National Library of Australia
The Braga Papers form a rich resource on the history of European colonisation of East Asia from the 16th century to the mid 20th century. The papers include diaries; correspondence; draft material relating to articles, addresses, books, transcriptions, bibliographies and other writings; personal documents, including licences and certificates; financial and legal papers; business and committee papers; notebooks, notes and catalogue cards; newspapers, newspaper cuttings albums and other printed material; photographs, negatives and microfilm; badges, letter openers and other realia; postcards, stamps and other ephemera.
The bulk of this material documents J.M. Braga's life in Macau, 1924-1946, and Hong Kong, 1946-1966, and his abiding interest in the history of the region. Braga was a passionate collector of manuscripts, books, pictures, maps, newspapers and other works that supported his prolific research and writing activities. Although his primary focus was the history of Portuguese colonisation in East Asia, particularly Macau, Hong Kong and China, his papers also cover such topics as religion, medicine, literature, engineering, economics, geography and language. Braga considered one of the most significant components to be a series of papers relating to World War II, particularly life in Macau and Hong Kong during this period, when Macau was the only neutral port in the region.
In his roles as historian, journalist and author, Braga produced journal articles, newspaper articles, lectures, addresses, books and other publications. Draft material relating to many of these works is included in the collection. Together with Braga's own writings, the papers also feature many transcriptions and translations of historical documents held in various archives and libraries, particularly in Portugal and Macau. A highlight includes material relating to the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' codices from the Biblioteca da Ajuda in Lisbon, particularly Braga's translation of 'Ásia Extrema' by Antόnio de Gouveia.
Braga was an avid bibliographer, compiling or collecting lists of works that supported his historical research and other areas of interest. His exhaustive research notes, the 'A to Z' or 'Biobibliographical index', number thousands of entries and contain biographical and bibliographical information particularly concerning the activities of the Portuguese and other Europeans in East Asia, together with other topics. Another major work in the collection is Braga's 'Luso-Oriental Manual', a study of Portuguese officials and their contemporaries in China from the mid 16th to early 20th centuries.
Braga's activities as a prominent member of the Portuguese communities of Hong Kong and Macau from the 1920s to the 1960s are well-documented. He was involved with numerous clubs and associations such as the Sino-British Club of Hong Kong, the Macao Jockey Club, the Race and Recreation Club of Macao, St Joseph's College Old Boys Association and Hong Kong's Society of St Vincent de Paul. The collection also includes papers relating to various aspects of Braga's business interests, particularly a series of records dating from his time as General Manager of the Companhia das Aguas de Macau (Macau Waterworks Company) from 1934 to 1946.
Braga's close family life is revealed through the collection's correspondence, and his parents, siblings and children are amongst the most prolific correspondents. As well as assorted family papers, the collection features a series of personal papers of Braga's father, J.P. Braga, including material relating to J.P. Braga's book The Portuguese in Hongkong and China (1944), which Braga edited and published following his father's death.
There are also extensive sequences of correspondence relating to Braga's historical work, community activities and business interests. Much of the correspondence includes manuscript or carbon copies of Braga's own letters. Among the principal correspondents are Laurenço O. Aguilar, Luis Menezes Alves, Joaquim Morais Alves, Charles Appel, T.S. Bao, Celestino dos Anjos Barreiros, Pedro Correia de Barros, Edmund Blunden, Geoffrey W. Bonsall, L. Bourdon, Charles Boxer, P. Ramiro Branco, L. Carrington Goodrich, Leo d'Almada e Castro, S.N. Chau, Austin Coates, Peregrino da Costa, Augusto Sá da Costa, Joseph Dehergne, G.B. Endacott, Carlos Estorninho, G.A. Figueiredo, F.J. Gellion, W.L. Gerrard, Carlos Gomes, Luis Gomes, José Eduardo de Mello Gouveia, Eric Halpern, Herbert Hilscher, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Michael Hugo-Brunt, Horace Kadoorie, K.T. Kelly, T.C. Lau, Johannes Laures, Pedro José Lobo, George Mensaert, Francisco Monteiro, João Moraes, Adriano Moreira, Benjamin Videira Pires, John Pownall Reeves, António da Silva Rego, Eduardo Reis, Faustino Reis, John B. Romano, Gustavo U. da Roza, G. Schurhammer, J.C. Silva, Manuel Teixeira, G.M. Toscano, Carlos Wemans and H.A. Wittenbach.
Available for research.
Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.
Items from this collection should be cited as '[Title or description of manuscript item], Papers of J.M. Braga, National Library of Australia, MS 4300, [series/subseries/file number]'.
The bulk of the Braga Collection (including manuscripts, pictures, maps, newspapers, serials, periodicals, monographs and ephemera) was purchased from J.M. Braga in 1966. The component held in the Manuscript Collection at MS 4300 appears to have been formally accessioned as the J.M. Braga Papers in 1975.
Several small additions have been made since the original instalment of papers was received. Most of these additions were transfers to the Manuscripts Collection from other collection areas, including a file of newspaper cuttings in May 1975, a set of microfilm reels in 1984, a file of manuscript material in 1985, lists of the Braga Collection in 1994, and two files of assorted printed material and other papers in 2009. As well, several small additions have been made by members of the Braga family. In 1992, various Braga family members donated a copy of the eulogy and order of service for Augusta Braga's memorial service, and in 2002 Angela Braga donated photographs of medals and decorations awarded to J.P. Braga, together with photocopies of early writings of J.M. Braga and eulogies for J.M. Braga and his grandson Michael Braga.
The Braga Collection was sent to the National Library in several instalments from 1966 to 1967. Upon receipt, the material was distributed to various areas of the National Library, largely according to format. It is unclear what order the Braga Papers were in when they were transferred to the Manuscripts Collection. J.M. Braga worked on the Braga Collection in the Library as a consultant from 1969 to 1972; during this period he provided assistance to staff involved in the initial fileing and boxing of the Braga Papers. A basic list was also prepared.
In 2006, Stuart Braga, academic and nephew of J.M. Braga, requested permission to rearrange the Braga Papers and improve description of the collection. Stuart Braga worked on the collection in 2007, arranging the material into 20 notional series, largely according to subject and format. During this process, some individual items were moved between files, and some items were segregated. Stuart Braga's arrangement of the collection into and within the series groupings has been retained, although the segregated items have been reintegrated with the collection. A concordance has been prepared which correlates the original arrangement with the final arrangement of material in the collection (Appendix A).
From this work on the collection, a revised finding aid has been completed by staff, using information that Stuart Braga provided as the basis for the content descriptions. Content descriptions have been provided for all series, and most series also have a list of the files contained within the series. Some small series have been described at the series level only.
In addition to the J.M. Braga Papers described in this finding aid (MS 4300), the Manuscript Collection holds almost 200 individual manuscripts collected by Braga, which have been separately catalogued (from MS 4301 to MS 4498).
Together with the manuscript components, the Braga Collection also features printed material, maps and pictures. The books, pamphlets and periodicals have been kept together as a formed collection within the Asian Collections. Each work has been assigned an individual call number with a prefix of BRA, BRAq or BRA pam. The newspapers have been integrated into the Newspapers Collection. The maps are held together as a formed collection within the Maps Collection (MAP Braga Collection Col./1-148). The pictorial material, including paintings, drawings, photographs and other works, is held in the Pictures Collection (nla.pic-vn3099673).
Further information about works in the various parts of the Braga Collection is available from the National Library's online catalogue at http://catalogue.nla.gov.au.
Appendix A is a concordance providing the box location of each component of the Braga Papers. The concordance also correlates the current arrangement with previous arrangements of the collection.
Appendix B is an item list of selected articles in Subseries 5.2, prepared by Stuart Braga.
Appendix C is an item list of selected transcriptions in Subseries 12.1, prepared by Stuart Braga.
Appendix D is an item list of photographs in Series 17, prepared by Patrick Robertson (NLA volunteer).
These appendices are linked to this finding aid as separate attachments, refer to the 'Related Documentation' tab.
When the Braga Collection was received by the National Library, most of the printed works were assigned call numbers with a BRA prefix followed by a running number (e.g. BRA 5096). Many of these items have been individually catalogued on the National Library's online catalogue and are held in Asian Collections, except for several publications that form part of the Braga Papers (MS 4300). Where publications in the Braga Papers have been assigned a BRA number, the number has been cited in this finding aid. These publications have not been individually catalogued.
Please note that some of the bibliographical lists, research notes and catalogue cards featured in the Braga Papers cite works with BRA numbers. These mainly refer to works held in Asian Collections.
José Maria (Jack) Braga was born in Hong Kong on 22 May 1897, and died at San Francisco, 27 April 1988. Jack was the second of thirteen children, and the eldest of nine sons of José Pedro Braga and his wife, the Australian-born Olive Pauline (née Pollard). He was educated at St Joseph's College, Hong Kong. He lived in Macau from 1924 until 1946, where he taught English at St Joseph's Seminary from 1924 to 1934, and was General Manager of the Macau Water Company from 1934 until 1946. After World War II he returned to Hong Kong, where he established Braga & Co, a small import-export business. In 1949 Jack was awarded the Cavaleiro da Ordem de S. Tiago da Espada (Knight of the Order of St James of the Sword) by the President of Portugal. He married Augusta Isabel da Luz (born 19 November 1898) in Macau on 30 December 1924, and they had seven children. Augusta Braga died in San Francisco on 14 December 1991.
Jack Braga was keenly interested in the history of the European encounter with East Asia from the 16th century until the mid 20th century, and he set about recording and collecting the history of Macau from the arrival of the first Portuguese voyagers. As well as amassing a large library of books, maps, pictures, newspapers and manuscripts, he set down the minutiae of the historical record, creating a series of files and chronological lists covering events, people and the written record from the 16th to the 20th centuries. In 1937 he began a collaboration with Charles Boxer, a British army officer with similar historical interests. They became life-long friends.
The outbreak of the Pacific War in 1941 led Jack to collect intensively as much of the printed record of wartime Macau as he could, and the result is a unique and detailed collection which he prized greatly. After the war, he moved to Hong Kong, extending his collecting interests to the history of British activity in the Far East. In 1952 he visited Portugal, and embarked on a project of securing transcriptions of the important 'Jesuítas na Ásia' manuscripts in the Ajuda Library, Lisbon. He regarded these manuscripts as the most important part of his collection.
His passion for book collecting and historical research dominated his time and interest. During the 1930s he wrote dozens of brief articles in English and Portuguese, chiefly for local newspapers, and continued this extensive output during the war. By the early 1950s, his output had become more selective, and the collaboration with Boxer brought about an improvement in his scholarship. He produced several scholarly papers, notably 'The beginnings of printing at Macao', Lisbon, 1963.
During the early 1950s Jack came to realise that there was no long-term future for himself and his family in the Far East. In 1952, his three sons were sent to Sydney to complete their schooling. Jack planned to follow them to Australia as soon as arrangements could be made. Political troubles in Hong Kong and Macau hastened his decision, and in 1966, Jack sold his library to the National Library of Australia. For the next two years, he lived in New York, pursuing business interests.
In 1968 Jack moved to Australia, working at the National Library of Australia as a consultant from October 1968 until February 1972. He had set himself the task of translating into English the most important of the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' manuscripts, Bishop Antόnio de Gouveia's 'Ásia Extrema', hoping to prepare it for publication, but was able to finish only three of the six books.
Early in 1972, Jack and Augusta went to San Francisco, where they lived until their deaths. Jack was posthumously awarded the high rank of Grande Oficial, Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique (Grand Officer, the Order of Prince Henry the Navigator).
'Remembering Jack Braga', Review of Culture, no. 5, April/May/June 1988, Instituto Cultural de Macao, pp. 98-103.
José Maria Braga, O Homem e sua Obra, Instituto Cultural de Macau, 1988.
Entry on J.M. Braga in his 'A-Z' research notes (MS 4300, Series 7.2, File 17).
This biographical note is an edited version of a biography prepared by Stuart Braga, 3 June 2008. The full biography is available upon request, together with biographies that Stuart Braga prepared for each of J.M. Braga's siblings (held in the papers of Stuart Braga, MS Acc09.058 and MS Acc10.087).
This series comprises diaries, notebooks and an address book kept by Braga.
The diaries include small pocket diaries, larger bound volumes and loose pages of diary entries. The earliest diary is a single page from a 1916 diary, followed by a 1929 diary, then several diaries from the 1930s and 1940s, many diaries from the 1950s, several from the 1960s and concluding with a 1970 diary. The diary entries include notes on the day's social and business activities, references to events of significance, thoughts on readings, recollections of conversations, lists of purchases and comments on the weather. Coverage of the diaries is sporadic, with only a few containing detailed entries; most feature brief notes or details of appointments, and often large expanses of few or no entries.
The notebooks primarily contain bibliographical notes on or transcriptions of works of interest, as well as chronologies of historical events and associated citations. These bibliographical notes and chronologies relate to the various themes of Braga's interests and research, including history, literature, biography, religion, philosophy and geography. Several of the notebooks date from the period that Braga spent working on his collection at the National Library of Australia, from 1968 to 1972.
Further bibliographical and chronological notes feature in Series 7. Further notebooks are found in Series 6, 10, 11, 13 and 20.
This series has been arranged into five subseries, beginning with a group of personal documents including identity papers, certificates, financial papers, photographs, writings and eulogies. There is a small sequence of correspondence between Braga, his wife Augusta Braga and their children, from the mid-1930s until 1970. This is followed by a larger sequence of correspondence between Braga, his parents and siblings, dating from Braga's move to Macau in the 1920s until 1972. Small groupings of greetings cards and calling cards complete the series.
Close correspondence was maintained by Braga and the Braga family as they gradually emigrated from Hong Kong to Macau, Canada, the United States, England and Australia. As well as family matters such as schooling, health, marriages, births, deaths and moves abroad, there is also documentation of Braga's varied business affairs and community interests, and his strong ties to the Portuguese communities of Hong Kong and Macau. Some of the correspondence also relates to Braga's historical interests and writings.
A small selection of identity documents, licences and certificates, financial papers, photographs, copies of early writings by Braga, eulogies for Braga, Augusta Braga and Michael Braga, and papers relating to the death of Augusta Braga's mother Judith Josefa da Conceição Ozorio da Luz.
Many of the identity documents feature photographs of Braga and Augusta Braga. Among the certificates is Braga's 1915 certification as a Scout Master for the Hong Kong region. The early writings include an issue of Braga's family newsletter, The Braga News, no. 3, 13 August 1910, and his 1924 poem 'The spirit of de Gama', thought to be his first published writing.
Further correspondence with family members is found throughout the collection, particularly Series 4 and 8.
Correspondence, school reports, certificates and newspaper cuttings. The correspondence primarily comprises letters to Braga and Augusta Braga from their children, particularly Carol, Angela, Pedro, Teresa and José Braga, concerning various aspects of family life, including education, travel and careers. Among the certificates is one honouring Braga with the Cavaleiro da Ordem de S. Tiago da Espada (Knight of the Order of St James of the Sword), awarded by the Portuguese Government in 1949.
Personal and business correspondence, particularly between Braga and his parents, J.P. and Olive Braga, as well as his siblings Tony, Clement, Paul, Noel, Hugh, John, Maude, James, Caroline and Mary. Carbon copies or manuscript drafts of many of Braga's own letters are included.
The exchanges date from 1923, following Braga's move from Hong Kong to Macau. After the fall of Hong Kong in World War II, Braga's parents and most of his siblings moved to Macau. At the end of the war, Braga and most of the Braga family returned to Hong Kong, and then various family members moved abroad.
As the correspondence reveals, Braga was particularly close to his father, and was involved in the family's interests and affairs. Family matters such as education, marriage, travel, health and employment are discussed. There is also much correspondence relating to business matters, including Braga's activities as General Manager of the Companhia das Aguas de Macau, J.P. Braga’s work as Chairman and Managing Director of the Hongkong Engineering and Construction Company and Noel Braga's involvement with Hong Kong's China Light and Power Company. There is discussion of political, social and economic matters and events in Macau and Hong Kong, leading up to, during and after the war. Braga's involvement in the Portuguese communities of Macau and Hong Kong is well-documented, and there is some discussion of his writings and historical interests.
Related correspondence is found throughout the collection. Correspondence with family members particularly relating to business matters is in Series 4, while the impact of World War II on the Braga family is further documented in Series 8.
Primarily Christmas cards and birthday cards. The cards are addressed to various Braga family members, from family and friends in Macau, Hong Kong, Australia, England, Canada, China and Italy.
Assorted visiting cards and business cards from friends and business associates of Braga and the Braga family.
Correspondence, including carbon copies or handwritten drafts of many of Braga's own letters, together with drafts of writings, notes, contracts, agreements, receipts and printed material.
There are two sequences of material: general correspondence and papers relating primarily to Braga's historical interests (Subseries 3.1), followed by correspondence with particular individuals and institutions (Subseries 3.2-3.10). These papers reflect Braga's prolific research and writing activities; his interactions and collaborations with other historians and academics from Macau, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia; his involvement with various historical associations, such as the Sino-British Club; and his connections with various organisations and administrations, including his role as official historian to the Government of Macau. There is also documentation of his efforts to acquire items for his library, the eventual sale of the Braga Collection to the National Library of Australia, and the period that he spent working on his collection at the National Library.
Correspondents include the Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa, Joaquim Morais Alves, Celestino dos Anjos Barreiros, Pedro Correia de Barros, Edmund Blunden, L. Bourdon, Charles Boxer, L. Carrington Goodrich, Austin Coates, Peregrino da Costa, Joseph Dehergne, Carlos Estorninho, G.A. Figueiredo, Carlos Gomes, Luis Gomes, José Eduardo de Mello Gouveia, Eric Halpern, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Michael Hugo-Brunt, K.T. Kelly, Shigetomo Koda, T.C. Lau, Johannes Laures, Adriano Moreira, the National Library of Australia, Benjamin Videira Pires, António da Silva Rego, G. Schurhammer, J.C. Silva, the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, Manuel Teixeira and Carlos Wemans.
There is much overlap between this series and other series in the collection, particularly Series 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12.
This subseries contains correspondence, notes, contracts, agreements, receipts and printed material.
These papers document Braga's interactions with scholars, publishers, newspaper editors, government officials and historical, educational and community organisations, primarily in Macau and Hong Kong, but also Portugal, England, France, China, the United States and Japan.
The correspondence largely concerns Braga's research and historical interests, including: the publication of his writings, particularly his book Hong Kong and Macao: a record of good fellowship (1960); arrangements for lectures and addresses; involvement with commemorative events such as Macau's fourth centenary celebrations in 1955; and his efforts to locate, acquire and translate texts relating to Macanese or Portuguese history. There is also correspondence regarding personal and business matters.
Among the main correspondents are the Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa, Joaquim Morais Alves, Celestino dos Anjos Barreiros, Pedro Correia de Barros, L. Bourdon, Charles Boxer, Austin Coates, Peregrino da Costa, Joseph Dehergne, G.A. Figueiredo, Carlos Gomes, Luis Gomes, Eric Halpern, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Shigetomo Koda, T.C. Lau, Johannes Laures, Adriano Moreira, Benjamin Videira Pires, G. Schuhammer, J.C. Silva, the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa and Manuel Teixeira.
Charles Boxer, historian, was stationed in the Far East from 1930 to 1947 while serving with the British Army. During this time he developed a keen interest in Portuguese literature and history, and from this shared interest grew a lifelong friendship with Braga. Boxer became a prisoner-of-war when Hong Kong was occupied by the Japanese in 1941, and during this period Braga saw to the publication of several of Boxer's writings in very small editions in Macau.
Various writings by Boxer are represented in this subseries, particularly The Christian Century in Japan: 1549-1650 (1951) and Race relations in the Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1415-1825 (1963). This series also includes correspondence between Braga and Boxer, printed material, bookplates and related papers.
Stamps for the bookplates included in this series are found in Series 19. Further correspondence with Boxer is found throughout the collection, particularly in Subseries 4.4, 5.2 and 6.1.
Correspondence between Braga and fellow scholar António da Silva Rego, together with notes and related papers. Rego lived in Macau before and during World War II, where he and Braga became close friends. Rego had a significant role in assisting Braga with translating Portuguese texts into English, particularly António de Gouveia's text for 'Ásia Extrema'. The correspondence also concerns Braga's activities while working at the National Library of Australia from 1968-1972, including his involvement with the 28th Congress of Orientalists, held in Canberra in 1971.
Other correspondents include Lourenço O. Aguilar and F. de Carvalho Rêgo. Further correspondence with António da Silva Rego features in Subseries 3.10 and 4.4. Papers relating to 'Ásia Extrema' are found in Subseries 12.3.
A small selection of letters (primarily photocopies) from Joseph Dehergne to Braga, together with a typescript of Dehergne's paper 'Onomasticon Sinese: catalogue des noms Chinois des anciens missionnaires de la Chine et des Européens de leur suite, de 1582 à 1800'. Comprising a list of names and other details of European missionaries in China, Dehergne sent his paper to Braga to assist with the preparation of Braga's 'Luso-Oriental Manual'.
Further papers relating to the 'Luso-Oriental Manual' are found in Subseries 6.3. Correspondence with Dehergne also features in Subseries 3.1 and 4.4.
Comprising letters from Benjamin Videira Pires to Braga. Pires assisted Braga with his archival research on the history of Macau, particularly in locating material about early 18th century officials.
Edmund Blunden, a distinguished poet, was Professor of English at Hong Kong University in the 1960s. He was associated with Braga through the Sino-British Club of Hong Kong. Braga attended Blunden's inaugural lecture at the University, the printed text of which is included in Subseries 5.3.
Together with letters from Blunden to Braga, this subseries includes a copy of Blunden's translation of Lee Lan flies the dragon kite by Ralph Hermanns (1962).
Further correspondence with Blunden features in Subseries 4.4.
Michael Hugo-Brunt, architect, town-planner and architectural historian, corresponded with Braga regarding his research into ecclesiastical architecture in Macau, as part of a wider study of Portuguese colonial architecture. As well as correspondence, this subseries includes a photocopy of Hugo-Brunt's 'Chapter XXXIII The Collegiate Church of St Paul’s', with annotations and accompanying notes by Braga.
Austin Coates was a British civil servant, writer and traveller. This subseries includes correspondence between Coates and Braga, together with a letter from Peter Goullart, mostly regarding Coates' research on various topics. There is also a typescript of Coates' poem 'Macao', and a photocopied typescript of an interview with Coates, c.1988, regarding publication of his book Macao and the British, 1637-1842: prelude to Hongkong (1988).
The National Library of Australia acquired the Braga Collection from Braga in 1966. Braga was employed by the National Library as a consultant, primarily to work on his collection, from 1968 to 1972. This subseries contains correspondence documenting Braga's search for works relating to the history of the Portuguese in Asia, trying to further develop the National Library's holdings in this area. There is also correspondence relating to Braga's research and writing activities during this period, as well as other matters of interest.
Papers more fully documenting Braga's time at the National Library are contained in Series 10.
Correspondence, circulars and other papers relating to arrangements for the inaugural Congregação Geral das Comunidades Portuguesa (Congress of Portuguese Communities), organised by Portuguese statesman and academic Adriano Moreira. The first congress was held in Lisbon in 1964, and a second congress was held in Mozambique in 1967. From these meetings the União das Comunidaes de Cultura Portuguesa (Union of Communities of Portuguese Culture) and the Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa (International Academy of Portuguese Culture) were formed.
Letters of Maria Guardiola, Adriano Moreira, Maria da Paz de Barros Santos and António da Silva Rego are included in this subseries.
This large and wide-ranging series has been arranged into eight subseries, comprising papers relating to Braga's business and community interests prior to World War II, followed by records of the Companhia das Aguas de Macao, then post-World War II material, and then papers relating to Braga's involvement with the Sino-British Club of Hong Kong, the St Joseph's College Old Boys Association, Sir Robert Ho Tung and Hong Kong's Society of St Vincent de Paul. Although primarily relating to Braga's business and community interests during his time in Macau and Hong Kong, there is also substantial material relating to Braga's historical interests.
Papers include correspondence, manuscript and typescript drafts of writings by Braga, notes, circulars, invitations, minutes, reports, memoranda, financial documents, legal documents, plans, photographs, newspaper cuttings and other printed material.
Among the correspondents are Warren Achuck, John Correia Afonso, Laurenço O. Aguilar, Luis Menezes Alves, Charles Appel, Alberto Ares, T.S. Bao, O.D. Barretto, Pedro Correia de Barros, B. Basto, Lee Ben, Edmund Blunden, William Boby, Geoffrey W. Bonsall, Charles Boxer, A.M. Braga, Clement Braga, Paul Braga, P. Ramiro Branco, C.B. Burgess, Cesar Carqueja, Chang Kam Sing, S.W. Cheng, Chow Sin Kum, Daphne Chun, Wei Chung, A.T. Clark, Austin Coates, Albert Cooney, Mário Lopes da Costa, Augusto Sá da Costa, Joseph Dehergne, F.S. Drake, G.B. Endacott, Charles Ferguson, G.A. Figueiredo, Maude Franks, F.J. Gellion, W.L. Gerrard, Luis Gomes, Eric Halpern, Herbert Hilscher, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Cheng Hung, Soame Jenyns, Horace Kadoorie, Johannes Laures, Carlos Leitao, W.G. Let, Pedro José Lobo, George Mensaert, Francisco Monteiro, João Moraes, Adriano Moreira, Henrique Nolasco, W. O'Neill, F. de Carvalho Rêgo, António da Silva Rego, Eduardo Reis, Faustino Reis, John B. Romano, Carlos Roza, Gustavo U. da Roza, Fred Roza, J.H. Ruttonjee, R. Schwab, F.X. Soares, Manuel Teixeira, G.M. Toscano, H.A. Wittenbach and J.M. Xavier.
Further correspondence relating to business matters is found throughout the collection. Material relating to Braga & Co, Braga's import-export business, is found in Series 20.
Papers primarily documenting Braga's business and community interests and activities in Macau from his arrival in 1924 until his return to Hong Kong in 1946.
Braga's early career included working for the Agencia Comercial de Macau, c. 1920s, arranging for the supply of records, gramophones and Edison phonographs from Hong Kong. From 1924-1934 Braga taught English at St Joseph's Seminary in Macau, although there is little documentation of this part of his career in the Braga Papers. From the late 1920s to the early 1930s Braga worked for the Secção da Propaganda (Publicity & Information Bureau) in Macau, and he was the Macau correspondent for the Associated Press, c.1929-1946. From 1934 until 1946 Braga was General Manager of the Companhia das Aguas de Macau, although this work is more fully documented in Subseries 4.2.
Also included are letters to Braga from colleagues, business associates, officials and others, as well as carbon copies of many of Braga's own letters or replies. Frequent correspondents include Charles Appel, O.D. Barretto, B. Basto, A.M. Braga, S.W. Cheng, W.L. Gerrard, Herbert Hilscher, Francisco Monteiro, W. O'Neill, Faustino Reis, J.H. Ruttonjee, Manuel Teixeira and J.M. Xavier, as well as various official bodies including the Conselho de Administração Obras dos Portos de Macau (Macau Port Authority) and the Secretaria Geral do Govêrno da Província de Macau (Secretary General of the Provincial Government of Macau).
Braga was an active member of various community groups and organisations, and minute books of the Macao Jockey Club and the Race and Recreation Club of Macao feature in this subseries. He attended many social and community events, such as dinners for visiting dignitaries, as documented by the invitations and other ephemera included here. There is also personal and family correspondence re various matters, including a sequence of letters with his brother A.M. (Tony) Braga regarding the loss of American aviator W.G. Brophy, who was attempting the first flight between Macau and the Philippines, 1931.
There are manuscript and typescript drafts and other papers relating to Braga's research and writings re various historical, economic, social and other matters, ranging from the history of the Portuguese in Macau, relations between the Portuguese and Chinese communities, foreign investment in Macau, the growth of Macau's population, conditions in Macau during World War II and more. There are also papers relating to the development of Braga's library through the acquisition of books, pictures, maps and other works relating to his historical interests.
Other papers include notes, circulars, reports, memoranda, financial documents, legal documents, plans, photographs, newspaper cuttings and other printed material.
A private venture, Companhia das Aguas de Macao (the Macau Water Works Company or 'Watco') was established in 1930 to supply water to Macau, which had an inadequate water supply with a very small catchment area. Braga was effectively the Companhia's founder, and became its General Manager in 1934. He retained the Companhia's correspondence files, located in this subseries.
A memorandum (File 23) explains the original water works proposal to build a retaining wall enclosing a bay on the relatively undeveloped north-eastern coastline of Macau, which would then be used for water storage. A treatment plant was also to be provided. By 1934, the Companhia had gone into liquidation, but after much effort was recapitalised, and in 1936 the new reservoir and treatment plant were opened. Braga remained General Manager of the Companhia until 1946, when he moved to Hong Kong.
Papers in this subseries include correspondence, reports, speeches, minutes, memoranda, legal documents, financial documents, architectural plans, research material and photographs. Among the correspondents are the Banco Nacional Ultramarino, William Boby, Chang Kam Sing, Chow Sin Kum, Charles Ferguson, G.A. Figueiredo, F.J. Gellion, Carlos Leitao, W.G. Let, Henrique Nolasco, J.M. Noronha, Carlos Roza, Fred Roza, R. Schwab and the Siemens China Co.
Transcripts of speeches at the 1936 opening of the water works are found in Subseries 4.1. Further photographs of the water works are held in the Library's Pictures Collection (nla.pic-vn3099673).
Towards the end of World War II, Braga's father J.P. Braga became keenly interested in the establishment of a technical school in Macau, as a move towards post-war reconstruction in the colony, which had become flooded with refugees from the surrounding region during the war.
A committee for the Escola Technica de Macau was established in 1942, with J.P. Braga as Chair and J.M. Braga as Honorary Secretary. The school opened in early 1945, offering courses in architecture, electricity, air conditioning and refrigeration, accountancy, secretarial practice and Portuguese language. Less than a year later the school had closed, largely influenced by the return of many refugees to Hong Kong.
Issues of staffing, curriculum, funding and government support are documented in this subseries, which features correspondence, minutes, records of expenses and other financial papers, school prospectus, course outlines, lecture notes, enrolment lists, printed material and related papers. Among the correspondents are Pedro Correia de Barros, Pedro José Lobo, João Moraes and F.X. Soares.
Chiefly business correspondence, but also featuring some correspondence relating to Braga's historical interests, his community activities and various personal matters. Other papers include legal, administrative and financial documents, together with printed material and drafts of writings.
Braga moved from Macau to Hong Kong in 1946. The subseries documents conditions in Macau and Hong Kong in the immediate aftermath of World War II, as well as the economic, social and political environment in Hong Kong from the late 1940s until Braga's move to Australia in 1968.
In Hong Kong, Braga established Braga & Co, an import-export company, and there is correspondence with various companies in Macau, Hong Kong, China, the United States, Thailand, Portugal and elsewhere, particularly the J.B. Romano Company, the Dah Cheng Corporation, the South East Asia Trading Company, A. Luzitana Company and the Sociedade Comercial Intermares Lda.
Much of the general correspondence relates to Braga's historical interests, including contact with booksellers, libraries and like-minded researchers regarding the acquisition of materials for his library, and the eventual sale of the library to the National Library of Australia in 1966. There are also papers relating to Braga's family life, including his children's schooling in Hong Kong and abroad, family travels and Braga's plans to move to Australia.
Among the principal correspondents are Warren Achuck, John Correia Afonso, Laurenço O. Aguilar, Luis Menezes Alves, Alberto Ares, T.S. Bao, Lee Ben, Edmund Blunden, Geoffrey W. Bonsall, Charles Boxer, Clement Braga, Paul Braga, P. Ramiro Branco, C.B. Burgess, Cesar Carqueja, Daphne Chun, Wei Chung, A.T. Clark, Austin Coates, Albert Cooney, Mário Lopes da Costa, Augusto Sá da Costa, Joseph Dehergne, F.S. Drake, G.B. Endacott, Maude Franks, Luis Gomes, Eric Halpern, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Cheng Hung, Soame Jenyns, Horace Kadoorie, Johannes Laures, A. Melby, George Mensaert, Adriano Moreira, Jon A. Prescott, F. de Carvalho Rêgo, António da Silva Rego, Eduardo Reis, Faustino Reis, John B. Romano, Gustavo U. da Roza, Ico Silva (?), Manuel Teixeira, G.M. Toscano and H.A. Wittenbach.
Including congratulatory letters regarding Braga's entry into the Ordem de S. Tiago da Espada (Order of St James of the Sword) in 1949.
The Sino-British Club of Hong Kong was established in c.1946 and officially incorporated in 1949, with the aim of promoting cultural and social relations between the various cultural communities of Hong Kong. Braga was a member of the Club, and in 1955 was elected Chair of the History Group. Other groups included Literature, Debating, Drama, Film, Chinese Culture and Music. In 1965 Braga was elected as the Club's Chair.
Papers in this subseries include a minute book for 1948-1959, the memorandum of association, correspondence, circulars and a typescript draft of Braga's talk 'Portugal's Day'. Correspondents include Peter Bishop, Brother Cassian, Herbert Clarke, Douglas Crozier, G.B. Endacott and D.G. Jeaffreson.
Established in 1875, St Joseph's College is the oldest Catholic boys' secondary school in Hong Kong. Braga, his eight brothers and their father, J.P. Braga, all attended the College. J.P. Braga was a founding member and Honorary Secretary of a short-lived Old Boys Association in 1914, and its first President when it was revived in 1926.
Papers include the memorandum of association, a membership list, membership application forms, circulars, booklets and related material.
Sir Robert Ho Tung (1862-1956), a prominent Hong Kong businessman and philanthropist, was a close friend of both Braga and his father J.P. Braga. This small subseries comprises correspondence, photographs of Sir Robert and Braga, newspaper cuttings and related papers.
The correspondence is primarily between Braga and Sir Robert, as well as several letters to Braga from E.S.K. Ho Tung and Elsie Chung, and largely concerns family matters, including Braga's daughters' education. There is also some discussion of Braga's historical research and writings, and correspondence relating to Braga's assistance with translating letters between Portuguese and English.
Further correspondence with Sir Robert is found in Subseries 3.1, 4.4, 8.1 and 13.1.
Braga was a member of the Society of St Vincent de Paul in Hong Kong, which celebrated its centenary in 1963. This small subseries includes meeting agenda and minutes, a 1963 Centenary Souvenir booklet, the 1962-1963 annual report and an annotated typescript speech from the 1963 annual meeting.
Comprising correspondence, manuscript and typescript drafts, notes, memoranda, transcriptions of historical documents and other research material, photographs and negatives, newspaper cuttings and other printed material. These papers are arranged into four subseries: writings relating primarily to the Far East; writings relating primarily to Macau; writings relating primarily to Hong Kong; and writings relating to various topics.
The writings include newspaper and journal articles, addresses and letters to editors, mostly by Braga. He wrote some pieces under pseudonyms, most commonly "J.A.K." or "J.A. Kollard" (based on Braga's mother's maiden name of Pollard). Most of Braga's writings concerned the history and culture of Macau and Hong Kong, although some ranged more broadly across the general history of European contact with the Far East. There are writings on Portuguese history, literature and exploration, including individuals such as Prince Henry the Navigator and the poet Luis de Camões; life in Macau during World War II; relations between Macau and other countries in the region, including China, Hong Kong and Japan, as well as with those with interests in the region, such as Britain and the United States; and the work of Christian missionaries in Asia, particularly the Jesuits. Braga's interests were not confined to historical study; many writings are concerned with efforts to promote tourism and economic development in Macau. Some of his earliest publications were Macau tourist guides.
The correspondence is minimal, and largely concerns the publication of Braga's writings. Among the correspondents are Luis Menezes Alves, Charles Boxer, F.J. Gellion, Herbert Hilscher, H. Noronha, Thos. Cook & Son and the Union Middle School.
Manuscript and typescript drafts of articles, addresses and other writings, together with notes, research material and newspaper cuttings, primarily relating to the general history of European contact with the Far East. A number of the addresses were delivered by Braga while on business trips to Portugal and Japan.
Correspondence, manuscript and typescript drafts, notes, research material, photographs, negatives, printed material and other papers, relating to articles, addresses and other writings by Braga and others.
The writings range across a variety of topics, largely focussed on Macau, including Macau's history, administration of the colony, the role of the Catholic Church, ecclesiastical architecture, the social and economic situation during the Great Depression of the early 1930s, the impact of World War II on Macau and the region, tourism and opportunities for economic development.
Among the small selection of correspondence are letters relating to publication of various works, as well as arrangements for addresses at various gatherings or events. Correspondents include Luis Menezes Alves, Charles Boxer, F.J. Gellion, Herbert Hilscher, H. Noronha, Thos. Cook & Son and the Union Middle School.
The substantial selection of photographs and negatives primarily relate to two series of articles planned by Braga, one on Macau's churches, and the other on Macau's archives. Macanese street scenes, buildings, social occasions, people (including J.M. Braga) and other aspects of life in Macau are depicted in these images.
A list of selected items in Files 1, 2, 17 and 21 has been prepared by Stuart Braga (Appendix B).
Typescript drafts and printed material relating to various activities and interests during Braga's time in Hong Kong from 1946 until 1966, including such topics as the role of the Portuguese in Hong Kong, and economic development of the colony.
Manuscript and typescript drafts, notes and research material, ranging from an early piece written by Braga in 1927 relating to Britain's Royal Navy, to lectures that Braga delivered while living in Australia from 1968 to 1972, speculating on the role of Portuguese in discovery and exploration of Australia.
Comprising correspondence, draft material, printed material and related papers, which has been arranged into three groups. There is draft material and other papers relating to various publications edited or authored by Braga, including several guidebooks to Macau. Then there are papers relating to Braga's work on 'Jesuítas na Ásia', a collection of some 9000 documents held by the Biblioteca da Ajuda (Lisbon) connected with the work of the Jesuits in Asia. Finally, there are papers relating to Braga's 'Luso-Oriental Manual', a detailed handbook of significant Portuguese officials, missionaries and their contemporaries in Asia between the 16th and early 20th centuries, covering the era of Portugal's dominance of trade and missionary activities in the region.
Among the correspondents are Charles Boxer, Sir Alexander Grantham, Hong Kong University Press, John Keswick, Dorothea Scott, G.A. Smith and H. Vetch.
There is substantial overlap between the material in this series and related papers in Series 4, 5 and 12.
Correspondence, manuscript and typescript drafts, galley and page proofs, notes, notebooks, photographic material, research material and printed material. The papers relate to various publications with which Braga was involved, either as an author, transcriber or editor. It appears that some of these works were never published.
Some of Braga's earliest writings were guidebooks for Macau, perhaps arising from his work with Macau's Secção da Propaganda (Publicity & Information Bureau) from the 1920s to the 1930s. In 1951 Braga edited a special English-language supplement of the colony's main Portuguese newspaper, Noticias de Macau, and copies of this issue are included here. Later works documented in this subseries relate to Braga's interests in the history of Macau, trade in the region, the Jesuits and Portuguese exploration, Macau's economy and the Portuguese language.
Among the correspondents are Charles Boxer, Sir Alexander Grantham, Hong Kong University Press, John Keswick, Dorothea Scott, G.A. Smith and H. Vetch, primarily re publication matters. The Boxer sequence also concerns the sale of Boxer's considerable library to the University of Indiana in 1966.
Correspondence regarding Braga's work with the Secção da Propaganda is included in Subseries 4.1. Further correspondence with Charles Boxer is found in Subseries 3.2, 4.4 and 5.2.
'Jesuítas na Ásia' is a collection of some 9000 codices held in the Biblioteca da Ajuda, Lisbon, comprising writings by Jesuit priests relating to their work in Asia. Braga initially collaborated with Charles Boxer regarding research on the collection, and in 1939 an article by them was published in the Boletim Eclesiastico da Diocese de Macau (no. 428). Over the next few decades Braga continued with his research, obtaining copies of many items, transcribing these works, and developing a catalogue of the collection. He expanded his collection of transcripts during a trip to Portugal in 1952. Braga's catalogue of the collection was published in c.1970.
This subseries features manuscript and typescript transcriptions, notes, notebooks and other draft material. A useful summary of Braga's work on the codices is included in File 3.
Further papers relating to Braga's work on 'Jesuítas na Ásia' is found throughout the collection, particularly in Series 4, 5 and 16. Transcripts of codices from the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' collection, particularly 'Ásia Extrema', are found in Series 12. Copies of many documents from the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' collection are also held separately to the Braga Papers at MS 4498 (Documents relating to the Jesuits in Asia).
Comprises photocopied manuscript and typescript drafts, notes and other research material for Braga's unpublished 'Luso-Oriental Manual'.
This exhaustive work is a list of principal officials and missionaries associated with Portuguese interests in the Far East, including Macau, China, Malacca, Japan and India. Focussing on the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the manual covers the era of Portugal's dominance of trade and missionary activities, and is organised into four parts: Portuguese administration; Asian potentate and administrators; Church hierarchy; and British officials in the Far East.
Further papers relating to the 'Luso-Oriental Manual' are found in Subseries 3.4 and 5.2.
There are four sequences of files within this series: a small group of early research notes; Braga's later 'General File' or 'A to Z'; his 'Special File' sequence; and three historical chronologies. Mainly comprising handwritten notes and citations, the files also feature some typescript notes, together with occasional cuttings of printed material and related papers.
The first set of early research notes, arranged alphabetically by topic, is a precursor to Braga's far more extensive 'A to Z' set of research notes. It appears that Braga began his practice of writing meticulous notes on historical topics that caught his interest soon after moving from Hong Kong to Macau (1924). These notes were placed in a ring arch file equipped with leather tabs; soon filling this file, he abandoned it, and continued the 'A to Z' in an extensive number of ring arch binders over the next forty years.
In addition to his 'A to Z', Braga created several 'Special Files' relating to five major research interests: Chinnery, Hong Kong, Macau, Malacca and Newspapers. These files were kept separately from the 'A to Z', probably as they were too large to be taken into the main body of his research notes. Braga also prepared three substantial and separate chronologies of significant events in world history and the history of the Far East, particularly focussing on events relating to Portugal, Macau and China.
Further bibliographical notes and chronologies of historical events are featured in the notebooks in Series 1. A number of the works cited in the research notes and notebooks as belonging to Braga are now held in the National Library's print collection.
Filed in alphabetical order by topic, as kept by Braga. The file titles are based on the first and last entries in each file. The research notes include biographical and bibliographical information on people, places and topics of interest to Braga and his historical research. It appears that this sequence of notes is an early version of his more substantial 'General File' or 'A to Z' in Subseries 7.2.
Braga's 'A to Z' is a set of 'biobibliographical' research notes that he compiled to support his diverse range of historical interests – principally the study of the history and development of Macau, Hong Kong and the region, but also general scholarship, including philosophy, astronomy, geography, medicine, science and religion. These notes formed a vade mecum that was in constant use throughout Braga's long career as a researcher, writer and public speaker.
Braga's focus was primarily (but not exclusively) biographical, and it is here that his 'A to Z' is at its strongest. The notes on early Portuguese involved in Far Eastern affairs are of particular value. His general approach to a subject was to give a thumbnail sketch of a career, often noting any relevance to Macau, and adding detailed bibliographical information for any relevant publications.
The 'A to Z' was compiled over a period of some forty years, appearing to have commenced in the early 1930s. Braga seems to have added few entries to the 'A to Z' during war years, particularly 1942-1945. He set to work again vigorously after World War II, and the index grew to some 8000 pages, greatly augmented during a visit to Lisbon in 1952. Occasional additions were made while Braga was working in the National Library of Australia, particularly from 1968-1970. At that time he also re-read and added annotations to earlier entries.
Most entries are in English. The usual length is a single quarto page, neatly written in Braga's miniscule handwriting, but some are much longer. Other entries in the 'A to Z' are less comprehensive, with some notes comprising a single bibliographical citation. The entries are arranged alphabetically by topic, as kept by Braga. The file titles are based on the first and last entries in each file.
The 'Special File' sequence comprises several files of research notes probably separated out from Braga's 'A to Z' due to their size. Most of these notes were compiled in the 1930s apart from a sequence on notes on events in Macau during World War II.
The Macau files contain notes on the history of Macau, together with a lengthy article on many aspects of Macau's geographical situation, population, economy, government and religion. The newspaper files feature a detailed review of the Macau press from the early 19th century until the early 20th century, as well as notes on newspapers in Hong Kong, Portugal and elsewhere. The remaining 'Special File' topics relate to Malacca, Hong Kong and the artist George Chinnery, the latter possibly dating from Braga's work in assisting with research for an exhibition of Chinnery's paintings in Hong Kong (date unknown).
Comprising three sequences of chronological notes relating to the history of Portugal, the Far East and Macau in particular. Most entries contain notes of significant events, together with extracts from various sources and accompanying citations. This material is undated.
During World War II, Macau occupied a unique position as the only neutral port in the region. Thousands of refugees fled to Macau during this time. Braga assembled a comprehensive record of the period, including correspondence, notes, notebooks, manuscript and typescripts drafts of writings, reports, minutes, memoranda, maps, ephemera, newspapers and other printed material. This material provides a record of the situation, particularly in Macau and Hong Kong, including the lead-up to World War II, the operations of allied service agencies, the evacuation of refugees, the impact of the war on daily life in Macau, the treatment of military prisoners and civilian internees, and plans for post-war rehabilitation and recovery in Hong Kong.
Among the correspondents are A. el Arculli, Pedro Correia de Barros, Cesar Pereira Batista, A.M. Braga, Carol Braga, James Braga, J.P. Braga, Noel Braga, Olive Braga, L.R. Brown, Leo d'Almada e Castro, S.N. Chau, E. Cheung, Albert Cooney, J.T. Cotton, Maude Franks, M.H. Gutterres, Mário Horácio Gracias, Sir Robert Ho Tung, J.M. Hutcheson, K.I. Joelsohn, Bessie Lum, Vaughn F. Meisling, Francisco Monteiro, H. O'Brien, Albano Rodrigues de Oliveira, W. O'Neill, John Pownall Reeves, Shozo Saito, En Sai Tai, H.A. Wittenbach and Harry Wong.
This series has been arranged into three subseries, beginning with papers relating to World War II, then issues of The Clarion newspaper, followed by notebooks of J.C. Britto. Further papers relating to World War II are found in Series 2, 5, 7 and 18.
[30 files + 5 notebooks]
Including correspondence, postcards, telegrams, notes, manuscript and typescripts drafts of broadcast scripts and news summaries, reports, minutes, memoranda, photographic material, newsletters, newspapers, press releases, maps, invitations, ration cards and other ephemera. This material documents events leading up to World War II, the impact of the war on daily life in Macau and Macau's administration, activities of allied secret service agents in Macau, the evacuation of refugees to Macau and Braga's activities during this period as a prominent member of Macau's Portuguese and English-speaking communities.
As well as writing news reports for Reuters and the Associated Press during this period, Braga gave a series of weekly radio broadcasts from June 1941 to December 1942 via the Macao Radio Club's station CR-8-AA. Scripts of these broadcasts cover such topics as current events, book reviews and matters of historical interest.
Correspondence relates to arrangements for various Braga family members to evacuate to Macau, and reveals the hardships of life in Hong Kong's Stanley Internment Camp, where Braga's sister Maude and her husband Eric Franks were interned. Other correspondence documents Braga's involvement with various groups concerned with the plight of refugees in Macau, including the activities of the Tsin Shan Refugee Relief Association (later the Macao Refugee Relief Committee).
Later papers relate to the post-war period in Macau and Hong Kong, including several files relating to Braga's membership of a committee led by the British Consul John Pownell Reeves, which was established in 1944 with the aim of developing a detailed plan for the post-war rehabilitation of Hong Kong. Looking at aspects of employment, education, rations and the provision of basic services, the group prepared a report 'A cursory study of a proposed scheme whereby it is thought assistance might be rendered to the British Authorities in the Rehabilitation of Hong Kong', however the group's plan was not implemented.
Among the correspondents are A. el Arculli, Pedro Correia de Barros, Cesar Pereira Batista, A.M. Braga, Carol Braga, James Braga, J.P. Braga, Noel Braga, Olive Braga, L.R. Brown, Leo d'Almada e Castro, S.N. Chau, E. Cheung, Albert Cooney, J.T. Cotton, Maude Franks, M.H. Gutterres, Mário Horácio Gracias, Sir Robert Ho Tung, J.M. Hutcheson, K.I. Joelsohn, Bessie Lum, Vaughn F. Meisling, Francisco Monteiro, H. O'Brien, Albano Rodrigues de Oliveira, W. O'Neill, John Pownall Reeves, Shozo Saito, En Sai Tai, H.A. Wittenbach and Harry Wong.
Further radio scripts and articles written by Braga and others regarding life in Macau during World War II are found in Subseries 5.2. Notes on significant events in the Far East during World War II are included in Braga's historical chronologies in Subseries 7.4. Other historic postcards are located in Series 18, and further family correspondence is found in Series 2.
The Clarion was the English-language supplement of Religião e pátria, a periodical produced by the Catholic Church in Macau. Braga helped establish the supplement to cater for Macau's large English-speaking refugee population.
This subseries comprises an incomplete set of issues of The Clarion, Volume I, Issues 1-12 and Volume II, Issues 1, 4-7.
J.C. Britto was a member of the Portuguese community in Shanghai before the war. It appears that he arrived in Macau following the Japanese occupation of Shanghai in 1937. This subseries comprises a sequence of notebooks kept by Britto from 15 June 1939 until 8 August 1945. These contain detailed entries on life in Macau during the war, as well as other matters of interest. There are some documents inserted in pages of the notebooks, primarily press cuttings and other printed material.
J.C. Britto's article 'On Macao' is found in Subseries 5.2.
Primarily comprising Library bulletins and lists of Library acquisitions during the 1960s, together with other miscellaneous printed material relating to the University. This material reflects Braga's association with the University of Hong Kong, which was influenced by his friendship with Geoffrey W. Bonsall, the University's Deputy Librarian.
In 1962 Braga presented a paper at a symposium for the University's Golden Jubilee Congress, 'The cultural impact of Macao upon the Far East'. Copies of all papers presented at the symposium are held in this series.
Correspondence between Braga and Bonsall features in Series 4 and 11.
[5 files + 6 boxes]
In 1966 Braga sold his considerable collection of manuscripts, pictures, newspapers, serials, periodicals, monographs and ephemera to the National Library of Australia. The Braga Collection was delivered to the National Library in several instalments from 1966 to 1967, and was distributed across the various collection areas, largely according to format. Braga was employed by the National Library as a consultant to work on his collection from December 1968 until January 1972.
This series includes some documentation of the material that the National Library acquired from Braga, particularly numerous lists of works in the Braga Collection. There are also several sequences of catalogue cards, some in Braga's hand. Most of the catalogue cards appear to document works offered by Braga to the National Library. Other catalogue cards contain citations for various works, possibly relating to Braga's historical interests and bibliographies.
During his time at the National Library, Braga was involved with various Library activities such as advising on new acquisitions and assisting with exhibitions of material from the Braga Collection. He also participated in several seminars and conferences, and this series includes the text of Braga's 'Talk to the Institute of Cartographers, Canberra. 6 May 1971' and 'Why Macao?', together with two papers that he delivered at the 28th International Congress of Orientalists in 1971, 'Father Thomas Pereira, SJ, a hero of the Christian Missions in China' and 'Asia Extrema by Father Antonio de Gouveia, SJ'.
There is correspondence, notes, notebooks, memoranda, typescript drafts of addresses and other writings, financial documents, a photograph, newspaper cuttings, printed material, ephemera and catalogue cards. Among the correspondents are Michael Cooper, J.S. Gregory, Jeffrey Grossman, K.T. Kelly, Marion Linley, Liu Ts'un-yan, Colin Mackerras, Laurence A. Noonan, Paul Rule, Glen Sanders, Harold White and Max Wood.
Further correspondence relating to Braga's time at the National Library is found in Subseries 3.3, 3.9 and 4.4. Catalogues of the Braga Collection also feature in Subseries 11.3.
[15 files + 2 boxes]
Braga was an avid bibliographer, compiling or collecting lists of works that supported his historical research and other areas of interest. This series includes manuscript and typescript notes, bibliographies and other writings, together with some related correspondence and printed material. The material is organised into three subseries: bibliographies that Braga collected; bibliographies that he compiled; and catalogues of his collection of books, manuscripts and other works, which formed the Braga Collection acquired by the National Library of Australia in 1966.
The main correspondent is Geoffrey W. Bonsall, Hong Kong University's Deputy Librarian, who provided Braga with information on works of interest, and collaborated with him on a bibliography of the history of medicine in Hong Kong. Two other major bibliographical works by Braga are represented - his bibliography of resources relating to the history of Macau, and the bibliographies that he prepared for the Hong Kong Government's annual reports.
Bibliographies collected by Braga relate to various topics of interest, including Hong Kong, Portuguese journals and China. Braga drew on these and his own bibliographies when compiling his extensive research notes in Series 7.
In addition to the bibliographies featured here, there are several bibliographies compiled by Braga that have been catalogued separately to the Braga Papers (MS 4466 for example).
Comprising manuscript, typescript and roneoed typescript notes and lists, this small subseries features several bibliographies collected by Braga. These bibliographies primarily relate to Hong Kong, Portuguese journals and China. In particular, Henri Cordier's Bibliotheca sinica: Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages relatifs à l'Empire chinois appears to have been heavily used by Braga in compiling his 'A to Z' research notes (Subseries 7.2), as these notes include frequent references to Cordier numbers.
Manuscript and typescript notes, bibliographic citations and drafts of writings, together with some correspondence, printed material and related papers, primarily comprising working papers for three of Braga's major bibliographical projects.From the early 1930s, Braga began compiling his extensive 'Bibliography of Macau', which was never published. In the early 1960s, Braga worked with Geoffrey W. Bonsall, Deputy Librarian of the Hong Kong University Library, to prepare 'A contribution to the bibliography of medicine in Hong Kong' ; although there is correspondence with Bonsall and the Hong Kong University Press, it is unclear whether this work was ever published. Sometime after his move to Hong Kong in 1946, Braga began compiling the bibliography for the Hong Kong Government's Hong Kong Annual Report; the 1962 and 1964 bibliographies are particularly well-represented.
Manuscript, typescript and photocopied typescript catalogues prepared by Braga for his extensive collection of books, manuscripts and other works. Beginning in the early 1930s, Braga made note of selected works that he had acquired as well as desiderata. From the 1960s, the catalogue became more comprehensive as Braga contemplated selling his collection to one of several interested institutions. In 1966, Braga sold the collection to the National Library of Australia, and the final catalogues in this subseries appear to have been used by staff involved in accessioning the material upon its receipt by the Library.
Further catalogues of the Braga Collection feature in Series 10.
Manuscript, typescript, photocopy, microfilm and photographic copies of historical documents, primarily relating to the history of the Portuguese in Asia.
Much of Braga's historical research involved obtaining, transcribing and translating copies of historical documents from libraries and archives, particularly Portuguese institutions such as the Biblioteca da Ajuda (Ajuda Library), the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa (Lisbon Geographic Society), the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (Overseas Historical Archive) and the Arquivo Naçional da Torre do Tombo (Portuguese National Archives).
These letters, reports and other documents were mainly written by government officials and missionaries, and primarily originated from Portuguese colonies such as Macau, Goa and Malacca, as well as China. Most of the documents are in Portuguese, and date from the 16th to the 20th centuries, although for many the date that they were transcribed by Braga is unknown.
The series has been arranged into three subseries: manuscript and typescript transcriptions of historical documents; microfilm and photographic copies of historical documents; and manuscript and typescript transcriptions of the 'Ásia Extrema' codex.
Further papers relating to transcriptions, including correspondence regarding the process of locating, transcribing and translating these documents, is found throughout the collection, particularly Series 3, 5, 6, 7 and 16.
[48 files + 17 reels]
Manuscript and typescript copies of various historical documents, primarily relating to the history of Portuguese exploration and colonisation in the Far East. Many of these documents are from the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' (Jesuits in Asia) collection of codices held in the Biblioteca da Ajuda in Lisbon, as well as from other Portuguese libraries and archives.
The transcribed documents date from the 16th century to the 20th century, and include letters and reports from government agencies in the Portuguese colonies, Jesuit missionaries working in China and Japan, and articles from various newspapers in Macau, Goa, Hong Kong, China, the United States of America and the Philippines. An item list of selected transcriptions in this subseries has been prepared by Stuart Braga (Appendix C).
Further papers relating to transcriptions are found in Series 3, 5, 6, 7 and 16.
This small subseries comprises copies of various documents from Portuguese archives, including the Biblioteca da Ajuda (Ajuda Library), the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa (Lisbon Geographic Society) and the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (Overseas Historical Archive). The bulk of the copies are on microfilm, together with three packets of photographic prints made from the microfilm copies. The date that these copies were made is not known. Please note that the microfilm copies are not able to be viewed on a microfilm reader for preservation reasons.
[17 reels + 3 files]
'Ásia Extrema' (Farthest Asia) by Bishop Antόnio de Gouveia is a codex from the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' collection held in the Biblioteca da Ajuda (Lisbon). Braga considered it to be "...one of the most important of the documents in the collection". He noted that "...it is a fine history of China, rich with detail of what was happening in China during the last few years of the Ming Dynasty, based on reports by Jesuit priests."
This subseries comprises typescript transcriptions of the text of 'Ásia Extrema' in Portuguese (Files 1-16) and the manuscript of Braga's translation of the text into English (Files 17-24) Much of the manuscript of Braga's translation is in the form of photocopies; the location of the original manuscript from which the photocopies were made is unknown. Braga's manuscript was not published.
Related correspondence is found throughout the Braga Papers, particularly exchanges with L. Carrington Goodrich and António da Silva Rego (Subseries 3.3 and 3.9). Notes and working papers used by Braga in his translation of the text are found in the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' papers in Subseries 6.2.
José Pedro Braga, father of J.M. Braga, was born in Hong Kong on 3 August 1871, youngest son of Vicente Emilio and Carolina Maria Braga. Vicente Braga moved to Japan to work as the Chief Accountant at the Imperial Mint, Osaka, when J.P. Braga was an infant. J.P. Braga was brought up in the household of his maternal grandfather, Delfino Noronha.
J.P. Braga attended St Joseph's College in Hong Kong and St Xavier's College and Roberts College in Calcutta, where he received the College's Gold Medal in 1889. He then returned to Hong Kong, where he worked at his grandfather's printing business, Noronha & Co, until 1900. During this time he became active in public affairs and began his writing career. In 1895, his book The rights of aliens in Hongkong was published. On 5 May 1895 he married Olive Pauline Pollard, who was born in 1870 in Launceston, Tasmania, and had been a member of the Pollard Liliputian Opera Company. They had 13 children.
J.P. Braga was manager of the Hongkong Telegraph from 1902 to 1910. He became the Hong Kong agent of Reuter's news agency from 1906 to 1931. From 1910 he ran his own printing business, J.P. Braga & Co, becoming a leader of the Portuguese community in Hong Kong. He was President of Club Lusitano and Patron of the Portuguese Company of the Hong Kong Volunteers. He was appointed Comendador da Ordem de Cristo (Commander of the Order of Christ) in recognition of his work on the behalf of the Macau government in resolving a border dispute with China. From 1929 to 1937 J.P. Braga served as the first Portuguese member of the Hong Kong Legislative Council, and in 1935 he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In 1941, his book Portuguese pioneering: a hundred years of Hong Kong was published as part of the colony's centenary commemorations. According to Stuart Braga, "This book was the culmination of what had been a 50 year struggle to assert for his community equality of rights and equality of opportunity in a social, commercial and legal environment not always conducive to it."
In December 1941, Hong Kong was occupied by the Japanese, and in June 1942 J.P. Braga sought refuge in Macau, living with J.M. Braga until his death on 12 February 1944.
This series includes correspondence, draft material, notebooks, memoranda, legal documents printed material, certificates and other papers. There are three subseries: a sequence of personal documents and papers, followed by several issues of J.P. Braga's journal Odds and Ends, and finishing with draft material for his book The Portuguese in Hongkong and China (1944).
Further correspondence and other papers relating to J.P. Braga are included in Series 2, 4 and 8. Articles relating to J.P. Braga's public life feature in the newspaper cuttings albums in Subseries 14.1.
Chiefly personal correspondence and documents relating to various appointments and honours, including J.P. Braga's appointment to the Hong Kong Legislative Council in 1929, and his receipt of the Order of the British Empire in 1935. There are business papers, primarily relating to a proposed housing scheme in Kowloon in the 1920s. The printed material includes an address delivered by J.P. Braga at St Joseph's College Golden Jubilee Celebrations in 1926, and other writings by him including newspaper articles. There are also papers relating to J.P. Braga's death in 1944, including condolence letters and signatures of those who attended his funeral.
Among the correspondents are A.C. Botelho, P. Ramiro Branco, R.A. Dastur, A.J. d'Eca, E.J. Figueiredo, Sir Robert Ho Tung, Lam Chi Fung, Richard Look, Arthur A. Lopes, Rhoda Reeves, C.A. da Roza, E.A. da Silva and Henrique Nolasco da Silva.
Odds and ends: an illustrated journal was a bi-monthly periodical published by J.P. Braga in Hong Kong from 1896 to 1897, offering comment on current affairs. This subseries comprises three issues: Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1897 (photocopy only); and two copies of Vol. 1, No. 4, May 1897. A complete set of the periodical is available in the National Library's print collection (BRA pam 340).
Following his arrival in Macau as a refugee from Hong Kong in 1942, J.P. Braga began writing a history of the Portuguese in Hong Kong and China, with encouragement and assistance from his son J.M. Braga. When J.P. Braga died on 12 February 1944, 12 of the proposed 26 chapters had been completed. J.M. Braga edited these chapters, which he then privately published as The Portuguese in Hongkong and China: their beginning, settlement and progress during one hundred years (1944).
This subseries comprises draft and research material for the book, including incomplete chapters that were not published in the 1944 edition. There are chapter outlines, manuscript drafts, heavily annotated typescript drafts, notes and research material, including a set of notebooks compiled by J.M. Braga on various topics.
Copies of the 1944 edition are held in the National Library's print collection (BRA 2831, BRA 2832, BRA 2833 and BRA 3064), together with a 1998 reprint (YYq 951.26 B813).
This series comprises newspaper cuttings albums and files of loose cuttings. This material has been arranged into nine subseries, beginning with the albums (14.1), followed by files of loose cuttings arranged according the region to which they primarily relate (14.2-14.8), finishing with loose cuttings relating to various topics (14.9).
Most of the albums were compiled by Braga from the 1920s until the 1940s, and these principally concern social, economic and political issues relating to Hong Kong and Macau, but topics such as other Portuguese colonies, China, general history and literature are also covered. One album is largely devoted to reporting on the public life of Braga's father, J.P. Braga. Articles by Braga and his father feature in the albums.
The loose cuttings cover the regions of Hong Kong, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Japan, Portugal and Portuguese colonies, including social, economic and political issues, history, geography, World War II and other matters. Many of the files of loose cuttings were added to by Braga during his time at the National Library from 1968-1972.
As well as newspaper cuttings, this series also includes some typescript transcripts of articles, together with some ephemera.
Various newspapers are represented in the cuttings, including the South China Morning Post, the China Mail, A voz de Macau, Noticias de Macau, the Hongkong Telegraph, the Hongkong Tiger Standard, the Hong Kong American, The Literary Digest, the San Francisco Chronicle, The Age and The Canberra Times.
Further newspapers and newspaper cuttings feature throughout the collection, particularly Series 15. Notes on newspapers in Macau, Hong Kong, Portugal and elsewhere are included in Braga's 'Special File' (Subseries 7.3).
[66 files + 47 albums]
Featuring newspaper cuttings, together with some typescript articles and ephemera, as well as a loose supplement to The Times.
This comprehensive collection of cuttings was compiled by Braga over several decades, and offers a rich resource for the study of current events of the period, social, economic and political issues in the region, activities of J.P. Braga and other members of the Braga family, as well as the history of the Portuguese in Asia. Some of the articles featured in the albums were written by Braga and his father.
The albums were assigned BRA numbers and titles, and these have been used as a basis for the description below. The content of the albums overlaps with the loose cuttings in Subseries 14.2-14.8.
[47 albums + 1 file]
Loose cuttings primarily relating to Macau as well as Hong Kong, covering such topics as economic and political issues, history, health, education, crime and piracy.
Loose cuttings relating primarily to Hong Kong, covering historical, social and economic aspects including Hong Kong's Governors, agriculture, textiles and trade.
Loose cuttings relating primarily to China, particularly foreign perspectives on China.
Loose cuttings relating to Japan, Thailand and Malacca, particularly economic issues and the history of these regions.
Loose cuttings relating to Indonesia, including social, economic and political issues.
Loose cuttings primarily relating to Portugal and Macau, particularly the history of Macau as well as political and social issues.
Loose cuttings primarily relating to Portuguese colonies apart from Macau, particularly Goa, together with cuttings relating to World War II and other matters.
Relating to various topics from the Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian newspapers. This material appears to have been added to the collection some time after the Braga Papers were received by the National Library in 1966.
Including rare books, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The content of this material ranges across various historical, social, political, ecclesiastical and other areas of interest. There are four groupings: general printed material; followed by newspapers particularly relating to Macau; then publications concerning the Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Macau; and finally other printed material relating primarily to Macau.
Other published material is found throughout the collection.
The printed material in this subseries is broad in scope, ranging across Braga's various interests, from travel to post-war economics in Hong Kong to the history of Portuguese exploration of the Far East.
Highlights include a copy of Braga's Tamão dos pioneiros Portugueses (1939), a 19th century edition of Joaquim Pedro Celestino Soares' Quadros navaes, ou, collecção dos folhetins maritimos do patriota and A ilha de Moçambique by Alexandre Lobato (1945).
Including single or selected issues of various newspapers and notices, primarily Macanese, together with related transcriptions, memoranda, certificates and circulars. Among the newspapers represented are O Echo do Povo (1862), O Extremo Oriente (1896), Echo Macanese (1896), Congregações Marianas (1904), Boletim Official do Governo da Provincia de Macau (1905), A Verdade (1910), A Colonia (1918), Noticias de Macau (1953 and 1964) and O Clarim (1971). The notices include 'Memorial addressed to the Prime Minister in Lisbon by over one hundred Portuguese Shanghai residents', 1915.
Printed material relating to the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Macau (Holy House of Mercy of Macau). This charitable organisation was founded in Lisbon in 1498, and the Macau branch was established by the first Bishop of Macau in 1569. The publications include Compromisso da irmandade da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Macau (1893), Regulamentos dos estabelecimentos da Santa Casa da Misericordia de Macau (1900) and Documentos relativos ao emprestimo feito ao Leal Senado da Camara para expropriar os predios do largo do Senado e outros para circulação privada entre os irmaos da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Macau (1902).
These works were assigned BRA call numbers (prior to their transfer to the Manuscripts Collection), from BRA 5064 to BRA 5071, BRA 5076, BRA 5083, BRA 5085 and BRA 5086 respectively.
Including newspapers, magazines, books, booklets, bulletins, newsletters, articles and reports, primarily relating to Macau, although other regions are also represented. Topics covered include social, economic and historical matters, including late 19th century Macanese politics, mid-20th century politics in China, port works in Hong Kong, medicine, geography and gambling.
Braga was a bibliophile who amassed a large collection of books and other items over a lifetime of collecting. Much of this series relates to the later period of Braga's collecting, from the 1950s until 1971. As well as acquiring works for himself, Braga also assisted the National Library of Australia with the acquisition of material while working in the National Library from 1968 to 1972.
This series primarily comprises booklists and catalogues produced by booksellers, auction houses, libraries and publishers, primarily in Portugal, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong and the United States, as well as Shanghai, Spain, Paris, Germany and the Netherlands. These include Livraria Sá da Costa, Livraria Castro E Silva, Livraria Histórica Ultramarina, O Mundo do Livro, Livraria Ecléctica, Livraria Barateira, Livraria Sousa & Almeida, Apollo Book Company, Sotheby's, Kegan Paul Trench Trübner & Co, A. Rosenthal, The Folio Society, Kraus-Thomson, Chih Luen Press, Drijver & Koolemans, Orientbuchhandlung Heinz Lafaire and Paul Geuthner.
There are also some newspaper cuttings of book reviews, together with correspondence, notes, flyers and invoices. The main correspondent is Augusto Sá da Costa, a bookseller who became Braga's friend, and assisted Braga with securing transcriptions from the 'Jesuítas na Ásia' codices held in the Biblioteca da Ajuda.
Further correspondence relating to Braga's acquisition of works for his library is found throughout the collection. Papers relating to 'Jesuítas na Ásia' are held in Series 6 and 12.
This series includes photographs, negatives, several newspaper cuttings and a letter from Braga to Colonel Basil, 1939, with accompanying negatives of a photograph of George Chinnery's tomb in Macau. Most of the photographs were originally loose, although there is a commemorative album, presented to Braga as a benefactor of the Yuet Wah Salesian College in Macau (1950). Few of the items are dated, and only some are annotated with captions.
The photographs document a range of people, places and occasions. There are many family photographs, including portraits, snapshots and passport photographs, of Braga, his mother Olive Braga and his siblings, his wife Augusta Braga and their children. Scenes of daily life in Macau and Hong Kong feature, including architectural and geographical points of interest, social events such as weddings and birthdays, sporting events such as swimming carnivals, cricket matches, bowling tournaments and basketball games, and fishing and other activities on the harbour. There are photographs of official events, including sequences documenting the arrival of Tamagnini Barbosa in Macau (1926) and a visit by Sir Robert Brown Black (c.1960s). Business events and club activities also feature, for example a party of the Kowloon Tong Garden City Association and meetings of the Hong Kong Rotary Club and the Hong Kong International Women's Club. There are some photographs from travels abroad, including trips to Australia and the United Kingdom.
An item list of photographs in this series has been prepared separately to this finding aid. This item list is available in the Pictures & Manuscripts Reading Room and a copy can be supplied upon request.
Further photographic material features throughout the collection, particularly Series 2, 4, 5 and 20.
Including tourist brochures, guides and maps, together with postcards and other ephemera. There are four subseries: travel ephemera; travel ephemera relating to Macau and the Far East; postcards; and historic postcards.
Much of the material relates to Portugal and Portuguese colonies, including Macau and Goa. Places across Europe, the Far East, South-East Asia, the United States, Australia and South America also feature.
Other postcards are located in Series 8, 15 and 20.
Including tourist brochures, guides, maps and postcards. Much of the material appears to date from visits made by J.M. Braga and Augusta Braga to Europe in 1952 and 1959, and the United States in 1966. Portugal is well-represented, together with Macau and Hong Kong, as well as Japan, the United States, Australia, Italy, Germany, India, Thailand, Brazil and Venezuela.
Primarily tourist brochures and guides relating to Macau and the Far East, including Canton, Taiwan and Hong Kong.
Mainly of Portugal, as well as some of Spain, Paris, Rome, Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand and Indonesia. Most are blank, although several have been written on and sent to Braga or other members of the Braga family.
Among the postcards in this subseries is a souvenir set issued by the Macau Postal Authority, 1898, commemorating the 400th anniversary of Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama's arrival in India. There are also postcards, receipts, negatives and a photographic print relating to Formosa (now Taiwan) from the late 1900s to the 1930s, showing living conditions, hydro-engineering works, the indigenous population, the Taihoku Imperial University, and various geographical and architectural features. Other postcards relate to Spain, Macau, China and Honolulu.
Most of the postcards are blank, although several have been addressed but not posted.
This series features a variety of objects, including lapel badges and pins, letter openers, marble tile samples, printing blocks and other items.
A highlight is a lapel badge bearing the inscription 'HBM Consulate, Macao'. During World War II, Braga worked closely with the British Consul, John Pownall Reeves. According to Stuart Braga, "After the influx into Macau of tens of thousands of refugees early in 1942, there was massive unemployment and hardship. The British government paid a small subsidy to British subjects who narrowly avoided starvation. Portuguese nationals were not so fortunate. To assist them, the British Vice Consul employed some young Portuguese men as guards for the consulate. This was their badge of office."
The printing blocks generally feature images of buildings, people and a 'Noticias de Macau' banner. There are also two bookplate stamps, for Braga and C.R. Boxer. Bookplates printed with these stamps are included in Subseries 3.2.
Assorted material arranged into three subseries, beginning with general papers, followed by a selection of stamps and religious ephemera.
Including correspondence, telegrams, financial documents, postcards, photographic prints, brochures, leaflets, handbooks and other material.
The small selection of correspondence largely relates to personal matters. Among the correspondents are J. Carlos Alves, José dos Santos Baptista and José da Luz. The telegrams and financial documents relate to Braga's import-export business Braga & Co. The telegrams relate to various business matters, together with accounts and receipts for rent, telephone and telegraphic services, meals and other business expenses.
From a variety of places including Portugal, Macau, Hong Kong, Ukraine, Russia, Venezuela and the Bavarian Republic.
Including pamphlets, tracts, cards and other religious ephemera, together with three issues of Religião e Pátria (1934, 1957 and 1958).