National Library of Australia View Catalogue Record
- Villiers, George, 4th Earl of Clarendon, 1800-1870
- Papers of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon (as filmed by the AJCP)
- Date Range
- 1843 - 1870
- Collection Number
- 225 items
- Language of Materials
- Australian Joint Copying Project
- The Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP) online portal was created with the assistance of the Australian Public Service Modernisation Fund, 2017-2020. The National Library of Australia gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the other foundation AJCP partners, the State Library of New South Wales and The National Archives of the UK, and all other organisations which supported the work of the AJCP, the world's most extensive collaborative copying project, operating from 1948 to 1997.
Scope and Contents
Papers 1843-1870 of Lord Clarendon, relating to his career as Lord Lieutenant. of Ireland, and Foreign Secretary.
Subjects include female Irish emigration, convicts, the 1848 rebellion in Ireland and transportation of W.S. O'Brien and other political prisoners, creation of Bishopric of Labuan, and the threatened United States annexation of Sandwich Islands.
Major correspondents include Sir George Grey, Lord Grey, T.F. Elliot, Lord John Russell and T. Redington.
Conditions Governing Access
Available for Access.
Conditions Governing Use
Many of the records digitised as part of the AJCP are still in copyright. Readers wishing to publish or reproduce documents should seek permission, in the first instance, from the owner of the original material.
Acknowledgement of use of this material should refer to the location of the original material and to the Australian Joint Copying Project.
Items from this collection should include references to the location of the original material and to the AJCP nla.obj number, which serves as the online identifier for the digital copy.
Example: M Series: Journal of Capt. James Cook, 18 February 1770, British Library Add. MS 27885 (AJCP ref: http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1234)
Material selectively filmed at the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, Oxford, as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project, 1984 (AJCP Reels: M2004-M2006). Original microfilm digitised as part of the AJCP Online Delivery Project, 2017-2020.
Existence and Location of Originals
Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, Broad Street, Oxford.
For further information, see Clarendon at the Bodleian Library. [http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/1500-1900/clarendon/clarendon.html]
Existence and Location of Copies
The original AJCP microfilm of the records filmed from this collection is available at the National Library of Australia [https://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn765778] as well as other institutions holding AJCP microfilm.
This finding aid is a revised online version of the original finding aid prepared by the Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP), published by the National Library of Australia in 2018. The original AJCP finding aids were unpublished typescripts or photocopies available from libraries that held copies of the original microfilm.
Dates used in this finding aid refer to the date range of the records selected for filming rather than to the date range of the Series or Files.
The identifiers used in this finding aid were accurate at the time of filming. They have been kept to preserve the historical context of the collection.
Convicts; Elliot, T.F.; Emigration and immigration: women; Grey, Henry G., 3rd Earl; Grey, Sir George, 2nd Baronet; Hawaii: annexation; Ireland; Labuan, Borneo; O'Brien, William S.; Redington, T.; Russell, Lord John, 1st Earl; United States of America; Villiers, George, 4th Earl of Clarendon
Originally cited in Australian Joint Copying Project Handbook. Part 8: Miscellaneous (M) Series. Third Edition, published 1998. Entry 102, p.37. [http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-397322928]
Biographical / Historical
George Villiers (1800-1870), 4th Earl of Clarendon (succeeded 1838), Officer in Diplomatic Service 1820-1839. Lord Privy Seal 1839-1841, President of Board of Trade 1846-1847, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1847-1852, Foreign Secretary 1853-1858, Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1864-1865, Foreign Secretary 1865-1866, 1868-1870. Whig politician.
Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2004-M2005.
Character of J. Mitchel; hopes he will not be treated as common felon.
Character and convictions of C. Gavan Duffy; believes he could achieve something useful.
Emigration from Ireland to colonies, including N.S.W.; conditions on emigrant ships; free passages and land grants for Crown witnesses; appointment of teachers on ships carrying Irish orphans; emigration of Irish girls to Australia; arrangements for cabin passages on emigrant ships to Van Diemen's Land. (22 letters).
Subseries Box 12. Clarendon Dep. Irish: Letters of Sir George Grey, 15 February 1848 - 11 December 1848
Advocates charge of treason against Irish political prisoners in order to secure sentences of transportation.
Convict question; opposition of Van Diemen's Land to further convicts.
Views on transportation; treatment of Irish convicts.
Prosecution of W.S. O'Brien; disposal of Irish convicts.
Prosecution of W.S. O'Brien; would recommend transportation for life.
Sentences of transportation for simple larceny.
Subseries Box 13. Clarendon Dep. Irish: Letters of Sir George Grey, 1 January 1849 - 3 December 1849
Proposed changes in law on transportation; petition of J. Mitchel.
Transportation difficulties; resistance in colonies to Irish convicts.
Sentences of transportation for crimes of larceny.
Arrangements for despatch of political prisoners; discussions with Sir Lucius O'Brien; protest of W.S. O'Brien against commutation of sentence to transportation; Lord Campbell's Bill to validate commutation; outbreak of cholera on ship. (31 letters)
Convict question; tendency of Quarter Sessions to sentence to transportation for light offences; large number of convicts sentenced to transportation still in Ireland.
Subseries Box 15. Clarendon Dep. Irish: Letters of Sir George Grey and Sir Charles Wood, 28 May 1851
Wishes to give Recordership of Penang to Irish barrister.
Cavalier behaviour of Sampe, applicant for Recordership of Penang.
Application by W. Jeffcott; believes he was involved in unfortunate affair in Australia.
Enormous expenditure on Irish relief; only remedy transportation of those who cannot be employed.
Necessity for Irish colonization on great scale in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, rather than emigration to United States.
Conviction of T. Meagher; plans to charge C. Gavan Duffy.
Trials of political prisoners, including K. O'Doherty.
Difficulty of commuting sentence of W.S. O'Brien except on his petition; trial of K. O'Doherty.
Case of W.S. O'Brien; skill of Sir Charles O'Loghlen.
Gaols filled with convicts under sentences of transportation; excessive sentences.
Bill to cover commutation of sentence of W.S. O'Brien.
Necessity for legislation to cover transportation of W.S. O'Brien.
Subseries Box 27. Clarendon Dep. Irish: Letters of Sir William Somerville, 6 March 1848 - 13 November 1848
Economic policy; refers to Australian difficulties being negotiable; wishes they had been conducted with more diplomacy.
Titles of Roman Catholic bishops in colonies; refers to N.S.W. and Western Australia.
Believes J. Mitchel should receive conditional pardon, not ticket of leave.
Appointments in Australian colonies; rapid progress of South Australia; capable administration of Sir William Denison; involvement of Dr Madden in Western Australian politics.
Regulations on free passages to Van Diemen's Land; arrival of political exiles; role of W.S. O'Brien as voluntary martyr; emigration of Irish orphans.
Police forces in Australian colonies; colonial Bishops; attacks on Australian policies of Lord Grey in Times.
Subseries Box 43. Clarendon Dep. Irish: Letters of Lord John Russell, 23 March 1848 - 3 November 1848
Prosecution of Confederates; Irish poor relief; trusts poor will be absorbed by England, North America and Australasia.
Conviction of J. Mitchel and its effect on Ireland.
Advises prosecution of T. Meagher and W.S. O'Brien for high treason.
Possible summons of Russell to trial of W.S. O'Brien.
Conviction of W.S. O'Brien; sufficient grounds for commutation of sentence to transportation.
Sends report of House of Lords Select Committee on Colonization from Ireland; importance of evidence.
Irish poor laws; excessive sentence of transportation for J. Mitchel; W.S. O'Brien and T. Meagher should accompany him.
Urges appointment of Capt. A. Kennedy as Colonial Secretary of Western Australia; experience in Army and Poor Law Board would be useful in managing convict system.
Attacks on Balfe by Launceston Examiner as suspected author of Letters of Dion ; W.S. O'Brien; Balfe's role in events of 1848; effects of gold discoveries on Tasmania; strong support for continuance of transportation; unsuitablility of Irish girls for domestic service.
Urges Government informers be given free passages and land grants in Canada or Australia, as otherwise they will be murdered.
Free passages for Government informers; titles of Roman Catholic bishops.
Titles of Roman Catholic bishops in colonies.
Sentence of transportation for life on Frewen.
Sentence on Frewen and its moral effect.
Doubts of judges on propriety of sentence.
Bad effects of accumulation of large numbers of Irish convicts under sentence of transportation.
Titles of Roman Catholic bishops and effect on colonial bishops.
Refers to services of J.D. Balfe in providing information about Young Irelanders.
Sentence of 14 years transportation for J. Mitchel.
Overcrowding of Irish gaols; few could be sent to N.S.W. with tickets of leave.
Principles for sending convicts out with tickets of leave.
Hopes C. Gavan Duffy and Co. will not be transported to Bermuda; confinement in Irish prison would cause excitement.
Discharge of jury in case of K. O'Doherty.
Convict ship required to send political convicts to Van Diemen's Land; transportation justified for cattle-stealing in Ireland.
Reasons for commuting sentence on W.S. O'Brien to transportation for life.
Discussion with Lord Monteagle on Irish emigration.
Objections of Lord Grey to emigration proposals.
Return of persons sentenced to transportaton for larceny; trial of C. Gavan Duffy.
Sentences of transportation; remonstrances from Grand Juries and prison boards.
Decision urgently required on transportation.
Transportation prevailing notion that tickets of leave are gratuitous emigration.
Resistance of colonies to influx of convicts; capacity of gaols; transortation of political convicts; objections of W.S. O'Brien to commutation of sentence and consequent legislation; accommodation for political convicts on ships; outbreak of cholera; departure of convicts to Australia.
Economic conditions; emigration; young people crowding workhouses should be sent to Canada or Australia.
Virtual end of transportation; urgent question of disposal of Irish convicts.
Honourable behaviour of W. Jeffcott in N.S.W.; highly suitable for position at Penang.
No distinction should be made in treatment of political convicts; suggests penal settlement 100 miles or more from any colony to which convicts with tickets of leave would migrate.
Danger of political convicts escaping from Van Diemen's Land.
Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2005-M2006.
Inquiry should be made into actions of Sir James Brooke.
Inquiry on Sir James Brooke; need for caution in naval interference in native wars.
Suggests Foreign Office study 1843 correspondence with France on Sandwich Islands.
Draft instructions to Fleet; naval force should not assist territorial aggrandizement of Sir James Brooke.
Cuba; Sandwich Islands; need for Britain and France to offer King joint protection if American annexation to be prevented.
Pamphlet, memoranda and correspondence on Sir James Brooke, charter of Eastern Archipelago Company, Bishopric of Labuan, and inquiry into conduct of Brooke.
Correspondents include Clarendon, Lord Ellesmere, J.C. Templer, E. Cardwell, Lord Hobart and Bishop C. Bloomfield.
Establishment of Bishopric of Labuan; alternative of missionary Bishop.
Instruction to Admiral of East Indies Station on piracy in Malayan seas; letters from Sir Fleetwood Pellew on Sir James Brooke.
Possible American annexation of Sandwich Islands; weakness of Pacific squadron.
Instructions for Admirals of East Indies and Pacific Stations.
American hostility towards Britain over Sandwich Islands; British naval strength in north Pacific.
Sends letter to Lord Nelson on creation of Bishopric of Labuan.
Creation of Bishopric of Labuan; views of Bishop G.A. Selwyn; Selwyn's plans to concentrate on Pacific Islands.
Talks with Assistant Secretary of State on American plans to annex Sandwich Islands.
Greytown; believes United States Government has definitely decided to annex Sandwich Islands.
Spanish affairs; declaration on Sandwich Islands by Webster in 1851.
Statements by Fillmore on independence of Sandwich Islands; proposed Tripartite Convention.
Conversation with Marcy on Sandwich Islands; opposition in Senate to annexation; fishing rights.
Soule affair; despatch on Sandwich Islands; opposition to admission of Sandwich Islands as a State.
Subseries C. 28. Mss. Clar. Dep: Belgium, Holland, Spain, South America, 9 February 1855 - 7 August 1855
Commission on Sir James Brooke. (4 letters).
Wishes to present Sarawak Report as soon as possible.
Brooke inquiry; Eastern Archipelago Company.
Banquet given for J. Mitchel; need to prevent American annexation of Sandwich Islands; Turkish affairs.
United States Government seeking popularity over Sandwich Islands; suggestion that King should ask for tripartite protectorate.
United States indifference to friendly relations with Britain; maintenance of independence of Sandwich Islands.
Likely British reaction to American annexation of Sandwich Islands; Russian support for United States.
Request by Eastern Archipelago Company for protection against piracy.
Subseries C. 224. Mss. Clar. Dep: Register of despatches to Minister at Washington, 1 November 1853 - 16 August 1855
Subseries C. 225. Mss. Clar. Dep: Register of despatches from Minister at Washington, 13 March 1853 - 4 December 1853
Reorganization of Pacific Station; note by Sir Sydney Dacres on importance of Station.
Request by R. Price for employment for R. Dansey in New Zealand.