence of a full-scale biography, it will concentrate on those areas of his career specially covered by the collection.
Douglas Berry Copland was born on 24 February 1894 at Otaio, between Timaru and Waimate in the Canterbury Plains of the South Island, New Zealand. He was the thirteenth of sixteen children born to Alexander and Annie Copland, wheat farmers from Scotland. From 1899 to 1906 he attended Esk Valley Primary School and spent the next six years at the Waimate District High School. By the time he left New Zealand in 1917, Copland had taught at his old high school and at Christchurch Boys' High School, studied teaching at the Christchurch Teachers' College, and gained Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees at Canterbury College. In addition, he tutored for the Workers' Educational Association and worked as a Compiler in the Census and Statistics Office of the Department of Internal Affairs. Copland's love of teaching and fascination with economics stems from these years - in particular from his work on his father's wheat farm and the research for his M.A. thesis, 'The progress and importance of wheat production in New Zealand'.
Between 1917 and 1924 Copland was Lecturer in History and Economics and subsequently Professor of Economics at the University of Tasmania. During the next 20 years he was Dean of the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Melbourne and its Sidney Myer Professor of Commerce. There was also a brief period during 1944-1945 when Copland was the first Truby Williams Professor of Economics at the University of Melbourne. As a Faculty head, he was involved in university administration. During the 1930s there were appointments to the Professorial Board as its Chairman, the position of Acting Vice Chancellor in 1936, and the chairmanship of the Union Board in 1938.
In conjunction with academic work, Copland repeatedly made himself available as an economic adviser. His views were sought by the Hobart City Council in 1923 regarding rates, by the Development and Migration Commission in 1927 regarding economic development, by S.M. Bruce in 1928 regarding tariff policy, and by J.A. Scullin in 1930 and the Loan Council in 1931 regarding the Depression. The New Zealand Government also employed his help in 1932. In 1934, at the invitation of J.A. Lyons, Copland joined a committee of inquiry into the rural debt. During the 1930s both the Victorian and New South Wales governments retained Copland for advice on matters ranging from overseas investment to State railways. Non-government bodies were equally anxious to enlist help, including the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce, the Bank of New South Wales, and Atlantic Oil Company Limited.
During the inter-war years, Copland travelled overseas three times. Prior to becoming the Rockefeller Foundation's Representative in Australia, he visited the United States of America and Europe in 1926 to study university courses in the social sciences and to consult with the Foundation in New York. On the second visit, in 1934, he was an Alternate Delegate to S.M. Bruce at the 14th General Assembly of the League of Nations as well as acting as one of Bruce's advisers at the World Economic Conference in London. Here, Copland also attended the 6th International Studies Conference, sponsored by the League of Nations. He was again overseas in 1936, primarily to attend the Tercentenary Conference of Harvard University and to receive from the University an honorary Litt.D.
Copland's principal appointments during the war of 1939-1945 were those of Commonwealth Prices Commissioner and Economic Consultant to both R.G. Menzies and John Curtin. There was also a good deal of work on related committees, including the Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, the Price Stabilisation Committee, and the Marine War Risks Insurance Board. The role of the Prime Minister's chief economic adviser, in particular, involved close attention to post-war planning. In 1944-45 Copland was again in the United States to study reconstruction schemes, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, but also to attend as an adviser at the first United Nations General Assembly at Lake Success.
The Second World War in effect ended Copland's teaching career and yet provided his best opportunity to directly influence government economic policy. Following a very brief return to the University of Melbourne his career turned to diplomacy and administration. Between 1946 and 1948 he represented Australia in the Republic of China; returned to a four and half year term as the foundation Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University; and in 1953 began a triennium in Ottawa, Canada, as Australia's High Commissioner. En route Copland agreed to represent Australia at the Inter-governmental Committee on European Migration in Rome, partly due to his interest in population growth and his membership since 1948 of the Commonwealth Immigration Planning Council. In 1954 he also attended, with W.D. Borrie, the World Population Conference in Rome. While in Canada, Copland was also Australia's official representative on several United Nations bodies including its Economic and Social Council. After yet another founding appointment, that of Principal of the Australian Administrative Staff College (1956-1960), Copland was again in America as Leader of a Trade Mission.
Two other positions should be mentioned. In 1958 Copland joined a government committee inquiring into the production of officers for the Australian Regular Army. Secondly, in 1961, he accepted an invitation to be the first Director of the Institute of Labour Studies in Geneva. Following policy disagreements with the Director-General of the Institute's sponsor, the International Labour Organisation, he resigned and returned to Australia.
The last 11 years of Copland's life, 1961-1971, were spent in active retirement in Melbourne and Mt. Macedon, Victoria. There were Directorships with a number of companies - the largest being Ansett Transport Industries - and some consultancy work with firms like Walter Ham and Associates and P.A. Management Consultants Pty Ltd. His most important and lasting work, however, was on behalf of the National Council for Balanced Development and for the Committee for Economic Development of Australia which he founded.
In his history of the University of Melbourne, Geoffrey Blainey wrote 'The outstanding trend in Australian administrative life in the twenties and thirties was the rise to power of the economists...' This was indisputably true of Copland, arguably pre-eminent among them, and was in a large part due to his pedagogy outside the University. Through his innumerable speeches, newspaper articles, and other writing, he was, like other university men such as Murdoch, Scott, and Wood, the very antithesis of an 'ivory tower' academic. As the bibliography of his works in the Economic Record and Series 8 and Series 9 show, Copland's written output was enormous. His The Australian economy: simple economic studies (Angus & Robertson, 1931) became a standard text and a number of his memorial lectures came to be described as classic statements of some of the fundamental issues in economics.
In addition to formal doctorates from the Universities of Melbourne and New Zealand, Copland was awarded honorary degrees from seven Australian and overseas universities. His visiting lectureships included appointments at Cambridge, Oxford, and Harvard Universities, and University College, Dublin. For his contribution to Australia's understanding of and recovery from the Depression, he was made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. In 1950 Copland was decorated a Knight of the British Empire.
Sir Douglas Copland died in September 1971, survived by Lady Copland and his two daughters.
The first series is the largest in the collection and as source material, the most valuable. It is arranged in date order and each letter has been name indexed by author and recipient. The series covers 1915-1971 but clusters on the period 1928-1933.
The series covers a large variety of subjects. They include many that form the basis of future series, as letters referring to several topics have been filed into Series 1. Although concentrated on specific economic and public issues, it contains good runs of correspondence on the internal politics of the University of Melbourne, the tariff, the Depression, economic development, overseas aid, and many Third World problems.
Some of the principal correspondents are F.A. Bland, J.A. Lyons, S.M. Bruce, Herbert Brookes, H. Heinmann, W.S. Robinson, Don Merry, Sid Crawford, R.A. Hohnen, George Anderson, F.W. Eggleston, E.C. Dyason, C.H. Wickens, E.F. Penrose, H.P. Brown, L.C. Webb, Walter Crocker, Michael Lindsay, T. Buesst, C.V. Janes, A.C. Davidson, R.G. Menzies and F.H. Corke. The economists represented include L.G. Melville, E.O.G. Shann, J.B. Condliffe, L.F. Giblin, A.W. Tacker, William Beveridge, J.M. Keynes, H. Heaton, F.R.E. Mauldon, J.B. Bridgen, G.A. Weller, G.L. Wood, J. Polglaze, F.W. Taussig, R.C. Mills, Roland Wilson and T. Hytten.
At the end of the series is a set of typist's letter copies labelled 'Greens Jan-June 59' and 'Greens July-Dec 59'. The cards clipped to the original correspondence file listing names of correspondents are also here.
General correspondence is also contained in the 1977-1981 additions.
Correspondence resulting from requests for testimonials/character references concerning former students, colleagues, etc. forms the bulk of this series. The correspondents include universities, scholarship selection committees, public bodies, and companies.
The series also includes some papers regarding Copland's health, 1969-1970.
Other material warranting the description 'personal' is located in Series 3 (Family correspondence and papers), Series 4 (Financial and legal correspondence and papers), and Series 45 (Monash University Selection Committee, 1961).
Copland was the 13th of 16 children born to Alexander and Annie Copland of Timaru, New Zealand. In 1919 he married Ruth Jones of Waimate in New Zealand. The Coplands had two daughters, both of whom married.
The family correspondence and papers consist of telegrams and letters Copland received and sent to other members of the Copland family, together with letters and papers about the family. The former group includes telegrams to Miss Jones before her marriage and to her mother Mrs F.W.S. Jones, and correspondence with Copland's daughters and sons-in-law and his many nephews and nieces. The latter includes copies of a roneoed newsletter (eg. 'The Copland Family, Australia, in 1960') but is primarily a group of legal and financial correspondence and papers regarding the administration of the estate of Copland's father Alexander (1839-1933).
Copland's business and legal papers have been sorted into one chronological sequence to form Series 4. The majority consists of his financial correspondence but there are also insurance certificates, receipts, rate notices, royalty statements, company prospectuses and reports, bills, papers documenting payments of technical adviser's fees, consultant's fees and director's fees, travel refunds from various employees, and copies of E.C. Dyason's investment newsletters, 1930-1931. The correspondence and cables mainly refer to Copland's investments, purchases, house sales, donations, and travel arrangements. Other financial correspondence, concerning journal subscriptions, is in Series 15 (Orders, subscriptions, and book catalogues).
The material dealing with legal matters is mostly correspondence with Copland's solicitors Davies Campbell and Piesse, and in particular, with E.L. Piesse and later R.N. Darling. Car registration, a defamation action, infringement of traffic regulations and house sales are the types of subjects covered. Other legal correspondence is in Series 3 (Family correspondence and papers).
Copland received honorary doctorates of Law or Literature from the Universities of Melbourne, Tasmania, and Queensland, and from Harvard, McGill, the Australian National University, Clark, Carleton, Adelaide, and Bishop's Universities. The certificates relating to most of these awards are in Series 5, together with his two degrees from the University of New Zealand. Also included are documents relating to military service, 1915-1917, some passports, an official letter of introduction, 1933, and a Christchurch Training College certificate, 1914. The letter patent authorising attendance at the 1933 League of Nations 14th Assembly is in Series 25. Correspondence concerning the C.M.G. and K.B.E. Awards is in Series 93.
In 1914, Copland completed a Bachelor of Arts degree at Canterbury College, Christchurch (part of the University of New Zealand), and in June 1916 was awarded a Master of Arts degree with 1st Class Honours in Economics. His thesis, 'The progress and importance of wheat production in New Zealand' was published by Whitcombe and Tombs in 1920 as Wheat production in New Zealand: a study in the economics of New Zealand agriculture. Four years later, the University of New Zealand awarded Copland a Doctorate of Science for a series of writings titled 'Post-war studies in Australian currency and finance' and for his published wheat thesis.
In 1934, the University of Melbourne awarded Copland a second doctorate, that of Doctor of Literature. It was awarded on the recommendation of Professor Tanssig and R.G. Hawtrey for a series of work called 'Australia in the world crisis, 1929-33'. The thesis was based largely upon his Marshall Memorial Lecture delivered at Cambridge University in 1933 and later published by Cambridge University Press.
The papers forming Series 6 relate to each of the theses. There is a bound copy of the Masters thesis, dated November 1915, together with some notes, cuttings, and correspondence, 1915-1921. The latter includes letters from Copland's publisher Whitcombe and Tombs, his supervisor Dr James Hight, W.J. Colbatch of Roseworthy Agricultural College, and Edwin Hall. Correspondence relating directly to the financial aspects of its publication is in Series 4 and the actual degree is in Series 5. On the two doctorates, the series includes a copy of the examiner's report, a few letters and some handwritten and typed notes that include 'Some notes on important topics raised in the essays'. The 1924 Doctorate Certificate is in Series 5. Finally there is a folder of cuttings reviewing the Marshall Memorial Lecture and announcing Copland's receipt of the Litt.D. in November 1934.
In addition to reports and articles for journals and newspapers, Copland's enormous publishing output included the writing or co-authoring of 14 books, editing volumes of documents and contributing forewords and individual chapters to many others. A relatively complete bibliography appears as 'A list of writings by Sir Douglas Copland' in Economic Record, vol. 36, no. 73, March 1960: 173-78.
Series 7 contains drafts, cuttings, research material and correspondence with publishers, co-authors and contributors for the following works: Report of the citizens committee on the cost of living (Hobart, 1919). Economics of household spending, 1929. Published by the Emily McPherson College of Domestic Economy with Account Sheets by Copland. Wool Annual, vol. 1, 1927-1928. Edited by Copland and published by Reviews Pty Ltd. Melbourne. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. November 1931 issue. An economic survey of Australia, edited by Copland. The Australian economy: simple economic studies. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1931. What have the banks done? An essay on banking policy. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1931. Cambridge history of the British Empire (1933). vol. 7, pt. 1 of chapter 19 by D.B. Copland. Australia marketing problems: a book of documents 1932-37. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1938. Coedited with C.V. Janes. The conflict of expansion and stability: documents relating to Australian economic policy, 1945-52. Melbourne, F.W. Cheshire, 1957. Coedited with R.H. Barback. Giblin. Papers in memory of Lyndhurst Falkiner Giblin. Melbourne, F.W Cheshire, 1960. The adventure of growth.
As the evidence of this and the following series suggests, Copland was undoubtedly a very public economist. For over 40 years his opinions and thoughts were carried in a diversity of scholarly journals and popular magazines and sought by editors, publishers, and organisations alike. The texts of his addresses and broadcasts were so often published or roneoed that they have been arranged with the articles, in date order, to form the main subseries of Series 8. Associated material such as drafts, notes, cuttings, and research material had been filed here as well.
Subseries 2 is preceded by correspondence 1919-1966, with editors, organisations, companies, societies, and broadcasting and television companies. It is arranged chronologically. Letters from listeners, viewers, and readers of his articles, and correspondence to and from people receiving free copies of the texts are also located in Subseries 1. Where the texts of articles, etc. have formed enclosures, they have been kept with the appropriate letter rather than in Subseries 2.
Some of the subjects covered in Series 8 are America's economic leadership, Nanking, monetary policy, the Australian economy and its future, Australia's interests in South-East Asia, taxation, sterling, economic development, the Depression and its remedy, borrowing through Treasury bills, the Chinese social structure. Other topics covered are international trade, the effects of immigration on the Australian economy, inflation, the full-employment economy, the British Commonwealth, and Communism and development in third-world countries. Journals and magazines represented in the collection include the Harvard Business Review, Today, The Economic Record, The Canadian Journal of Economic and Political Science, The Economic Journal, The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, The International Journal. Other journals in the series are the Indian Quarterly, The South Atlantic Quarterly, Rydges Business Journal, Pix, The Australian Quarterly, Management Newsletter, Investor's Chronicle, Meanjin Quarterly, The Australian Journal of the Institute of Transport, and Westerly.
The series has a third group of papers consisting of material on some of Copland's memorial lectures. It covers the Beatty Memorial lecture (McGill University, Montreal, 1961), the Marshall Memorial Lecture (Cambridge University, 1933) the Roy Milne Memorial Lecture (Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1957), the Shann Memorial Lecture (University of Western Australia, 1962), the Sidney Ball Lecture (Oxford University, 1953), and the George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology (Canberra, 1948).
Payment for articles and broadcasts is noted in Series 4. Articles, speeches, and broadcasts on subjects or events forming the basis of other series have been placed elsewhere. Articles written for year books like the Encyclopaedia Britannica Year Book are in Series 7. Further articles and speeches are in the 1977-1981 additions. Articles, broadcasts, and speeches by others are in Series 10. A relatively complete bibliography appears as 'A list of writings by Sir Douglas Copland' in Economic Record, vol. 36, no. 73, March 1960: 173-78.
Copland was publishing articles in the press within a year of his first academic appointment and continued to use the Fourth Estate as his principal platform for public education for the rest of his life. His views on government policy and Australian and world affairs - areas in which he was often directly involved - were offered and sought by editors in Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. This form of writing was undeniably an additional source of income.
The press articles in Series 9 range over the broad horizon of Copland's interests. For example, there are items on the European Common Market, economic growth, the building industry, strikes, the gold standard, the wool market, road construction and unemployment, New Guinea, Douglas Credit, overseas aid, immigration, population growth, budgets, higher education, inflation, training for business, the exchange rate, international liquidity, the economic outlook for Australia, the arbitration system. Letters to the editor and book reviews are also included.
Most of the correspondence, notes, drafts, and cuttings in the collection relating to Copland's articles were received by the National Library already grouped by newspaper. This arrangement has been retained for Series 9, with loose cuttings of articles and correspondence with editors from Copland's general correspondence files being added as appropriate. There are separate groups of papers for the Argus (Melbourne), The Australian (Canberra), The Far Eastern Economic Review, The Herald (Melbourne), The Sydney Morning Herald, The Commercial (Manchester, U.K) The Mercury (Hobart), The Adelaide News, Mirror Newspapers Ltd, The Guardian (U.K.) and The Financial Review (Sydney). Other newspapers to carry Copland's articles or letters represented in the series, but not forming individual files are The West Australian, the Advertiser (Adelaide), the Press (Christchurch), The Chronicle (Adelaide), The Courier Mail (Brisbane), The Daily Mail (Brisbane) The Daily News (Perth), The Sun (Melbourne), The Age (Melbourne), Newcastle Morning Herald, The Sun (Sydney), Evening Post (Wellington, N.Z.) The Bulletin (Sydney), The Christchurch Times, The Daily Telegraph (Brisbane), The Dominion (Wellington, N.Z.) The World (Hobart),The Lyttleton Times (Christchurch), News Weekly (Melbourne) and The Canberra Times.
The principal correspondents, mainly newspaper editors, are Dr E.S. Cunningham, B.S.B. Cook, R.L. Curthoys, Walter Kimmer, A.M. Deamer, Sir John Williams, S.H. Deamer, C.G. Bonney, H. McClure Smith, Walter Cummins, Rupert Murdoch, Maxwell Newton, Rupert Henderson, Rohan Rivett, Sir Lloyd Dumas, L.V. Biggs and Sir Frank Packer.
A few press articles by Copland are in Series 12 and Series 90, where they form part of subject files and in other series as appropriate. Correspondence and receipts documenting the payment for the articles are in Series 4.
This Series contains material that is written by a variety of authors on many different economic topics, such as interest rates, foreign trade, and economic conditions. There are papers which were presented at the Marysville Conference in 1957 by authors, such as R.I. Downing, C.L. Burns and Gerald Packer. Several addresses that were given by Dean Stanley F. Teele on 'Accelerated change' in 1960 are also contained in this series. Other papers of an economic nature contained in this series are written by various authors such as Benjamin Anderson, H.A. Burton and Donald C. MacGregor. Volumes 1 and 2 of Professor M.T. Copeland's Business Policy II are also held, as is a copy of G. Baker's Losses in Finance (1930). There is also a substantial number of papers about the International Finance Corporation and Development Association during 1963 and 1964. This series also holds a large number of papers, such as those by W.L. Buckland, written between 1929 and 1933, which are concerned with economic issues of the Depression. There are also papers by S.R. Peabody about the economic conditions in the U.S. during 1929-1932.
There are only 12 items in this Series. The diaries are merely five pocket diaries for 1928, 1932, 1933, 1937, and 1938, in which are recorded appointments, names, addresses, and some notes. The seven notebooks contain lecture notes, the beginnings of a 1926 diary, reminders and references (eg. to books), and possibly notes for speeches. Some are numbered. Some internal evidence suggests that Copland may have begun several of them while in the United States of America, in 1926. The 1926 diary is held in Series 19.
Most of the cuttings in the collection that form subject files have been kept together to form Series 12. From the evidence of the papers used to mount the cuttings the files appear to have been kept by the University of Melbourne Commerce Department. The subjects covered include British industry, Coal, J.M. Keynes, Sir Walter Murdoch, A.C.V. Melbourne, U.S. politics, stocks and shares, banking, soldier settlements, Soviet Russia, the forty hour week, trade unions, drought insurance, butter, closer settlement, broadcasting, shale oil, devaluation, and taxation. Similar sorts of files, which include other types of material as well as cuttings, are in Series 90.
Series 12 has a number of folders of cuttings covering the late 1920s to the early 1930s filed according to an alphabetic-numeric system, although not obviously relating to one particular topic. In addition, there are several files of cuttings grouped by newspaper, such as the Financial Times, The Age, The New Statesman, The Nation and the Economist, and three albums containing mostly news items on Copland, 1956-1961.
Newspaper cuttings on topics or events that form the basis of other series have appropriately been placed elsewhere. Book reviews for instance are in Series 7, while the majority of press articles by Copland are in Series 9.
In addition to programs, invitations, and Christmas cards, Series 13 contains get-well cards with compliments cards, sympathy card acknowledgments, at home cards, and name cards. The programs refer to occasions like the openings of buildings, ceremonies of welcome, and anniversaries. Some invitation cards have copies of replies attached. Almost all of these are dated 1938.
Most of the photographs in the Copland Papers are in this series. They include two albums, one resulting from Copland's overseas trip in 1926, sundry portrait and group photos, a number of his homes at the University of Melbourne and at Mt Macedon, and of presentations of honorary degrees.
There are also photographs in Series 3 (Family papers), Series 16 (New Zealand, 1907-17), Series 18 (University of Melbourne), Series 33 (Ambassador to China, 1946-1948) and Series 34 (Australian National University), Series 38 (United Nations General Assembly, 1948), Series 40 (Australian Administrative Staff College, 1956-1960) and Series 42 (Trade Commissioner to Canada, 1960), and the 1977-1981 additions.
The National Library's Pictures Branch has some engravings, cartoon originals, and original press photographs transferred from the collection.
All of the collection's delivery dockets, leaflets, and catalogues distributed by publishers, lists of books ordered, and correspondence renewing subscriptions have been assembled to form Series 15. Related correspondence and receipts are in Series 4.
Copland's childhood years in New Zealand were spent at Timaru and (between 1899 and 1906) at the Esk Valley Primary School. He received his secondary education at the Waimate District High School, matriculated in 1909, and gained the School Board's scholarship the following year. During the next six years, Copland was a pupil teacher at Waimate Primary School, a student at Christchurch Teachers' College and Canterbury College, a teacher at the Christchurch Boy's High School, and an employee with the Statistician's Office, Wellington.
Series 16 is a mixture of manuscripts and photographs. The former includes over a dozen notebooks kept at university (1912-1915), an essay 'The School and the community - Waimate District High School', correspondence (1915-1917), some items from the Waimate High School Old Pupil's Association, and some certificates and testimonials relating to his primary and secondary education (1907-1911). The photographs include shots of school classes, sports teams, teachers, the Copland home, and Copland himself before 1917.
Several other series have papers relevant to this period. Copland's military service is documented in Series 5 as well as this series and some very early family photographs are in Series 3.
In June 1917 Copland arrived in Hobart to succeed Herbert Heaton as the Lecturer in History and Economics at the University of Tasmania. The appointment also carried responsibility for extension work, done primarily in conjunction with the Workers' Educational Association of Tasmania. In 1919, a separate commerce degree course was established with Copland in charge, and late in 1920, in his twenty-seventh year, he was appointed Professor of Economics. He left in 1924 to become the foundation Professor of Commerce at the University of Melbourne.
During his time in Tasmania Copland applied unsuccessfully for positions at Canterbury College, Christchurch, at the University of Otago, Dunedin, and in 1922 for the position of Director of Tutorial Classes at the University of Melbourne. There is material on each of theses applications as well as the earlier successful one, together with correspondence with the University of Tasmania, his New Zealand colleagues, and others like Herbert Heaton.
The series also contains some lecture notes, exam questions, cuttings, leaflets, and correspondence documenting Copland's work for the Workers' Educational Association of Tasmania.
The benefaction of a Melbourne businessman, Sidney Myer, and financial provision in the University Act, 1923, led to the creation in 1924 of the Sidney Myer Chair of Commerce and the University of Melbourne School of Commerce. Between 1924 and 1944 Copland was its first Dean and Professor. From 1934 to 1937 he was also Chairman of the Professorial Board, in 1936 acted as Vice Chancellor during Dr R.E. Priestly's absence on leave, and in 1939 was Chairman of the Union Board. During the 1920s and 1930s he was also associated with the work of the Extension Board, the Appointments Board, and other University Committees. Copland was also active in student societies and, for instance, was a President of the Commerce Society and the Melbourne University Dramatic Club. When a second Chair of Economics was created after the War, he was briefly Truby Williams Professor of Economics and in 1946 was granted the title 'Professor Emeritus'. In December 1963 the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on him. A month earlier, he had been guest of honour at the opening of a new Economics and Commerce building. A fuller sketch of this period of his career is given by H. Burton in his 'Sir Douglas Copland and the Melbourne Commerce School'( Economic Record, vol. 36, no. 73, March 1960: 139-142).
Considering the length of time Copland was at the University of Melbourne and the extent of his involvement in its administration, the quantity and coverage of the relevant papers in his collection is somewhat disappointing. What documentation remains has been combined to form Series 18 and arranged into four subseries.
Correspondence in the general alphabetical/chronological files dealing specifically with some aspect of Copland's work at University forms part of the first subseries. It covers 1924-1939. Subjects mentioned here include appointments of staff to the Faculty of Commerce, the acquisition of books and journals for the Faculty library, the revision of courses, scholarships and prizes, correction of exams, and exemptions for certain categories of students. The Faculty of Commerce vote and matters raised at Committee meetings on which Copland sat are also covered. The correspondents include E.V. Nixon, E.C. Dyason, G.L. Wood, George Anderson, the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce, Professor L.G. Melville, E.C.W. Kelly, Professor H. Alcock, S.S. Addison, J.P. Bainbridge, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Australia, Professor K.H. Bailey, Sir John MacFarland, Professor L.F. Giblin, Sir James Barrett, and the Commercial Travellers' Association of Victoria.
The remainder of the first subseries consists of an incomplete set of files Copland kept for correspondence with his students. They cover A-L, 1926; 'External Students', 1928, A-Z, 1930; and miscellaneous correspondence with specific groups of students, 1929-1930.
Subseries 2 also documents Copland's participation in the administration and in the activities of students' and ex students' societies. There are separate files of reports, agenda, photographs, and other papers for the Professorial Board (1929-1931), the Extension Board (1924-31), the Council (1929-1931, 1934), the Board of Studies in Public Administration (1938), the Appointments Board (1927, 1931-1933) and the Library Committee (1927, 1930-1931). Also covered in this way are the Faculty of Commerce (1927-1935), the Faculty of Arts (1929-1938), the Melbourne University Press (1927, 1930-1932), the Habison-Higinbotham Scholarship Committee (1927-1931), the Melbourne University Commerce Society (1929-1931), the Melbourne University Old Commerce Students' Association (1929-1934, 1938), and the Public Questions Society (1929-1931).
Subseries 3 comprises the raw material - mainly sheets of statistics - for an inquiry into the consumption of fruit and vegetables in Melbourne. The inquiry appears to have been conducted by Faculty of Commerce students during 1937 and 1938.
The final subseries has roneoed lecture notes and reading lists, some exam papers and reports of examiners, newspapers cuttings, other miscellaneous material, and several items on the opening of a new Economics and Commerce building and the award of an honorary Doctor of Laws late in 1963.
In 1925 Copland was invited by the Laura Spellman Rockefeller Memorial's Social Science Division to investigate the teaching of social science in American and European universities and to recommend Australian and New Zealand students for Rockefeller Fellowships.
With two exceptions, Series 19 contains all of the material in the collection relating to those aspects of his 1926 trip overseas directly connected with the scholarships, and to the selection of Rockefeller scholars up to the beginning of the war. The resulting correspondence forms the main part of the series. Included are letters from scholarship winners like A.C.V. Melbourne, W. MacMahon Ball, F.C. Benham and Felix Keesing, academics advising Copland such as Professor A.R. Radcliffe-Browne, G.V. Portus, Dr H. Belshaw and Professor A.G.B. Fisher, and other Rockefeller people like E. Day and J.R.M. Butler. There is also some correspondence with the University of Melbourne and a long report to the Chancellor dated April 1927. A 1926 diary, some notes, cuttings, and letters of authorisation complete the series.
Photographs taken while overseas in 1926 are in Series 14. Correspondence with the Rockefeller Memorial concerning payment for Copland's services is in Series 4.
During the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s, the effect of import tariffs on the Australian economy and on world trade was of great interest to Copland. Late in 1927 he was asked by the Prime Minister, S.M. Bruce, to join Professor L.F. Giblin, Professor J. B. Brigden, C.H. Wickens, and E.C. Dyason in investigating 'how far the tariff policy which has been pursued has been successful, and exactly what have been the economic results of it'. (See Bruce's letter to Copland, 15 December 1927). Subsequently, Copland expressed his own individual views on protection, imperial preference, and various trade treaties. His published work in the 1930s include 'A neglected phase of tariff controversy' (Quarterly Journal of Economics, xlv, February, 1931), 'Is our tariff a handicap? Effects on Australia's recovery' (Herald and Weekly Times, 1934), 'A note on tariff policy' (Economic Record, X, June 1934), and Australian trade policy: a book of documents 1932-37 with C.V. Janes (A&R, 1937). All of the material in tariffs in the Copland Papers is in Series 20. There are two subseries.
Subseries 1 refers to the writing of the 1929 report published as The Australian tariff: an economic inquiry by Melbourne University Press. The paperback edition, priced at half a crown, sold out within a fortnight. The preparation of the report can be traced in the subseries, through handwritten and typed drafts, statistics, notes, cuttings, correspondence, and telegrams. The principal correspondents are naturally the other authors and there are also letters to Copland from Bruce and J. Simpson of the Prime Minister's Department.
The remainder of Series 20 covers 1925-1938 but includes a small number of items dated 1954-1960. There are press articles by Copland on the tariff, lecture notes on protection, Tariff Board and League of Nations reports, subject files on 'Japanese-Australia trade relations' and on 'Imperial preference' and articles by W.S. Kelly and G.G. Foletta. Because of the significance of the 1932 Ottawa Conference to Australia's recovery from the Depression, however, Copland's memoranda to Lyons on the position Australia's delegates should present to it are in Series 23. A number of letters in General correspondence (Series 1) should also be consulted for information on tariffs.
The Development and Migration Commission was established by the Federal Government in 1926, ironically towards the end of the 'Men, money and markets' economic boom it was meant to foster. One of the Commission's chief functions was the analysis of particular industries and the recommendation of new development schemes.
In 1928 it was asked to report on unemployment and the business cycle in Australia. Copland helped draft the report (Report on unemployment and business stability in Australia, Melbourne, Government Printer, 1928) and wrote its long Appendix titled 'The control of the business cycle with special reference to Australia'.
Series 21 is a small collection of papers relating mainly to the writing of the 1928 report. There are drafts, some correspondence with the Commission Chairman H.W. Gepp and others, and relevant printed material. It also contains copies of other Commission reports, including those on shale oil, potatoes, and the fishing industry.
In March 1930 the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce established a committee to investigate the alternative forms of commercial training for prospective businessmen. Copland was closely involved with its deliberations, and edited its report. The committee membership, and something of the background to its work, are recorded in Copland's foreword to the report (Training for business) issued for the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce by the Australian Council for Educational Research and published by Melbourne University Press (1931). One of the committee men, G.S. Colman, has also written on the enquiry, in his 'Graduates in commerce' (Economic Record, vol. 36, no. 73, March 1960: 147-150).
Apart from the committee's published report, the Copland collection has some relevant drafts, cuttings, notes, analyses of the questionnaire sent to members of the Chamber of Commerce, and correspondence with Sir Lennox Raws, G.S. Colman, J.R. Darling, and O.W. Darch. All of this material is in Series 21.
There is less than a single box in the collection that appears to have been kept by Copland as relating specifically to the Depression and the attempts of economists to remedy it. For example, apart from a few copies of its report, there is virtually nothing on the famous Committee of Economists and Under-Treasurers that made recommendations to a subcommittee of the Australian Loan Council in May 1931 and was later known as the 'Premiers' Plan'. Copland's own account of his role in the Depression is provided in The battle of the Plans: documents relating to the Premiers' Conference May 25th to June 11th, 1931, with an introduction by E.O.G. Shann and D.B. Copland (Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1931), and primarily in his Alfred Marshall Lectures published as Australia in the world crisis, 1929-33 (Cambridge University Press, 1934).
Series 23 includes drafts, some in Giblin's hand, statistics, and other papers on the February 1931 Premiers' Conference, and the printed proceedings of the May-June 1931 Conference. The implementation of 'the Plan' is documented by copies of State Parliament Bills and by cuttings. Some of Copland's own published writings are included in the latter and, as well, the Series has his and E.O.G. Shann's privately circulated Notes on the Australian Position, December 1931 and Copland's article 'Bank rates and the Conference Plan'.
There are also some subject files of cuttings, reports and in some instances correspondence that have been retained as originally grouped under the following headings: (1) Australian crisis, 1930-31, (2) Premiers' Plan early memoranda, (3) Economists conference (Two files, May 1930, November 1931), (4) Premiers Conference (September 1931) and (5) Prime Minister's Conference. The latter refers to the help Copland and Professors L.F. Giblin, R.C. Mills, E.O.G. Shann and L.G. Melville gave Lyons in preparing material for the Imperial Economic Conference, Ottawa in June 1932. Finally, there are two files of evidence in favour of 'wage adjustment' that Copland presented to the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration in October and December 1930.
Other relevant items are in Series 7 (being reviews of Australia in the world crisis 1929-33) and there is an 'Advice to payee' slip for Copland's attendance at the June 1931 Premiers' Conference in Series 4.
Lastly, Series 1 (General correspondence) should not be overlooked for material on the Depression. Here, in the 1929-31 files particularly, can be found correspondence containing numerous references to the Premiers Conferences and competing policies and recommendations with fellow economists and with people like J.M. Keynes, E.G. Theodore, R.G. Casey, Professor T. Gregory and Sir Robert Gibson. Likewise, the papers Copland filed under 'Bank of New South Wales' (Series 29) include some excellent sources on Copland and the Depression.
The Monetary and Economic Conference, also known as the World Economic Conference, was held under the auspices of the League of Nations in London in June 1933. S.M. Bruce represented Australia and Copland joined F.G. Shedden, Professor L. Melville, F.M. McDougall, and H.J. Sheehan as his advisers. The Conference worked through two commissions, the Economic Commission and the Monetary and Financial Commission. From the papers that form Series 24, Copland appears to have worked primarily with the Coordination of Production and Marketing Subcommittee of the former Commission, in particular on its Wheat Committee.
Material on the conference includes roneoed memoranda presented to the commissions, roneoed draft reports of various subcommittees, and copies of some memoranda and cables from Shann, Melville, and Copland to Bruce and to the British Commonwealth delegation. Draft conference agenda, typescript papers by Copland, mostly on wheat, roneoed statements from the Statistical and Intelligence Branch of the Empire Marketing Board, and a few cuttings were also kept. Finally, the series has virtually a complete set of the daily Journal of the Conference (issues 1-39, number 24 missing).
Given Copland's early interest in international economics and affairs, it was logical that he would be attracted to the League of Nations. He participated in a number of conferences organised by League bodies and attended the 14th General Assembly of the League held in Geneva in October 1933 as a member of the Australian delegation. He was an alternate delegate with the delegation leader S.M. Bruce on the 2nd committee (Economic and financial questions).
Subseries 1 refers to Copland's participation in the 14th Assembly. There is a small amount of correspondence with Major E.C.W. Fuhrman, the Secretary of the Australian delegation, copies of printed reports presented at the Assembly, and the 'Report and draft resolution of the second committee'. A record of the work of both the Plenary and committee meetings is provided by the Journal of the Fourteenth Assembly. The series has copies 1-13.
Subseries 2 consists of cuttings, notes, and drafts of articles about the League, mainly by Copland, 1922-1935. There is also a set of League of Nations Union pamphlets published mainly in the early 1920s.
Series 24 (Monetary and Economic Conference, London 1933), Series 26 (Sixth International Studies Conference, London, 1933), and Series 49 (Australian League of Nations Union) also have papers relating to the League of Nations.
The Conference of Institutions for the Scientific Study of International Relations, later known as the International Studies Conference, was established in Berlin in 1928 by the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (I.I.I.C.) of the League of Nations. The sixth conference was held in London between 29 May and 2 June 1953 at the invitation of the British Coordinating Committee for International Studies. Australia was not represented, as it did not have a scientific institute engaged in the study and teaching of international relations. Copland was one of five participants invited as individuals.
On the basis of memoranda submitted by the participating countries, the Conference produced a statement 'The State and Economic Life' for submission to the Monetary and Economic Conference held in July 1933. As some aspects of this subject had already been examined at the Milan conference in 1932, the sixth conference was also known as the Second Study Conference on 'The State and Economic Life'.
The few papers in the Copland collection relevant to the Sixth International Studies Conference constitute Series 26. There are roneoed copies of many of the memoranda presented to the two committees of the Conference, some summaries of discussions, and a copy of a report by the 'General Rapporteur' Dr Arnold Wolfers. A Royal Institute of International Affairs leaflet publicising the conference and an I.I.I.C. pamphlet summarising its deliberations complete the series.
Part of Copland's overseas trip in 1933-1934 was spent in the United States of America lecturing at Harvard and other universities and studying the effects of the Depression. He had discussions with business groups in New York concerning the New Deal and while in Washington consulted with Federal Reserve Bank authorities. Series 27 contains material about the Depression that Copland gathered or produced while in America. There are two subseries.
The Committee for the Nation was formed in January 1933 to 'rebuild prices and purchasing power'. It was something like a specific purpose National Chamber of Commerce. Material on the Committee forms the first subseries. Copland received a good number of their circulars, reports and publications, and as well as these, there is correspondence with Frank A. Vanderlip and Dr E.A. Rumely, and the text of a speech he gave to a Committee breakfast in January 1934.
The second subseries is a mixture of miscellaneous reports, cuttings, press releases, and speeches all referring to American political and economic policy issues dating from the 1933-35 period. Copland's press articles about Roosevelt, the New Deal, the United States Supreme Court, and the Depression in America have also been filed here.
In December 1932 Copland and W.E. Johnson were commissioned by the New South Wales Premier B.S.B. Stevens to make a preliminary investigation 'into the relations of State and Commonwealth finances, the position of the Commonwealth Bank and the effect of Treasury Bill Finance ... '. During his 1933 overseas trip Copland again helped by investigating the availability of capital for investment in New South Wales. Finally, although he declined the offer of an official position as Economic Advisor in 1937, he did give them constant advice during 1937 and 1938 about the loan council, State finance and other matters. Series 4 includes correspondence re Copland's payment for this work.
Series 28 provides some of the evidence of Copland's work for the New South Wales State government. It consists mainly of correspondence, cables, and telegrams, 1932-1939, particularly with Stevens, the NSW Agent-General in London J.W. Ferguson, economist Dr E. Ronald Walker, and Stevens' secretaries L.J. Rose and A.W. Welsh.
There are copies of reports and memoranda as well, and statistics, drafts of reports, cuttings, and copies of some of Stevens' broadcasts and speeches. A set of New South Wales Bureau of Statistics and Economic Business Statistics: Weekly Notes, 1938-39, completes the series.
This series contains a variety of correspondence, papers, and newspaper clippings relating to Copland's work with the Bank of New South Wales from 1931-1933. There is a large amount of correspondence in this Series between Copland and high-ranking members of the Bank of N.S.W., such as R.C. Addison, A.C. Davidson, and J.S. Campbell concerning Copland's advice and outlooks on interest rates, reconstruction, and other important economic issues of the early 1930s. Other main correspondents are B. Rouch, K. Belbridge, and T.B. Heffer. There are also several Bank of N.S.W. circulars dating from 1931-1939. Folder 2 contains Economic reports by A.H.B. Fitzhardinge on the Economic and Banking issues of the time. There are also several Reports of the Directors of the Bank of N.S.W to the Ordinary General Meeting of the Proprietors dating from 1929-1933.
Copland joined a group inquiring into rural debt in March 1934, at the invitation of the Federal Treasurer R.G. Casey, and Prime Minister J.A. Lyons. The committee members were Sir Charles Nathan (chairman), Copland, M.A. Ferguson, W. Sydney Jones, C.A. Norris, and J.W. Eddy. They were subsequently joined by Sir Walter Massy Greene. Meeting At Cliveden Mansions in Melbourne between March and May 1934, they examined State legislation, statistics, and the evidence of Sir Herbert Gepp's Royal Commission into the Wheat Industry, and by late May had presented their report. In the following year their basic recommendations were enacted as the Loan (Farmers' Debt Adjustment) Act.
Series 30 provides some evidence of the committee's activities and of Copland's contribution. Included are some correspondence (including letters from Casey, Lyons, and Casey's Secretary W.I. Potter), the draft report and opinions on it, summaries of State legislation, statistics, and some cuttings. In particular, there are typed copies of minutes recording the discussion of the committee from the first meeting on 26 March to the final one on 26 May.
Late in 1938 Copland agreed to the request of the Victorian Premier Albert Dunstan to chair a State Economic Committee (S.E.C). Composed of A.T. Smithers, R.V.S. McPherson, and Copland, the Committee had a threefold brief of reporting to the Government on economic conditions in Australia and in Victoria and on the relationship between public finance and employment. Dunstan referred to them other specific matters and in 1939 had the Committee undertake a major enquiry into the railways. Series 47 covers Copland's work as chairman of the S.E.C. and is divided into Subseries 1, General papers and Subseries 2, the Railways inquiry.
Subseries 1 is a mixture of correspondence, drafts, printed material, statistical tables, and cuttings. There is also a small number of minutes of the Committee's meetings. The correspondence is mostly from Dunstan, E.W. Coates of the Treasury, and other departmental officers. The subseries covers reports, public works and employment, defence and employment and financial policy, and the effect of maintaining financial emergency (mortgage) legislation in force at the time.
Subseries 2 documents the Committee's enquiry into the 'finances of the railways in their relation to the State Budget including an examination of the general financial administration and general policies affecting the revenue and expenditure of the railways'. There are drafts and copies of the report and correspondence with A.A. Fitzgerald and T. Forristal who were coopted to help the inquiry. Some minutes of their meetings are also included as well as background material on the railways (reports, memoranda and statistical reports) dating from 1930.
The Second British Commonwealth Relations Conference was held at the Lapstone Hotel, Glenbrook, in September 1938. It was organised by institutes of international relations in the United Kingdom, Canada, India, the Irish Free State, and Australia. Copland attended this Conference as one of the Australian Institute's delegates.
Into Series 32 have been sorted the few records in the Copland papers on the Lapstone Conference. It includes correspondence with W.D. Forsyth, officials of the Australian and Royal Institutes of International Relations, reports by Conference 'Rapporteurs', summaries of Conference data papers and some excellent photographs. The series also has a copy of Copland's data paper 'Monetary policy in Australia' (Series B, no. 4) and another paper, which he co-authored with ? Dyer and G. Parker called 'Self-sufficiency in Australian defence'. There is also a report to the Conference by K.H. Bailey.
In March 1946 Copland replaced Sir Frederic Eggleston as Australia's second Minister to China. He remained there until 1948, travelling widely, observing the decline of the Chiang Kai-shek Government and reporting back to his Minister and Department in Canberra. The citation accompanying his Honorary Doctor of Laws at the University of Melbourne in 1963 mentioned particularly that 'his despatches from China early told of the corruption of the old regime and forecast the ultimate victory of the Communists'. The little the collection has on the period forms Series 33.
The series divides between 1946-1948 papers and post 1948 papers. The former group primarily consists of roneoed papers such as notes recording impressions following tours and texts of addresses. Some books in script and photographs including one of Copland presenting credentials dated 23 March 1946 are also here.
The later material, comprising correspondence, addresses and the like - refers in some way to Copland's time in China or to his views about its history. These papers include the Eleventh Morrison Lecture 'The Chinese Social Structure' (Canberra, 1948).
The papers of Lady Copland, which have been added to this collection, contain some 'China papers'. These are carbon copies of notes, memoranda, draft press conference statements, and annexes to despatches marked 'Mrs Copland'. Lady Copland's papers also contain dozens of letters from her husband, written from Shanghai and Nanking and relating to China.
In June 1948 Copland returned from China to begin four years work as foundation Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University (A.N.U.). The 1946 legislation establishing the A.N.U. placed special emphasis on the university's role in post-graduate research. Copland, the Chancellor Lord Bruce, and the University Council built upon earlier work to establish Research Schools of Social and Physical Sciences, Medicine and Pacific Studies, and to attract eminent expatriate scholars to lead these schools and staff their departments. Copland was also active on the Vice-Chancellor's Committee and on the first Commonwealth Committee of Enquiry into Universities, which it established in 1950.
The A.N.U. awarded Copland an honorary Doctorate of Laws in April 1967. In the same month the A.N.U. Faculty of Economics building was named the Copland Building.
The small group of material in the collection on the A.N.U. has been confined to Series 34. Two subseries are involved. The first relates to Copland's work as Vice-Chancellor, the second to the 1967 honours. Subseries 1 comprises only a few papers for 1948-1953: essentially, a file of speeches and articles on the A.N.U. and universities in Australia, 1949-1952, and another containing correspondence and telegrams with Lord Bruce, 1952-1953. The subseries also has some later papers, 1953-1956, about the Vice-Chancellor period regarding matters like convocation and the university insurance scheme, and there is some correspondence with Professor M. Oliphant, Leicester Webb, and R.S. Parker.
The second subseries records the honours Copland received from the A.N.U. in 1967. There are addresses, itineraries, and correspondence with Lord Florey, R.A. Hohnen, Maurice Brown, P.H. Partridge, and C.L. Hewitt. Some correspondence in Series 1 includes references to Copland's time at A.N.U. and the aftermath. Of particular relevance is his correspondence with Lord Lindsay, Walter Crocker, Leicester Webb, H.P. Brown, E.F. Penrose, Geoffrey Sawer, and R.L. Matthews.
Originally known as the Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe, the Intergovernmental Committee on European Migration (I.C.E.M.) was formed in Brussels in 1951 by countries seeking European immigrants. In April 1953 at the 5th session of the I.C.E.M. which was conducted in Spanish and held in Geneva, Copland, the Australian delegate was elected chairman. Series 35 relates almost entirely to his preparation and attendance at the Geneva Conference.
The bulk of the series consists of correspondence and cables between Copland and Tasman Heyes of the Department of Immigration. Other correspondents include Piere Jacobsen, Hugh Gibson, and the European League for Economic Cooperation, R.L. Harry and Patrick Shaw. Also included is background material from the Department, processed summary reports of individual sessions, the Director's Report, the draft final report and draft constitution, copies of some of Copland's statements, his Australian delegation report, and a photograph.
Finally, there is some later correspondence and cables with Sylvia Baverstock and Pierre Jacobsen of I.C.E.M. and the Department of Immigration concerning the 6th session, held in Venice in October 1953.
The World Population Conference was held under the joint auspices of the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population in Rome, between 31 August and 10 September 1954. Copland, based at Geneva for meetings of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, attended with W.D. Borrie to form the Australian delegation. Borrie, a demographer at the Australian National University, chaired Session 3A of the Conference on 'International Migration with special attention to Areas of Immigration'.
Series 36 consists of the few papers in the collection on the Rome conference. Here can be found a record of Copland's correspondence with Borrie (1953-1954) and others, including the Australian U.N. delegation in New York, summaries of conference papers, and some related material on population published by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and The Economist the following year.
Between May 1953 and mid-1956 Copland represented Australia in Ottawa as High Commissioner to Canada. Papers on this work form Series 37, while his leadership of Australian delegations to the United Nations at this time is covered in the following two series.
Series 37 brings together cuttings, speeches, subject files, and one or two documents, but it is, essentially, correspondence. The main correspondents are ministers or External Affairs men like R.G. Menzies, R.G. Casey, H. Holt, Trevor Pyman, T.H.E. Heyes, A. Tange, W.R. Crocker, E.J. McCarthy, K.O.C. Shann, Sir Percy Spender, J. Plimsoll, Patrick Shaw, and A. Watt. A number of the letters and cables involved are stamped or headed 'Personal and confidential', 'Safe Hand Only', 'Confidential', 'Secret' or 'Top Secret.' They range over many aspects of Australian-Canadian relations but as well, refer to the conditions of Copland's appointment and the arrangements of his return. The subject files mentioned above include material for speeches and cover topics like the Australian economy, Australian-Canadian trade, and Australian ballad and literature.
A number of letters in Series 1 for 1953-1956 contain references to the subject of this series.
When the ninth United Nations General Assembly began in New York in September 1954, Copland formed part of a large Australian delegation. R.G. Casey, the Minister for External Affairs led a group that also included two politicians, A. Fairhall and P.J. Clarey, and diplomats Sir Percy Spender, J.D.L. Hood, A. Stirling, and W.D. Forsyth. Copland led them on Casey's departure and was elected chairman of the General Assembly's Second or Economic and Financial Committee.
The coverage of Series 38 is patchy. Of the many agenda topics the Second Committee discussed, only the South Korea relief and rehabilitation program, technical aid, and a world food reserve are covered. Two important topics, the Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development and the International Finance Corporation are represented in printed items. Otherwise, the material comprises some U.N. publications and reports, notes, speeches, and statements by Copland, working papers, lists of delegates, photographs, and some correspondence and cables. D. Hammarskjold, E.N. van Kleffens, W.D. Forsyth, and A.H. Loomes are the main correspondents. The series has references to Australia's other representative on the Second Committee, A. Fairhall and the Alternate Delegate, A.P. Renouf.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) was, during the early 1950s, a body of 18 countries which met in Geneva and New York to recommend policies on issues like economic development, human rights, refugees, international commodity trade, and narcotic drugs. Australia joined the Council in 1952 and during 1954-1955 was represented on it by Copland and Alternate Delegates such as R.L. Harry, G.A. Jockel, A.P. Renouf, and W.D. Forsyth. In addition, Copland was Vice President of ECOSOC during its 18th Session (June-August 1954) and President for the 19th and 20th Sessions (March-June, July-October 1955).
The ECOSOC papers retained by Copland form Series 39. Reports of the committees, agencies, and commissions of the Council constitute the bulk of the series. There are also some of Copland's speeches, statements, and poems written at Council sessions and as well memoranda, photographs, cuttings, correspondence, and telegrams. J.C. Baker, Patrick Shaw, W.R. Crocker, L.B. Pearson, and M. Vakil are among the correspondents. The series includes material on most of ECOSOC's concerns during 1954-1955. In addition to the topics listed above, there are references to full employment and balance of payments policy, political rights of women, labour standards, and international calendar reform.
Modelled on the Administrative Staff College at Henley in England, the Administrative Staff College was incorporated in 1955 with the support of 60 companies 'to give an opportunity to senior executives in public and private enterprise to review the major problems of administration in coordinated discussion...' Copland was approached while in Canada by the Chairman of the College Council, Sir Essington Lewis, to be its founding Principal. He studied overseas administrative training courses during 1956, and between October 1956 and March 1960 established the College at Mt. Eliza near Melbourne. A study method based on syndicates was introduced in which participants lived-in for a fixed term or session.
The work of the College between 1956 and 1960 is well documented by records in the Copland Papers, and this material forms the basis of Series 40. It includes syndicate reports, correspondence about College matters with people such as Sir Alexander Fleck, Professor R.N. Spann and W.S. Lowe, correspondence conducted by Copland's secretary Joan Morrish, and publications such as Copland's Administrative staff training: a new frontier in education (Staff paper no. 1; F.W. Cheshire, 1957). A set of addresses delivered by the Principal, 1958-60 with attached College distribution slips and some of his lectures to Syndicate 7 are also in Series 40.
The remainder covers 1960-1970 and documents the contact Copland maintained with the College through the Victorian and New South Wales Branches of the Australian Administrative Staff College Association. This section also has his correspondence with two subsequent Principals, Sir Ragnar Garrett and Maurice Brown and Collegemen, such as, C.S. Booth and Harold Harvey. It also includes some roneoed newsletters and circulars distributed to 'old boys' of the College, some post 1960 syndicate lectures, and a 1970 College Handbook.
A brief history of the College's origins are outlined in Copland's 'The Australian Administrative Staff College' in Personnel Practice Bulletin, xii (No. 6) June 1957. See also 'The freshest field' by Maurice Brown (Economic Record, vol. 36, no. 73, 1960: 169-72).
In May 1958 the Minister for the Army, J.O. Cramer, appointed a committee to inquire into the production of officers in the Australian Regular Army. The Committee was chaired by Major-General R. Wade and included Major-General J. Wilton and Brigadier T. Taylor. Copland, at the time Principal of the Australian Administrative Staff College, was its third member.
The papers Copland retained from his work on the committee make up Series 41. Minutes or 'Informal summaries of proceedings' were kept by two joint Secretaries, Majors M. Bradbury and A.B. Stretton, and these and memoranda from the Secretaries are included in the series. It also contains records of interviews, material on officer training schools overseas, copies of Department of the Army minutes, and a 1944 study on Duntroon Military College. Correspondence between Copland and J.O. Cramer, Major-Generals Wade and Wilton, and drafts and a final copy of the committee's report (April 1960) are also there. The series contains several items stamped 'Confidential'.
Following the renegotiation of the Australia-Canada Trade Agreement in October 1959, the Australian Minister for Trade J. McEwen invited Copland to lead a trade mission to Canada and the USA. Copland's term in Canada as Australia's High Commissioner 1953-1956 and his excellent standing within the business community made him a good choice. He accepted the invitation and led the team of 30 Australian industrialists and manufacturers to North America during April and June 1960. A brief history of the mission appears in a supplement to vol. 13, no. 1 of Overseas Trading, published by the Department of Trade in June 1961.
Series 42 is devoted to the trade mission. There are telegrams and correspondence 1959-60, itineraries, photographs, newspaper cuttings, press releases, lists of mission members, a few printed items, and some speeches. The correspondence includes letters to Copland from McEwen, Angus Paltridge of the Department of Trade, some of the businessmen who accompanied Copland, Canadian trade representatives, and the Canadian High Commissioner in Australia T.W.C. McDermot. There are also draft and roneoed copies of Copland's report on the mission's achievements, 1960.
Before proceeding to the Institute of Labour Studies, Geneva, Copland attended an international conference on technical assistance and development promotion. The conference was held in Berlin during February 1961.
The subject was of special interest to Copland given his work with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and writings on underdevelopment in Third World countries. Series 43 contains just a few items indicating Copland's presence at the conference. These are agenda, copies of some conference papers, a few notes in Copland's hand, and one or two publications such as a Ford Foundation leaflet titled Overseas development program, 1960. There is no correspondence.
Copland was the first Director of the Institute of Labour Studies (I.L.S.) which was set up under the auspices of the International Labour Organisation (I.L.O.) in Geneva in May 1961. Although the Institute was established along lines he recommended during a stopover in Geneva on his return from the North American Trade Mission, he resigned his three-year appointment in August 1961 following disagreements with the I.L.C. Director-General David Morse.
Copland's relations with the I.L.S. can be traced in Series 44. For example, it contains Copland's correspondence telegrams and memoranda with David Morse, Sir Guildhaume Myrddin-Evans, Aamir Ali and R.W. Cox of the I.L.O., and correspondence with friends in Australia such as S. Gilmour, H. Bland, and C.L. Hewitt. The memoranda in particular between Copland and Morse explain the reasons for Copland's resignation. Other material in the series consists of some I.L.O. administrative memoranda, cuttings and a copy of Copland's Memorandum dated August 1960 setting out how the Institute might be established.
Series 45 is a very small collection of papers, mostly correspondence of a confidential nature, connected with Copland's assistance with the selection of the first Professor of Economics at Monash University, Melbourne, in August and September 1961. The correspondents include Professor R.I. Downing and the Vice-Chancellor of Monash University, Dr J.A.L. Matheson. The series also contains some notes and a copy of the conditions of appointment.
During the 1920s State Regional Groups of the Institute of Public Administration were established in Australia. They were modelled closely on the British Institute, formed in London in 1922. Copland was a member of the Victorian Group, formed in 1929, and an occasional guest speaker at monthly meetings. A small number of I.P.A. materials occur in the collection and have been combined to form Series 46. It contains the text of several papers presented to I.P.A. meetings, notices of meetings, and correspondence between Copland and the Secretary H.E. Johnson, 1929-1931.
The foundation of the Economic Society of Australia and New Zealand (ESANZ) in 1925 was outlined by Copland in 'The Economic Society; its origin and constitution' in the Society's journal Economic Record (vol. 1, November 25, p. 140-44). Copland's association with the Society and its journal are outlined in a later article in Economic Record by F.R.E. Mauldon and G.A. Weller called 'Sir Douglas Copland and the foundation of the Economic Society' (vol. 36, no. 73, March 1960, p.143-46). In brief, Copland was Editor-in-chief of the Economic Record between 1925 and 1945 and first President of both the Society and its Victorian Branch. He became an Honorary Life Member in 1958 and maintained an interest in the Society he founded up to his death. His last article for Economic Record - a review of W.S. Kelly's Remembered days, appeared in 1969.
Series 47, a large and important series, derives from Copland's work for the ESANZ. There are two subseries. The first is arranged chronologically as received by the Library, and with slight additions, papers kept alphabetically within year remain thus. The files that consist mainly of correspondence appear to have been kept by Copland (or possibly by a secretary at the University of Melbourne Department of Commerce) without distinguishing between Copland's various ESANZ positions. The files have been used also by other ESANZ Victorian Branch Office-bearers based at the Department of Commerce such as G.A. Weller and G.W. Wood. Correspondence in Copland's general correspondence files or loose that refer directly to ESANZ matters have been added to them.
Apart from letters, telegrams, and copies of replies the first subseries includes circulars and Secretary's reports from the Victorian Branch, financial reports, memoranda to and from the Society's publisher Melbourne University Press, reviews of issues of the Economic Record, subscription lists and agenda, and minutes of Central Council meetings. The correspondence, in particular, deals with topics such as editorial matters like the assessment of contributors' articles for the Economic Record (with Editorial Board members, including L.F. Giblin and R.C. Mills). It also covers the publication of supplements of papers from meetings of Section G of A.A.A.S., Copland's correspondence with contributors and reviewers, editors of other economic journals, and secretaries of Branches in states other than Victoria and New Zealand are also in this subseries. Requests for permission to republish Economic Record articles, advertising, and subscription are some of the other subjects covered.
Although the subseries ranges between 1925 and 1969, there are large gaps. For example, for Copland's years as editor of the Economic Record (1925-1945), there are no papers for 1933, 1935, 1936, and 1939-1945. Beyond 1945, there are simply a few circulars and items of correspondence covering the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Into subseries 2 have been put a few miscellaneous papers connected with the Economic Record. There are a small number of issues and some drafts of articles and galleys.
The World Disarmament Movement (W.D.M.) was formed in Melbourne in 1928 to promote disarmament and foster the peaceful settlement of international disputes. Eighty societies with similar aims were affiliated. Copland was its President in 1929 and active in its cause into the early 1930s.
Series 48 contains the few W.D.M. papers that have survived in the Copland collection. They range from correspondence (mainly with Joseph Howie who was the Secretary in 1931) and Movement Council minutes (1929), circulars and notices to handbills, articles by Copland on disarmament, and newspaper cuttings. As well, there are references to like-minded organisations, such as the Anti-Fascist Concentration of Australia, the Australian League of Nations Union, and the National Council for Prevention of War. Some preliminary work on the 1932 World Disarmament Conference organised by the League of Nations is also documented.
Like their parent organisation in London, State branches of the Australian League of Nations Union were formed in the early 1920s to promote the ideals and publicise the work of the League of Nations. Consistent with his interest in international affairs and belief in disarmament, Copland was an active member of the Victorian Branch. At various times during the 1920s and 1930s he served on its Executive Committee and General Council.
The Copland papers contain a small number of documents of the League and Victorian Branch and they have been colleted to form Series 49. There are a variety of items ranging from press articles by Copland on the League, drafts of the constitution, some circulars, agenda, and minutes of General Council, to publications and correspondence. Most of the correspondence was conducted with Victorian Branch officials, such as A. Constance Duncan, P.D. Phillips, and E. Maggs.
Originally known as United Secretarial Services, the Bureau of Social and International Affairs was established in 1928, largely on the initiative of E.C. Dyason. The Bureau acted as an umbrella secretariat for groups based in Melbourne interested in the study of international relations and social science. The Victorian Branches of the Institute of Pacific Relations, the Royal (later Australian) Institute of International Affairs, and the Australian League of Nations Union, as well as the Victorian Round Table Group and the International Club were all affiliated societies. Copland was associated with the Bureau through his membership of several of these groups and for a time in the early 1930s was a Bureau Director.
The few Bureau items retained by Copland have been sorted into Series 50. Here there are notices, secretaries' and accountants' reports, and financial statements, some Women's Auxiliary for International Affairs material, papers on a 1931 International Cabaret. There is also some correspondence between Copland and other Bureau Directors E.C. Dyason, W.H. Moore, F.W. Eggleston and D. Mackinson, and Secretaries A. Constance Duncan, Tristan Buesst, and Norma Collison.
The Round Table was formed in 1910 to study and promote the ideals and benefits of the British Empire. Its growth and establishment in Britain, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia is traced in John Kendle's The Round Table Movement and imperial preference (University of Toronto Press, 1975). Copland joined the Melbourne Group in 1920 and remained a member and occasional contributor to its journal and discussions until 1970.
The Round Table papers in the Copland collection form Series 51. Included are notices, reports and circulars of meetings of the Melbourne Group, discussion papers, drafts of articles, and correspondence. The series has a short incomplete run of the journal The Round Table (No. 115, 1939; No. 213 1963- No, 239, 1970) and letters from Round Table officials such as Professor W. Prest, R.L. Stack, Professor T.H. Laby, E.L. Piesse, Tristan Buesst, W.J.V. Windeyer, and Sir Ivison Macadam. Round Table discussions ranged widely over Empire and later Commonwealth affairs and there are papers and draft articles in Series 51 on the birthrate, migration, defence, foreign and economic policy, and Australian federal politics.
The Institute of Pacific Relations (I.P.R.) was founded in 1923 and governed from Hawaii through a Pacific Council representing Australia, Canada, China, and the United States of America. The Australian Institute of International Affairs formed the Australian National Group of the Institute, while individual members belonged to State Branches. Copland was active in the Victorian Branch, represented Victoria on the National Council, presented papers to Institute conferences and visited the Pacific Council while travelling to America in 1926.
Series 52 incorporates all papers in the collection relating to Copland and the I.P.R. It covers conferences at Honolulu, 1927, and Hangchow, 1931, Round Table symposia on population growth, Pacific relations and investment in China, and some of the activities of the Victorian Branch. The papers themselves are notices of meetings of the Executive Committee, financial statements, conference papers, memoranda, and correspondence. The correspondence includes letters to Copland from I.P.R. officials at the state, national and international levels, such as A. Constance Duncan, F.W. Eggleston, Joyce Beeby, and Dr J.B. Condliffe.
The Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science (A.A.A.S.) was established in 1888, like its British counterpart to provide researchers a formal opportunity for the exchange of ideas. Economics and related disciplines were included in its definition of science. Copland was an active member of not only the Association by 1922 but also joined an A.A.A.C. Committee, the Australian National Research Council (see Series 54), and the Association's successor, the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science (see Series 63).
Series 53 relates to Copland and A.A.A.S., in particular to Section G of its Annual Conference. In 1924 he was President of this Section - at different times covering 'Social and Statistical Science' and 'Economics, Statistics and Social Science' and as editor of Economic Record published its proceedings. The 1925, 1928, and 1930 conferences are covered, the latter on transport which was covered particularly well. Statements on the Depression by Section G economists made at this conference are also present. Finally, the series incudes some General Council minutes and reports, and Copland's correspondence with A.A.A.S. officials and contributors to Section G meetings. Among the correspondents are S. Bennett, H.W. Clapp, J.B. Bridgen, J.L.K. Gifford, Sir David Masson, S. Crawford and W.T.B. McCormack.
In 1919 the Australian National Research Council (A.N.R.C.) was formed as part of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science to represent Australia on the International Research Council, promote scientific research and act as an academy of science. Copland was elected as an Associate Member in 1927 and became a member of the Executive Committee in 1930. During this period, he also began contributing to the Council's Australian Science Abstracts as an Honorary Abstractor in Economics.
Series 54 brings together the small group of A.N.R.C. items in the collection. There are some copies of Executive Committee minutes, 1927-1932, rules, lists of members, reports of meetings, agenda, and correspondence. The letter includes exchanges with an editor of Australian Science Abstracts, Dr A.B. Walkom and with other A.N.R.C. office-bearers, G.A. Waterhouse, F.R.E. Mauldon, A.J. Gibson, and A.B. Gibson.
Between 1934 and 1938 Copland supplied the London-based Austral Development Company with the raw material for its monthly bulletin Australian Economic conditions and Statistical Summary. The Company also acted as his agent in London until the middle of the 1960s. For example, Austral invested money for Copland, arranged accommodation, and purchased books.
Both Copland's 1930s work for Austral and in turn its representations on his behalf can be traced in Series 55. Material on the former includes an incomplete set of Australian Economic Conditions and Statistical Summary (April 1934-July 1938), and copies of cables and correspondence with an Austral Director, Colonel H.S Evans. Files of correspondence on other matters include letters from M.H. Baillieu, Llyn Evans, and Edith Mackenzie, and cover the years 1933-1934, 1952-1956, 1961-1963, and 1963-1966.
Papers of a purely financial nature have been filed into Series 4.
One of a myriad of groups spawned by the Depression, the Stable Money Association (S.M.A) was formed in New York in 1929 to 'promote stabilisation of the purchasing power of money...'
Series 56 shows that during 1929 and 1930 Copland had some slight correspondence with S.M.A. officials F.A. Delano and N. Lombard and received one or two of their leaflets and bulletins.
This series partly consists of correspondence, papers and speeches concerning Copland's involvement in the Australian Book Week of 1964. Series 57 also contains correspondence pertaining to Copland's involvement with the Library Association of Victoria during 1930-1931.
When he became a member in 1948, Copland became the first Australian to be elected to the American Philosophical Association (A.P.A.), which was founded in 1727.
The few papers that make up Series 58 resulted from this membership. They consist of some correspondence, 1953-1967, with various A.P.A. officers, A.P.A. circulars and publications, and copies of papers read before some of its annual meetings in Philadelphia. The later include two by Copland. They are 'Economic policy and economic development in Australia from 1945' (published later in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association, vol. 98, no. 2 and 'The underdeveloped countries and the structure of the western economy' (published later in Proceedings, vol. 100, no. 5, October 1956, p. 430-4. It also contains Copland's Certificate of Membership.
The Council of Public Education was established in Victoria in 1928 in accordance with the Education Act, 1928, to establish and administer standards of teacher qualification and examinations in primary and secondary schools. Its members represented the Department of Education, registered schools, teacher education, education in music, and industrial interests. Copland was a member representing the University of Melbourne between 1928 and 1933 and also joined several committees including its subcommittee on standards for the registration of teachers of commercial subjects.
What little the Copland collection has on this aspect of Copland's work has been gathered to form Series 59. There is some correspondence, principally with the Council Registrar R.H Croll, Council circulars, and papers on the Council Registration Committee.
The Victorian Council for Mental Hygiene was formed in Melbourne in 1930 to promote policies, such as the teaching of psychological medicine in the universities, the institutional care of delinquents, the establishment of child guidance centres, and training courses for social workers. Copland was elected to the Council's inaugural General Committee in 1930 but resigned in November the following year because of pressure of work.
The few Council Executive Committee reports, Council circulars, and correspondence in the Copland papers make up Series 60.
The Institute of Educational Research, Victoria was also interested in mental hygiene, although not exclusively, and Copland was one of its members. There is a brief description of the material in the collection on the Institute in the following series.
The Institute of Educational Research, Victoria was founded in 1929 (under the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation) and was known initially as the National Institute of Education of Victoria. Its first President was L.J. Wrigley. Copland was a foundation member of the Institute.
The few papers Copland accumulated as a member are in Series 61. They consist of circulars, minutes, correspondence, and a copy of the Institute's constitution.
A copy of the fourth Frank Tate Memorial Lecture that Copland delivered under the auspices of the Institute in 1957 is in Series 40. It was entitled, Administrative staff training: a new frontier in education (F.W Cheshire, 1957).
The Australian Productivity Council (A.P.C.) was formed in 1959, with Copland as its first Chairman, to promote higher productivity in industry and government.
Series 62 illustrates some of the Council's activities during its first four years and of the part Copland played. There are, for example, copies of a number of papers presented to conferences on productivity organised by the Council. These include addresses by Copland and Professor P.L. Henderson to conferences at the University of Melbourne and Orange in 1959. The first two annual conferences on productivity in 1961 and 1962 are also covered. For Copland's part, there is correspondence with the Council's Executive-Director Professor Henderson, with other Council Committee men, and with the Prime Minister R.G. Menzies in addition to Copland's copies of some Council Committee Agenda and Minutes. Finally, the series has copies of some A.P.C. publications like its journal Productivity, lists of Council members, memoranda, and a copy of the Council's memorandum of association.
The Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science (A.N.Z.A.A.S.) was formed in 1930 from Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. The organisation, aims, and publications of both groups were obviously similar and Copland was active in both. He was a member of the Victorian Council of A.N.Z.A.A.S., became a Fellow in 1937, presented papers at A.N.Z.A.A.S. Congresses, and in 1952 was elected President.
Only a few A.N.Z.A.A.S. papers are included in the collection. Series 63 covers the period 1931-70, but basically consists of correspondence conducted during the 1950s. It documents Copland's participation in the Economics Statistics and Social Science Section of various A.N.Z.A.A.S. Congresses, the establishment of an L.F. Giblin Memorial Lecture, and the deliberations of the Council and General Committee. The papers primarily consist of correspondence and copies of A.N.Z.A.A.S. records, such as Council and General Committee minutes, reports, and newsletters. Copland's correspondents included Professor J. McMillan, K.W. Know, J.M. Garland, R.I. Downing, A.B. Walkom, Dr C. Barnard, Roland Wilson, Dr A. Smithies, and J.G. Kefford. Finally, Series 63 has copies of some papers that Copland presented at A.N.Z.A.A.S. meetings. They include his 1952 Presidential Address 'Authority and control in a free society' and the 1939 Canberra Congress paper 'The Commonwealth Bank-Cooperation or compulsion?'
Modelled on overseas committees fostering economic development, the Committee for Economic Development of Australia (C.E.D.A) was formed in Melbourne by Copland in 1960. He was Chairman of its Board of Trustees until 1966 and maintained an interest in its activities and contact with its leaders as their Economic Consultant up to 1970.
Series 64 contains a great deal of material on Copland and C.E.D.A. Broadly speaking, it has been arranged into Executive Committee records, memoranda and correspondence, individual files relating to specific subjects, and a group of C.E.D.A. and other publications. The first group also includes cuttings, press releases, lists of C.E.D.A Trustees, notes of interviews, addresses by Directors, drafts of articles by Copland, reports of overseas trips by Directors such as R.L.S. Starling, minutes and agenda. Conferences C.E.D.A. participated in or helped organise are also documented here, including the Asian Conference on Industrialisation, Manila, 1965, Women at Work, Melbourne, 1966, and an International Congress on Human Relations, Melbourne, 1965.
The second group of individual files covers topics such as Dr H. Giells, Ford Foundation, visit of J. Douglas Gibson, Taxation Department, Copland's visits, Committee for Economic Development (U.K), C.E.D.A. current research studies, and South east Asian study. Here too are separate files of correspondence that Copland kept with particular C.E.D.A. officials such as John A. Pitt, R.H. Harding, and K.W. Taylor. Files of general C.E.D.A. correspondence, filed alphabetically, have also been preserved. These cover mainly 1958-1961 and 1964-1966 and include letters from Sir Warren McDonald, W.D. Borrie, D.H. Merry, P. Grey, John P. Young, A.J. Keast, Sir Maurice Mawby, G.S. LeCouteur, Sir Essington Lewis, J. McEwen, S.M. Gilmore, and K.W. Taylor.
The final group, printed material, comprises issues from C.E.D.A. Supplementary Papers and Occasional Papers, i.e. Memoranda for Trustees, Annual Reports, Growth, Statements of policy (P Series), and from its Monograph Series (reports of C.E.D.A. sponsored research). There are also a small number of publications of the British Committee for Economic Development.
The origins of the National Council for Balanced Development (N.C.B.D.) lie with the Develop Victoria Council, a body sponsored in 1961 by the Victorian Employers' Federation. It was formally established at a Conference on Balanced Development at Wagga Wagga in November 1962 and Copland was its President from 1962 to 1970.
By comparison with most other organisations that Copland was associated with in the 1960s, the work of the N.C.B.D. is very well documented in the Copland collection. All relevant papers form Series 65. For instance, there is good coverage of the Council's national conferences at Wagga Wagga in 1962, Armidale in 1964, Loxton in 1966, Cairns in 1967, and Launceston in 1968. The work of the Council's Executive Committee is also documented through agenda reports, circulars, and minutes that Copland received as its Chairman. There is also material that consists mostly of correspondence reports and submissions from other groups promoting balanced or regional development. They include the Murray Valley Development League, the Develop Victoria Council, the Federal Inland Development Organisation, the People the North Committee, the Riverina University League, the Advance La Trobe Valley Association, the Albury Regional Promotion Council, the North Australia Foundation, the Darling Downs University Establishment Association, and the Land Values Research Group. Copland also corresponded with government and there are letters in the series from C. Court, the West Australian Minister for the North East, and R. Patterson of the Commonwealth Department of National Development. A Council deputation to the Prime Minister, R.G. Menzies in 1963, is also covered. Finally, the series has correspondence between Copland and the Council's Director A.R. Driver, some articles and addresses by Copland on the need for balanced development in Australia, some National Economic Development Council (U.K.) items, and some cuttings.
Among several consultancy jobs Copland performed for non-government bodies in the wake of the Depression was a series of reports for the Atlantic Union Oil Company Limited. In 1932 he agreed to supply the Company with a report on the Australian exchange rate. Subsequently, he compiled monthly memoranda during 1932-1933 and also examined the Australian-New Zealand exchange rate for the company.
Correspondence, copies of the reports, cuttings, and notes covering work for Atlantic form Series 66. The bulk of the material consists of correspondence between Copland and two Atlantic men, J.D Jacobs and F.H Carlson.
Material in Series 67 derives from Copland's membership of the Immigration Planning council from its creation in 1949 to 1968. It includes correspondence and telegrams with various council chairmen, such as E.N. Drury, A.R. Downer, David Fairbairn, Billy Snedden, and other department men such as Sir Tasman Heyes and R.R. Heydon. There are also Council minutes and agenda, Department of Immigration bulletins, statistics and estimates, ministerial press releases, speeches, notes, and copies of the Inter-governmental Committee on European Migration publication International migration. There are also papers on a number of Australian citizenship conventions, a Council subcommittee that in 1962 examined migration, and the professions in Australia.
Additional Inter-governmental Committee on European Migration papers relating specifically to the 5th Session meeting in Geneva in April 1953 forms Series 35. Financial papers documenting Copland's reimbursement for membership of the Council and travel to its meetings are in Series 4.
The National Obsolescence Council (N.O.C.) was formed in 1958 at a forum on obsolescence organised by the Victorian Employers' Federation and the Master Builders' Federation of Australia. As its name suggests, the N.O.C. was intended to focus attention on the importance of obsolescence in the national economy and to seek taxation measures to allow for depreciation of plant equipment and buildings. Copland was the Council's Chairman from 1958 to 1961.
Something of the work of the Council is reflected in Series 68, in particular its commissioned surveys. These included studies done by the Australian Sales Research Bureau Pty Ltd and Eric White and Associates (Vic.) Pty Ltd. The series also has circulars for Council members, some correspondence between Copland and L.A. Boult, N.O.C. Secretary, some cuttings, brochures, and some letters received in 1966 suggesting the N.O.C. be revived.
The Australian Institute of International Affairs (A.I.I.A.) was formed in 1932 to replace the Australian state branches of the Royal (formerly British) Institute of International Affairs. The Institute and its predecessors organised discussions and published papers on world politics, Commonwealth affairs, etc. and Copland's interest in economics had led to a strong interest in such subjects by the early 1920s.
The first part of Series 69 documents Copland's connection with Victorian groups of the British Institute of International Affairs and Royal Institute of International Affairs. There are membership tickets, correspondence with Keith Officer, L. Curtis and Tristan Buesst, circulars, financial statements, and a paper by E.L. Piesse for a 1928 Royal Institute of International Affairs meeting titled 'The Freedom of the Seas'.
The remainder of the series divides between A.I.I.A. Victorian Branch papers and later items. The former is a mixture of agenda, lists of members, circulars, copies of the Austral-Asiatic Bulletin and some correspondence with F.W. Eggleston, the Victorian Branch Chairman when Copland was a member of its Executive Committee in 1938. The latter consists of some correspondence about the Institute in 1961 with Professor G. Greenwood and N. Dickens, some copies of Australia's Neighbours and a copy of Copland's A.I.I.A. sponsored Roy Milne Lecture at Hobart in 1957 called 'Australia and the changing world in Asia'.
(The Institute also constituted the Australian National Group of the Institute of Pacific Relations.)
In 1952 the Social Science Research Council of Australia (S.S.R.C.A.) replaced the Australian National Research Council's Committee for Research in the Social Sciences. Like its predecessor however, the S.S.R.C.A. continued to encourage the advancement of the social sciences in Australia and to promote research and subsidise publications. Copland was connected with the Council in three ways. While still Vice Chancellor of the Australian National University, he helped the new Council raise funds in an approach to the Prime Minister R.G. Menzies in 1953. Secondly, during the mid-1950s he was a member of its Executive Committee and remained a member until his resignation in 1961. Thirdly, Copland and his editor R.H. Barback received a small grant from the Council to help publish their work The conflict of expansion and stability: documents relating to Australian economic policy 1945-52 (Cheshire; 1957).
Most of the records in Series 70, which is devoted to Copland's relations with the S.S.R.C.A. were received while Copland was Australian High Commissioner to Canada. They include his correspondence with Professors P.H. Partridge and W.D. Borrie, and Dr Roland Wilson. Apart from correspondence, there are some items received when Copland returned to Australia, such as annual reports, circulars, financial statements, minutes of Executive Committee meetings, and a few copies of Australian Social Science Abstracts. Other printed material in the series consists of reports and publications of the American Social Science Research Council.
The Business Archives Council of Australia was formed in Sydney late in 1954 to promote the study of business history and foster the preservation of business records. There were only two branches, Victoria and New South Wales. Copland was first President of the Victorian Branch and remained a member of the Council until his resignation in 1967.
Although consisting of only a few folders, Series 71 provides a reasonable indication of the activities of the Council's Victorian Branch and Copland's part in them. The series has papers on the Conference on Australian business history (Melbourne, October 1958) and a Survey of business records in Victoria (conducted by the Commonwealth National Library for the Victorian Branch). There are also copies of State branch constitutions, Victorian Branch annual reports (1958, 1959), copies of the Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia and its successor Business Archives and History. Apart from a copy of a letter to D.H. Merry in 1967, the small amount of correspondence in the series covers 1957-1959. The main correspondents are W.A. Sinclair, Professor W. Woodruff, H.L. White, and Dr Alan Birch.
The Australian Commonwealth Engineering Standards Association and the Australian Commonwealth Association of Simplified Practice combined in 1929 to form the Standards Association of Australia (S.A.A.). Copland was a member of the S.A.A.'s Simplified Practice Division Committee and in 1930 represented the University of Melbourne on the S.A.A.'s Victorian State Committee.
Series 72 contains papers that Copland received in these two roles during 1929 and 1930. There are a few letters from S.A.A. officials, such as J. McAuliffe and E. Bartlett, S.A.A. bulletins, circulars and reports, such as 'Elimination of waste - simplified practice in Australia', copies of standards and agenda for meeting of the Simplified Practice Division Committee, and the Victorian State Committee.
The Victorian Committee for Industrial Design was formed in July 1962 to improve the standard of industrial design and, in particular, to organise an industrial design exhibition. Copland was the Committee's first Chairman.
Series 73 relates almost entirely to relations between the Victorian Committee and the Industrial Design Council of Australia, (I.D.C.A.) and in particular to the formation of a State Committee of the Council in Victoria separate from the Committee. These and the organisation of a survey of industrial design are documented by Copland's correspondence with Committee officials I. Newton-John, A.L. Paltridge and I.D.C.A. Chairman, Walter Scott. The series also includes agenda for some committee meetings and a copy of its Memorandum of Association.
The Australian Industries Development Association (A.I.D.A.) was formed in 1951 from the Australian Industries Protection League. It was a non-profit association of private enterprise organisations promoting national development through population expansion, balanced development, and immigration. Although not a director, the evidence of Series 74 suggests that Copland followed A.I.D.A. activities with interest.
The series is a small accumulation of correspondence and printed matter. The former covers 1954-1956, 1967, and the three main correspondents are A.I.D.A. officials, George G. Foletta, C.P. Puzey, and Gerald Packer. The printed matter includes Directors reports 1956, 1963-1967, annual reports 1961-1962, and some miscellaneous A.I.D.A. publications.
Copland was a director of the large domestic transport company Ansett Transport Industries Ltd between January 1960 and March 1971. Papers arising from his Ansett work found in the collection form Series 75. Here there are notes of conversations, cuttings, prospectuses, notices of meetings, other items sent to directors, and correspondence including letters from the Company Secretary R.L. Cooper, and the Chairman Reg Ansett. Apart from policy and other matters considered by the Directors, Series 75 has references to the application for a television licence by an Ansett Subsidiary, Panorama Television Pty Ltd. Two other companies are also mentioned, the British Aircraft Corporation (Australia) Pty Ltd and Ansett Traders of Australia Incorporated.
Material recording Copland's payment of Director's fees is in Series 4.
In September 1960 Copland accepted a position with the Melbourne-based stock and share brokers Walter P. Ham & Co (later Walter Ham and Associates). He worked with them as Economic Adviser, Consultant, and head of their Research Department during the next four years. The advice covered a diversity of topics from the Indonesian economy and the economic viability of motels to obscure matters such as an investment in the Chevron Hotel.
This series includes memoranda, correspondence, and weekly partners and advisers' reports, company publications, accounts of senior staff meetings, and cuttings. Much of the correspondence and memoranda is with Walter Ham; contact that was maintained while Copland was with the Institute of Labour Studies and the Trade Mission to North America. Other correspondents include W.J. Baker and Keith Jamieson. The series also contains a good sample of the economic advice the company made available to its clients. There are issues of Confidential newsletter, Client letter, Investment Service Bulletin, and Investment House Review which includes several articles by Copland.
Personnel Administration Ltd was one of a number of companies which sought Copland's services as an economic adviser following his retirement from the Administrative Staff College in 1959. By December 1960 he was Chairman of Directors. After his work with the Trade Mission to North America and with the International Institute of Labour Studies, he was retained (from February 1962) as an adviser. His main work for P.A. Management Consultants Pty Ltd, as it was known after 1964, was the production of a monthly summary of economic indicators. Between 1962 and 1967 this was called Notes on the economic outlook and from September 1967 to January 1971, Economic notes.
The papers in Series 77 divide into two groups. There is firstly a small group of correspondence, memoranda, records of conversations, and other notes which document something of Copland's work for P.A. The main correspondents are P.A. executives, such as Jack Smith, J. Fletcher, and T.P. Bowman. The longer part consists of copies of the two newsletters, arranged in date order, together with the notes, reports, cuttings, speeches, press releases, and statistics Copland used.
Correspondence about payments for Copland's work as an Economic Adviser is held in Series 4.
Copland was associated with Star Collieries during 1958-1963 and for a time was retained as a consultant. The company's main interest was mining coal for briquettes. Material in the Copland papers on the company has been allocated to Series 78. There are reports, correspondence, minutes, photographs, and publicity brochures. The reports refer to work by the State Electricity Commission Victoria, the Brown Coal Research Laboratory of the University of Melbourne, and the Brown Coal Briquetting Project.
The correspondence is mainly with Star Collieries Managing Director, F.J.K. Steedman, and with the Victorian Premier, H. Bolte. The series also covers a project to develop coal mining at Bacchus Marsh through the subsidiary Australian Rural Resources Development Company and of whose Board Copland was Chairman.
The Urban Land Institute was an organisation of Melbourne land developers with whom Copland was connected as an Honorary Member between 1962 and 1965. This is documented in Series 79 by notices of Annual General Meetings, newsletters, a constitution, and correspondence with an Institute director, W.R. Dawnay-Mould.
For a brief period during 1963 Copland was a director with Cathedral Valley Softwoods Corporation Limited. The corporation, launched by Copland at Softwoods Estate, Thornton, Victoria, was formed to grow trees for paper pulp. The few items on this period form Series 80. It has press releases, photographs, memos, notes, and correspondence with Eric White Associates (Vic.) Pty Ltd and H. Jansen and G. Williams of Cathedral valley.
After he retired from public life in 1961, Copland used a flat in North Melbourne when staying in Melbourne. The flat formed part of a group run by their owners through Hotham Gardens (Block A) Pty Ltd and administered by D.H. Consultants Pty Ltd. As an owner, Copland received circulars, notices of service, and garage charges. They have been collected to form Series 81.
During the mid-1960s, Copland's directorships included the copper ore mining company Jevois Sulphates (N.T.) Limited. He was associated with Jevois through his work for its underwriters, Walter Ham & Co (see Series 76). Series 82 is a very small series that includes some correspondence with Ian Sykes, the National Bank and the Commonwealth Development Bank, and some cuttings.
For a brief interval during 1961, Copland sat on the Board of Directors of Mutual Underwriting and Development Ltd. Series 83 consists of some papers - mostly correspondence, dealing with his resignation from the Board in April 1961 and with the Company's failure to comply with the A.C.T. Company's Ordinance during 1961-1964. The principal correspondents are the A.C.T. Registrar of Companies and the Chairman of Directors, Baron D. Snider.
For a few months between 1963 and his resignation in April 1964, Copland was a Director with the British Australian Oil and Investment Corporation Limited. Series 84 contains a group of papers on the episode. There are some Statements of Account, notes and correspondence with the parent company Trinidad Canadian Oils Ltd, R.S. Longcroft, and Corr & Corr Solicitors.
The Australia Canada Association was formed in 1959 and based in Adelaide. It worked to foster Australian-Canadian relations, sponsored exchange visits, awarded scholarships, celebrated Canada's National Day, and organised Canada Weeks. Copland was a foundation member and Vice Chairman of its forerunner the Australian-Canadian Committee, and as a former High Commissioner to Canada, was one of the A.C.A.'s Patrons. Sir Owen Dixon, another former High Commissioner to Canada and a Canadian High Commissioner, E.W.T. Gill, were Co-Patrons.
Something of Copland's relations with the two groups can be traced in Series 85. It primarily consists of some Association circulars and correspondence with the A.C.A. President Mrs J.M. Harris and the Canadian diplomat T.W.L. MacDermot.
Formed in 1961 the Trade Commissioners' Club was opened to all those who participated in a Government sponsored overseas trade mission since 1954. Copland was associated with the Club by virtue of his leadership of the Trade Mission to North America in 1960. Series 86 is a very small series of papers, largely roneoed circulars, and reminders of meetings recording his membership of the Club between 1961 and 1963.
During the 1960s Copland was associated with the Victorian Employers' Federation (V.E.F.) in several ways. From March 1960 he acted as its Economic Consultant and during the next seven years wrote articles for its publications, including the V.E.F. Service Letter. As a leading figure in the National Council for Balanced Development, the Committee for Economic Development of Australia, and the National Obsolescence Council, he also worked closely with the Federation.
The V.E.F. papers Copland gathered as a consultant form Series 87. They include correspondence with V.E.F. Secretary S.M. Gilmour and Vice President L. Arthur, copies and drafts of articles, 1961-1967, and some Victorian business statistics, 1965-1966. There is also material on two V.E.F. sponsored seminars, the International Congress on Human Relations (May 1965) and Management for Tomorrow - Peter Drucker (1966). A copy of The community development manual, published by the V.E.F. backed Develop Victoria Council in 1965, is also in Series 87.
In addition to the clubs, societies and organisations with which Copland was associated as member, official, or patron and that have warranted separate series, there were a good number of others that he either belonged to or on which he collected material. They are not well documented in the Copland Papers and in many cases only one or two letters are all that exists to indicate Copland's connection with them. This type of ephemeral material constitutes Series 88.
The groups represented are: Australian and New Zealand Congress for International Cooperation and Disarmament; Australian Club; Australian College of Education; Australian Institute of Management; Boobooks; Institute of Public Affairs; Japan-Australia Society; Lady Northcote Permanent Orchestra Trust Fund; Melbourne Club; National Trust of Australia; New Education Fellowship; New Zealand Association; Newcommen Society; St. Duthus Parents' Association; Shillings Club; Town and Country Union; Victorian Society for Crippled Children; Wyvern Society.
Series 89 consists of lists of addresses, names of people to whom Christmas Cards were to be sent, lists of engagements, and cards notifying changes of address. There are also some itineraries. Most items relate to the 1950s and 1960s.
Throughout his life, but in particular at the University of Melbourne, Copland stored his raw material for lectures, articles, addresses, and books in subject files. Often they included correspondence, but normally contained no more than cuttings, printed items, and notes. All of the subject files in the Copland papers as received by the National Library have been arranged alphabetically by title and assembled to form Series 90. An undated list of 'File Headings' matching numbered drawers to particular files begins the series. Only in the few cases where subjects form the basis of other series or subseries, eg. Series 20, have subject files been excluded from Series 90. Subject files made up entirely by newspaper cuttings are in Series 12.
Aborigines, 1953-1956; Accountancy Institutes, 1930-1936; Agricultural education 1917-1924; Agriculture in Primary Industries, 1965-1966; Agriculture, 1933-1939; Aid, 1963-1964; American Trade Commissioner, 1929-1930; Argentine, 1931; Athenaeum Club, 1933; Australian crisis, 1920-1921; Australian currency, 1931; Australian economy 1950-1954, 1956; Australian Institute of Export, 1961-1962; Australian marketing case, 1936; Australian problem, 1937; Austria, 1933; Australian authors - notes
Balance of international payments, 1933-1936; Balance of trade, 1932; Bank of International Settlements, 1931-1933; Banking Commission report, 1938; Banking, currency and exchange, 1918-1937; Banking figures, 1934-1935; Basic wage, 1928-1934; Basic wage, 1937-1938; Basic wage arbitration, 1960-1961; British Association for Commercial Education, 1932; British trade, 1930-1934; Borrowing, 1927-1938; Boobooks; Building
Canada, 1934, 1960; Canada constitution issue, 1926; Canadian economy - general; Central banking, 1925-1938; Central Reserve Bank for Australia, 1930; Child endowment, 1928-1929; Coal, 1930-1932; Colombo Plan aid to underdeveloped countries, 1960-1963; Commercial and industrial organisation, 1922-1929; Commercial education, 1922-1931; Commonwealth and State financiers; Commonwealth Bank, 1925-1936; Commonwealth Bank, 1932; Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission, 1964-1965; Common market, 1960-1962; Company profits, 1932; Crown mines, 1933
Debt adjustment in New Zealand, 1934-1935; Debts, 1934-1935; Debts international, 1925-1931; Defence, 1935-1939; Development Finance Corporation, 1964-1966; Douglas credit, 1932-1926
E.C Dyason, 1926-1934; Economic history; Economic nationalism, 1933; Economic X-ray (Extracts), 1939; Economics, 1958-1961; Education, 1963-1964; Education (see also commercial education), 1928; Equation of exchange, 1923; Exchange and export production, 1932; Exchange rates, 1924-1937; Exchange, devaluation and the price level documents by Gifford.; Exports, 1932, 1960-1961; Export production, 1930-1936; Exports - proposed restriction of, 1934; External debt
Factory employment; Far East, 1920-1928; Farm credit administration, 1934-1936; Farm prices and industrial prices, 1931; Farm relief, 1931-1937; Farmers debts (including Farmers Debt Adjustment Bill, 1935; Committee on Rural Indebtedness); Financial agreement, 1930; Financial relations - State and Commonwealth, 1932-1933; Floating debt, 1933-1935; Forecasting, 1923-1931; France, 1934-1936; Food Research Institute
Germany, 1933-1939; Gold, 1928-1938
Hours of labour, 1922; Housing, 1929-1937, 1957-1960
Index numbers, 1933-1934; Industrial relations, 1925-1937; Interest rates, 1930-1935; Instalment purchasing, 1927-1928; International Chamber of Commerce, 1935; International liquidities, 1963-1964; International relations, 1925-1931; Investments, 1934-1936
Keynes, J.M, 1932
Labour turnover, 1927-1932; Land problem, 1917; Loan Council, 1938
Marketing, 1926-1936; Marketing in Victoria, 1919-1926; Marketing (Mr Whitlam); Meat, 1935-1936; Menzies, Robert Gordon, 1961-1962; Miscellaneous economic material, statistics, 1960s; Monetary policy, 1935-1937
National debt sinking fund, 1927-1937; National income, 1934-1937; Nationalisation, 1925; New Guinea, 1922; New Zealand, 1938-1939, 1959-1963 ; New Zealand economy, 1946-1954; New Zealand exchange, 1927-1935; Netherlands economy, 1948-1953; Niemeyer, Sir Otto, 1932
Ottawa, 1938; Overseas investment
Peace settlements, 1920-1925; Peace treaties, 1919; Political science, 1922; Population, 1939; Population and immigration, 1925-1939; Post-war problems, 1917-1924; Prices 1908-1937; Production, 1929-1931; Public finance, 1927-1934; Public finance. Commonwealth-State relations, 1923-1931; Public finance. Victoria University College; Property and distribution; Public Service
Reparations, 1921-1927; Reparations and war debts, 1928-1934; Restriction, 1933-1934; Restriction of production, 1934-1935; Retail price index numbers, 1930; Road transport etc, 1960; Royal Commission on Water Supply; Rubber, 1934; Rural workers wages; Russia, 1958
Silver, 1933-1936; Social services, 1938-1939; South Australia, 1929-1932; South East Asia, 1966; Statistics - Miss Polglaze, 1933; Sterling, 1932; Stock exchange, 1930-1932; Subsidies on Australian export industries, 1932; Suez, 1956; Sugar; Sweden, 1963
Tasmanian economics and finance, 1919-1924; Tasmanian statistics, 1927; Terms of trade; Textile case, 1938; Tin, 1930; Tobacco, 1931; Trade cycle, 1930-1938; Trade unions, 1922-1924; Transport (Metropolitan), 1964
UK building statistics, 1958-1959; UK economy - general, 1952-1956; UK Government statistics, 1958-1959; USA, 1957-1958; USA Economy, 1953-1954; Underdeveloped countries - notes, 1955-1956; Unemployment, 1928-1939; Unemployment insurance, 1930-1936; Universities
Victorian business conditions, 1931; Victorian finance, 1927; Victorian statistics, 1928-1929
Wage margins, 1959; Wage regulations, 1925; Water, 1965-1966; Wool, 1931-1937; Wool and Wool Inquiry, 1958-1960; Wheat
Apart from the numerous companies, causes, and organisations with which Copland was connected during the 1960s, the collection contains a small number of papers on his attendance at four miscellaneous conferences. They are: Eighth Anniversary Conference of the Rotary Club of Bacchus Marsh, 1963; Albury Regional Promotion Council Meeting, May 1963; Meeting with Bendigo City Council, November 1963; and Wagga Wagga Country Industries Conference, May 1962. The papers comprise mainly correspondence but also include some cuttings and itineraries.
Copland never published an autobiography, although there is some evidence in his papers that he was considering such a project. During his time in Canada he did commit some reminiscences to papers (See untitled paper, stamped 'Confidential,' dated June 1955) and in the 1960s wrote a nine page piece titled 'Problems and people over the years. Notes on the experiences and activities of Douglas Copland'.
Three files of correspondence with publishers of biographical dictionaries kept while in China in the late 1940s, while in Canada in the mid-1950s, and while in retirement constitute the bulk of this series. It also includes some loose correspondence of a similar nature taken from general correspondence, some citations accompanying honorary degrees and second copies of several job applications that contain excellent detail on Copland's early life.
To varying degrees, all other series are relevant to the subject of Series 92.
In recognition of his work during the Depression in 1933 Copland was made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. The official Warrant and Statutes of the Order, together with some congratulatory correspondence, 1967-1970, refers to gatherings of the Victorian members of the Order.
Copland was again honoured in 1950 when he was decorated a Knight of the Order of the British Empire. Series 93 includes some correspondence from the Chancellor of the Orders of the Knighthood, 1956, and the Warrant certifying the honour.
Typescripts, cuttings, reports, notes, printed material, and other papers.
This series comprises additional papers received from the Copland Family between 1977 and 1981. The files overlap with material kept in other series.
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