Guide to the Papers of Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer (as filmed by the AJCP)


M2422 - M2425

National Library of Australia View Catalogue Record

Created: 2019

Collection Summary

Spencer, Walter Baldwin, Sir
Papers of Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer (as filmed by the AJCP)
Date Range
7 October 1880 - 28 May 1932
Collection Number
M2422 - M2425
651 items
Language of Materials
Australian Joint Copying Project
The Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP) online portal was created with the assistance of the Australian Public Service Modernisation Fund, 2017-2020. The National Library of Australia gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the other foundation AJCP partners, the State Library of New South Wales and The National Archives of the UK, and all other organisations which supported the work of the AJCP, the world's most extensive collaborative copying project, operating from 1948 to 1997.


Scope and Contents

Correspondence, notebooks, diaries and papers relating to the Horn expedition to central Australia in 1894; Spencer's anthropological interests, research and writings on the Indigenous Australians. There are also many references to Melbourne and Oxford Universities. Most of the letters are dated 1884-1903.

Major correspondents are A.W. Howitt, L. Fison, A.C. Haddon, E.B. Tylor, G.C. Bourne, Sir E. Ray Lankester, G.B. Howes, F.J. Gillen, H. Goulty, A. Lang, P. Cahill, H. Balfour, Sir James Frazer and W.A. Horn.

Conditions Governing Access

Available for Access.

Conditions Governing Use

Many of the records digitised as part of the AJCP are still in copyright. Readers wishing to publish or reproduce documents should seek permission, in the first instance, from the owner of the original material.

Preferred Citation

Acknowledgement of use of this material should refer to the location of the original material and to the Australian Joint Copying Project.

Citation items from this collection should include references to the location of the original material and to the AJCP nla.obj number, which serves as the online identifier for the digital copy.

Example: M Series: Journal of Capt. James Cook, 18 February 1770, British Library Add. MS 27885 (AJCP ref:

Archival History

Filmed at the Pitt River Museum, Oxford, as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project, 1988 (AJCP Reels: M2422 - 2425). Original microfilm digitised as part of the NLA AJCP Online Delivery Project, 2017-2020.

Existence and Location of Originals

Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, England For further information see Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer at the Pitt Rivers Museum(

Existence and Location of Copies

The original AJCP microfilm of the records filmed from this collection is available National Library of Australia [] as well as other institutions holding AJCP microfilm.

Finding-aid Notes

This finding aid is a revised online version of the original finding aid prepared by the Australian Joint Copying Project (AJCP), published by the National Library of Australia in 2019. The original AJCP finding aids were unpublished typescripts or photocopies available from libraries that held copies of the original microfilm.

Dates used in this finding aid refer to the date range of the records selected for filming rather than to the date range of the Series or Files.

Advisory Statement

Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are advised that this Finding Aid contains material and descriptive information which may be considered culturally sensitive and may cause distress, including names and images of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people now deceased. This Finding Aid contains terms that reflect authors' views or those of the historical period, but which may not be considered appropriate today. While the information may not reflect current understanding, it is provided in an historical context.


Aboriginal Australians: life and customs; Anthropologists; Australia; Balfour, Henry; Biologists; Bourne, G.C.; Cahill, P.; Central Australia; Fison, Lorimer, Rev.; Frazer, Sir James; Gillen, Francis J.; Goulty, H.; Great Britain; Haddon, A.C.; Horn, W.A.; Howes, G.B.; Howitt, A.W.; Indigenous Australians; Indigenous Australians: life and customs; Lang, Andrew; Lankester, Sir E. Ray; Northern Territory; Spencer, Sir W. Baldwin, Prof.; Tylor, Sir Edward B.; University of Melbourne


Originally cited in Australian Joint Copying Project Handbook. Part 8: Miscellaneous (M) Series. Third Edition, published 1998. Entry 431, p168.

Biographical / Historical

Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer, 1860-1929, was a biologist and ethnographer. He was educated at Owen College, Manchester and Exeter College, Oxford, obtaining a B.A. in Natural Science in 1884. He became Professor in Biology at Melbourne University, 1887-1919 and in collaboration with F.J. Gillen, 1894-1912, and afterwards alone investigated the unknown world of the stone-age people of Central Australia. He wrote Native Tribes of Central Australia, 1839; Northern Tribes of Central Australia, 1904 and The Arunta, 1927.

Item Descriptions

Series Box 1. Correspondence, 1887 - 30 October 1928

200 items

Records originally housed in Box 1, in 11 envelopes.

Archival History

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2422-M2423

Subseries A. The Horn Expedition to Australia, 17 April 1894 - 2 September 1896

51 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

W.A. Horn (in Adelaide) to B.S. (?), 17 April 1894 (File 1)

Preparation of materials for expedition.

W.A. Horn (in Adelaide) to B.S. (?), 9 June 1894 (File 2)

Preparation of materials for expedition.

W.A. Horn (in London) to B.S. (in Australia), 16 August 1894 (File 3)

Acknowledging telegram to report return of expedition.

W.A. Horn (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 20 October 1894 (File 4)

Cost of Expedition.

W.A. Horn (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 15 November 1894 (File 5)

Acknowledging receipt of expedition photographs.

W.A. Horn (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 24 December 1894 (File 6)

Non-receipt of reports and list of specimens - Note of peevishness.

W.A. Horn (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 6 January 1895 (File 7)

Reports etc. still not received - Some members of expedition have ignored W. A. H.'s role.

W.A. Horn (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 4 February 1895 (File 8)

Anxieties about success of expedition - Some reports still lacking.

B.S. (in Melbourne) to W.A.H. (in U.K.), 23 February 1895 (File 9)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S. - Defending non-dispatch of reports - 'Considerable difficulties'.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 2 April 1895 (File 10)

W.A.H. defends himself and says B.S. has misunderstood/details of additional expenditures wanted.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 13 May 1895 (File 11)

W.A.H. is satisfied with B.S. but not with others - Details of expenditures wanted - Winnecke's Journal not acceptable.

B.S. (in Melbourne) to W.A.H. (in U.K.), 18 May 1895 (File 12)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S. - Proposed final form of report - Suggests publish in Australia, not in U.K.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 29 May 1895 (File 13)

Certain items not yet received.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 2 July 1895 (File 14)

Still short of information - Winnecke's regrettable attitude.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 18 July 1895 (File 15)

Complaints about part of information.

W.A.H. (in Damerham) to B.S. (in Australia), 17 August 1895 (File 16)

More complaints.

B.S. to W.A.H., 27 August 1895 (File 17)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S. - Counter complaints - Gillen is dissatisfied.

F. W. Belt to B.S., 2 September 1895 (File 18)

Compared that W.A.H does have money problems

F. W. Belt to B.S., 17 September 1895 (File 19)

Has received authority from WAH to advance £300.

B.S. to W.A.H., 20 September 1895 (File 20)

Handwritten precis of letter retained by BS - asks for decision about publication.

Belt and Son (Adel. solicitor) to B.S. (Melb), 21 September 1895 (File 21)

Herewith cheque for £200 on behalf of Mr.Horn.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 2 October 1895 (File 22)

Complaints- 'The business is very unsatisfactory all round, except for your own work.'

F.W.Belt (Adel. solicitor) to B.S., 17 October 1895 (File 23)

More trouble expected - W.A.H has authorised advance of £800 for publication -'Hoping the curtain will soon be rung down on the Horn Expedition'.

Exchange cable Number Issue Spencer B.S., October 1895 (File 24)
Exchange five Horn telegrams, October 1895 (File 25)
W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 22 October 1895 (File 26)

Vigorous defense against B.S's 'indignant letter'-claims reasonable arounds of complaint.

F.W.Belt (Adel. solicitor) to B.S., 12 November 1895 (File 27)

Money troubles-'I am seriously concerned at Horn's state of health'.

W.A.H. (Damerham) to B.S., 25 November 1895 (File 28)

More troubles, mainly concerning Stirling's work.

B.S. (Melbourne) to W.A.H., 30 November 1895 (File 29)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S. Riposte to No. 26 above.

B.S. (Melbourne) to W.A.H., 17 December 1895 (File 30)

Prècis of letter retained by B.S. Explains plan of publication.

F.W.Belt (Adel. solicitor) to B.S., 23 December 1895 (File 31)

W.A.H.has authorised an additional £300.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 26 December 1895 (File 32)

Complaints - all except B.S. are treating him badly.

B.S. (Melb.) to W.A.H., 4 January 1896 (File 33)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S. Appeals to be allowed to get on.

B.S. (Melb.) to W.A.H., 27 January 1896 (File 34)

Things are getting on - B.S. is working 10 hrs. a day.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 29 January 1896 (File 35)

Criticisms of anthropology part of paper 'I was very disappointed Winnecke has behaved badly'.

W.A.H. to B.S., 14 February 1896 (File 36)

Instructions for publication-Winnecke is to receive no credit 'I dont mind paying literally, but I won't be blackmailed'.

W.A.H. to B.S., 15 February 1896 (File 37)

Criticism of geological report- more complaints.

B.S. (Melb) to W.A.H., 18 February 1896 (File 38)

Handwritten copy retained by B.S.

Forwarding copy of Zoology part.

Illness of B.S's wife has caused delay.

B.S. (Melb) to W.A.H., 26 February 1896 (File 39)

Handwritten prècis retained by B.S.-Suggests pattern of dist. of collection:Aust, England, Germany, France, U.S.A.

Wants to know what illustrations will be used.

Envelope addressed to B.S. in Melb. containing photograph of W.A.H., March 1896 (File 40)
W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 3 March 1896 (File 41)

Defends himself against charge of causing 'perturbation of mind' to B.S.


Melville, Mullen, Slade. (Melb booksellers) to B.S. (Melb.), 11 March 1896 (File 42)

Acknowledges receipt of cablegram reading 'Horn settled'.

B.S. to W.A.H., 24 March 1896 (File 43)

Handwritten prècis retained by B.S.

asks for specific info. on what doing.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 1 April 1896 (File 44)

Acknowledges part II of book-suggests improvements.

B.S. (Melb.) to W.A.H. (London), 2 April 1896 (File 45)

Copy of telegram with cash rec. reading 'circumstances urgent send maps, illustrations for narrative'.

B.S. (Melb) to W.A.H., 8 April 1896 (File 46)

Troubles with Winnecke, who must be forstalled in publication

Explains perturbation and criticises of W.A.H.

W.A.H. (Margate) to B.S., 29 May 1896 (File 47)

'Your criticisms rather disconcerted me'.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 15 June 1896 (File 48)

Details regarding photographs and proposed presentations.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 6 July 1896 (File 49)

Defending himself against charge of 'not playing fair', praises B.S.'s work.

W.A.H. (London) to B.S., 2 September 1896 (File 50)

Details of lithographs.

Subseries B. Correspondence With A.W. Howitt, 15 July 1895 - 11 September 1903

35 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 15 July 1895 (File 1)

Thanking B.S. for congratulations on appointment to University of Melbourne.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 20 September 1895 (File 2)

Making an appointment.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 1897 (File 3)

Giving information on marriage 'rules', NOA.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 12 June 1897 (File 4)

Further information.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 12 November 1897 (File 5)

Regrets for missing a paper read by B.S. - Further information.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 21 March 1898 (File 6)

Request to read A.W. Howitt's daughter's MS on folklore.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 2 June 1898 (File 7)

Thanks for help over A.W. Howitt daughter's manuscript.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 12 September 1898 (File 8)

Thanks for B.S.'s letter of 10/9/1898 with suggestions.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 13 September 1898 (File 9)

Regrets inability to accept invitation.

A.W. Howitt (in Fast Malven) to B.S., 1 November 1898 (File 10)

Saying good-bye

More about daughter's MS.

A.W. Howitt (in Fast Malven) to B.S., 28 December 1898 (File 11)

Congratulations on completion of B.S. 'great work'; and thanks for compliment of dedication.

A.W. Howitt (in Fast Malven) to B.S., 20 March 1899 (File 12)

Thanks for help over daughter's MS.

A.W. Howitt (in Fast Malven) to B.S., 13 April 1899 (File 13)

Forwarding a MS - FISH(?) is ill.

A.W. Howitt (in Fast Malven) to B.S., 1 May 1899 (File 14)

Asking for information on a 'passage'.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 18 December 1899 (File 15)

Reporting receipt of A.A.A. Soc. Handbook (proofs).

A.W. Howitt (in Malvern) to B.S., 10 February 1900 (File 16)

Thanks for help given

'Sichert's Investigations'.

A.W. Howitt (in East Malvern) to B.S., 4 June 1900 (File 17)

Apologies for failure to return camera lens

is trying to finish work and get away for a year.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 27 June 1900 (File 18)

Congratulations on nomination to Royal Society

Anxiety about his own appointment.

A.W. Howitt (in East Malvern) to B.S., 7 July 1900 (File 19)

Siebert's work.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 18 July 1900 (File 20)

Will be glad to contribute to A.A.A. Society publishing fund

Is sending further MS material for criticism.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 25 July 1900 (File 21)

Sending further material for criticism.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 3 August 1900 (File 22)

Thanks for trouble taken and valuable criticisms.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 9 August 1900 (File 23)

Agrees to sit for his portrait. Sends further MS material.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 13 August 1900 (File 24)

Arranging meetings.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 3 October 1900 (File 25)

Congratulations on having found funds for expedition

Information aboriginal words.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 26 January 1901 (File 26)

Sending rough draft for criticism - 'Your criticisms are of the greatest value to me'.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 7 March 1901 (File 27)

Information about aboriginal words.

A.W. Howitt (in Melbourne) to B.S., 30 August 1901 (File 28)

Acknowledging several B.S. letters

Congratulations on success of expedition

Sending another chapter for criticism.

A.W. Howitt, 16 May 1902 (File 29)

Recounting the difficulties he faces in finishing his work.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 15 September 1902 (File 30)

Sympathises with B.S's troubles and anxieties and tells his own

Written on 'mourning' paper.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 24 April 1903 (File 31)

Is at 'the grand Hotel' for a rest.

A.W. Howitt (in Sydney) to B.S., 1 June 1903 (File 32)

Forwards a letter from a Mr. Crawley for B.S. Opinion.

A.W. Howitt (in Sydney) to B.S., 2 August 1903 (File 33)

Thanks B.S. for condolences on death of his wife

Written on mourning paper.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 13 October 1903 (File 34)

Apology for not answering letters

A.W. Howitt has nearly finished his work.

A.W. Howitt to B.S., 9 November 1903 (File 35)

Accepts invitation to stay.

Subseries C. Letters From L. Fison, 23 April 1893 - May 1902

26 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

L. Fison to B.S., 6 February 1899 (File 1)

Scholarly dispute Critical of Tylor and MacGregor.

L. Fison to B.S. (File 2)

Agreement on criticism of Mathew

Details of academic postings.

L. Fison to B.S. (File 3)

Acknowledging a letter from B.S.

L. Fison to B.S. (File 4)

L. Fison has had an accident and reports progress.

Does not want to interrupt B.S.'s 'great work'.

L. Fison to B.S. (File 5 (2))

Criticism of Tylor, who has 'a malady'

Tylor's 'monstrous' proposal which 'Frazer' has steadfastly opposed

B.S. is going to U.K.

L. Fison to B.S. (File 6)
L. Fison to B.S. (File 7)

Unable to accept an invitation.

L. Fison to B.S., 10 January 1900 (File 8)

A provisional acceptance of an invitation to dinner.

L. Fison to B.S., 8-Sep-(?)1900 (File 9)

Details of a fund-raising project.

L. Fison to B.S., 8-Nov-(?)1900 (File 10)

Details of written contributions to a publication.

L. Fison to B.S., 5 December 1900 (File 11)

B.S. is going on an expedition.

L. Fison to B.S. (Reply to letter D Z), 18 May 1901 (File 12)

Acknowledging letter from H.S. about his journey

'The Duke and Duchess' have been visiting Melbourne

The Bishop of Tasmania's crazy scheme for uplifting the aboriginals

Details of 'sub-incision'.

L. Fison to B.S., May 1902 (File 13)

Advice on a lecture B.S. is to give

Should nude slides be shown?

L. Fison says 'yes', but be careful of the law.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 23 April 1893 (File 14)

Not going to Oxford.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 21 April 1894 (File 15)

Going to attend General Conference in Adelaide; invitation to go to Oxford.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 30 November 1894 (File 16)

Enjoyed visit home.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 13 June 1895 (File 17)

Invitation from Frazer for paper at meeting of Australian Assoc.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 13 June 1895 (File 18)

Thanks to Royal Society.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., 4 December 1896 (File 19)

Praise for Spencer & Gillen's work.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., Wednesday (File 20)

Theory of group marriage.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., Thursday (File 21)

Has written to Frazer.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., Wednesday (File 22)

Use of Terms.

L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S. (File 23)


L. Fison (Essendon) to B.S., Tuesday (File 24)

His health.

L. Fison (Melbourne) to B.S. (File 25)

Re women and group marriage.

L. Fison (Gordon) to B.S., 3-Jun-[Unknown] (File 26)

Visit to Rev. Brown.

Subseries D. Letters to L. Fison, 23 June 1896 - 24 December 1901

8 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

B.S. (in Melbourne) to L. Fison, 6 August 1900 (File 1)

Sending the text of a paper

Frazer is asking the authorities to give B.S. (and Gillen) leave of absence for an expedition.

B.S. (in Alice Springs) to L. Fison, 26 April 1901 (File 2)

Reports arival at Alice Springs

A plague of flies has begun work

Attended a 'sub-incision' ceremony.

B.S. (Barrow Creek) to L. Fison, 15 July 1901 (File 3)

Reports progress. Six weeks hard work, difficult country.

B.S. (Powells Creek) to L. Fison, 30 September 1901 (File 4)

The expedition is moving northwards. Good work has been done

Criticism of R.H. Mathews

The expedition has justified itself.

B.S. (Bonopoola?) to L. Fison, 12 November 1901 (File 5)

Have reached the Gulf

A cannibal tribe.

B.S. (Bonopoola?) to L. Fison, 24 December 1901 (File 6)

Waiting for a boat to take them to Port Darwin

Interesting details of mourning ceremonies

A miserable Xmas Day.

B.S. (Melbourne) to L. Fison, 23 June 1896 (File 7)

Refers to 'clever, but utterly misleading and unscrupulous criticism' of Howitt's work by Andrew Lang - Lang is an 'ethnologic charlatan'

Mentions Frazer's theory of 'conceptional totemism'.

B.S. (Alice Springs) to L. Fison, 21 November 1896 (File 8)

Fire ceremony in full swing.

Subseries E. Letters From A.C. Haddon: (Originals), 11 May 1900 - 13 May 1923

6 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

A.C. Haddon (in Cambridge) to Mrs Spencer, 11 May 1900 (File 1)

Congratulations on the Honour conferred on her husband - 'He has accomplished one of the very best pieces of work in anthropology that has ever been done'.

A.C. Haddon (in Dublin) to Mrs Spencer, 23 October 1900 (File 2 (4))

Congratulations and advice

B.S. must take a kinematograph and a phonograph on his expedition.

A.C. Haddon (in Cambridge) to Mrs Spencer, 27 July 1901 (File 3)

Asks where B.S. is and how he is getting on

News of B.S. is eagerly awaited

Frazers Golden Bough has caused a commotion by its explanation of the crucifixion

News of Tylor and other academic colleagues.

A.C. Haddon (in London) to B.S., 5 May 1902 (File 4)

News of B.S. expedition is eagerly awaited

Sends congratulations as President of the Anthropological Institute

'As English men we are proud of you'.

A.C. Haddon (in Cambridge) to B.S., 9 April 1921 (File 5)

Thanks for B.S. having sent a copy of his Presidential addres to the A.A.A.S.

B.S. has offered to be an Honorary Reader in Ethnology at Cambridge.

A.C. Haddon (in Cambridge) to B.S., 13 May 1923 (File 6)

A.C.F. is planning a visit to Australia

Offers advice on organisation of Ethnological studies in Australia.

Subseries F. Letters from E.B.Tylor, 17 June 1897 - 25 July 1899

4 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

E.B. Tylor (Oxford) to B.S., 17 June 1897 (File 1)

Acknowledges a letter from B.S. Will do best to further B.S.'s project

Is delighted that B.S. has made his mark in Anthropology.

E.B. Tylor (Oxford) to B.S., 18 December 1898 (File 2)

E.B.T. has heard B.S.'s paper which was excellent

Criticism of Frazer

Difficulties in finding a publisher for Miss Howitt's 'Australian Folk Tales'.

E.B. Tylor (Oxford) to B.S., 4 January 1899 (File 3)

More about Miss Howitt's MS

Another dig at Fraser.

E.B. Tylor (Oxford) to B.S., 25 July 1899 (File 4)

More about Fraser's change of view as a result of B.S. work.

Subseries G. Miscellaneous Letters, 16 November 1892 - 30 October 1928

51 items
Dr. C. Pichet (Geneva) to B.S., 16 November 1892 (File 1)

Thanking B.S. for letter and dispatch of specimens and promising to send others in return.

L. C. Miall (Yorkshire College, Leeds) to B.S., 13 June 1893 (File 2)

Thanking B.S. for dispatch of specimens - can offer nothing in return.

S.J. Hickson (Jersey) to B.S., 2 July 1893 (File 3)

Welcoming B.S. back to England and inviting him to Cambridge (Downing College).

A. Sedgwick (Zoological Labs Camb.) to B.S., 8 July 1893 (File 4)

Inviting B.S. to be a contributor to a special number of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science coming out in honour of Prof. Ray Lankesters 25 yrs of editorship.

A. Klinckowstrom (?) (Stockholm) to B.S., 10 October 1893 (File 5)

Thanking B.S. for letter and sending copies of document asked for.

J. Symington (Queens College. Belfast) to B.S., 9 February 1894 (File 6)

Welcoming offer by B.S. to send specimen of brains of echidna.

H. Bernard (?) (Royal College of Science, South. Kensington) to B.S., 17 April 1894 (File 7)

Thanking B.S. who is back in Australia, for sending papers and asking for specimens.

Kchobius (?) (Natural History Museum, Berlin) to B.S., 16 May 1894 (File 8)

Thanking B.S. for letter and dispatch of specimens.

J.S. Hall (University of Melbourne) to B.S., 17 June 1894 (File 9)

Reporting on progress of work at University.

S.J. Hickson (Manchester) to B.S., 25 November 1894 (File 10)

Thanking B.S. for congratulations on S.J.Hickson's appointment to the 'Queens College Chair' in succession to 'poor Marshall'

Asking for specimens and photographs.

Dr. W. Michaelsen. (Natural History Museum, Hamburg) to B.S., 19 December 1894 (File 11)

Thanking him for sending papers and proposing an exchange of specimens.

R.I. Pocock (British Museum of Natural History) to B.S., 25 June 1895 (File 12)

Thanking B.S. for letter and discussing specimens.

A. Liversidge (University of Sydney) to B.S., 13 July 1895 (File 13)

Discussing Polynesian philological materials.

F. McCoy (National Museum Australia.) to B.S., 7 January 1896 (File 14)

Accepting valuable donations of specimens on behalf of National Museum.

E.C Jelly (Redhill, Surrey) to B.S., 30 January 1896 (File 15)

Thanking B.S. for specimens.

S.J.Hickson (Manchester) to B.S., 12 May 1896 (File 16)

Thanking B.S. for papers on the Horn Expedition

S.J.H. has recently married a former pupil which has removed 'a cloud of norrow and disappointment which has shadowed my life ever since I have been here'

Reporting on progress in the Dept. at Manchester

Seven women are working in lab for first time.

O. Thomas to B.S., 22 July 1896 (File 17)

Has received B.S. papers on Central Australian mammals. Asks for duplicate specimens and offers help.

A. Thomson (Museum, Oxford) to B.S., 16 November 1896 (File 18)

Belated thanks to B.S. for an important specimen-Interesting Oxford gossip

'Balfour' at the Pitt Rivers has been in poor health for some time'.

W.A.Squire (Durban, Natal) to B.S., 25 November 1897 (File 19)

Giving details of life since coming to S.Africa

Regretting inability to let B.S. have full information he asked for.

W.Krause (Berlin) to B.S., 1 January 1898 (File 20)

Recommending a book by T.Einem Prof. at Tubingen, on natural selection of butterflies

cutting from Booksellers catalogue enclosed.

J.Mathew (Coburg) to B.S., 19 May 1898 (File 21)

Thanking B.S. for letter and papers

J.M. writing book on Aus. languages.

H.Jackson (Trinity College, Cambridge) to B.S., 12 December 1898 (File 22)

Asking questions about implications of B.S. discoveries.

John Lubbock (?) (Farnborough, Kent) to B.S., 1 January 1899 (File 23)

Thanking B.S. for important work on Central Aust.

John Lubbock (?) (Farnborough, Kent) to B.S., 12 February 1899 (File 24)

Has now read book at 23

Asks for information about religious views.

Cecil Wilson. (Bishop of Melbourne) to B.S., 19 April 1899 (File 25)

Thanks for a copy of B.S. book on the native tribes of Central Australia.

R. Etheridge to B.S., 19 May 1899 (File 25A)

Meagreness of local collections.

E.S. Hartland. (Folk-lore Society) to B.S., 1 July 1899 (File 26)

Sending a copy of his review of B.S.'s book.

C. Winnecke (Eagle Chamber, Melbourne) to B.S., 7 December 1899 (File 27)

Thanking B.S. for a letter and inviting him to come and stay

C.W. has taken unto himself 'a little wife'.

E.B. Poulton (University Museum, Oxford) to B.S., December 1899 (File 28)

Thanking B.S. for specimens and sending Vol. 1 of his book for the University of Melbourne - E.B.P. is on the Executive Committee of the National Antarctic Expedition

Gives details of finances and hopes; a) Prof.Gregory of Melbourne University can be released to lead the scientific staff. b) Melbourne will make a financial contribution.

H.J. Hackinder (Christ Church, Oxford) to B.S., 17 July 1900 (File 29)

Acknowledges B.S. letter which he received on return from Africa-Similarities between Aust. and Africa

H.J.M. is working on the founding of 'A college in Reading' and on starting Geographical work at Oxford

interesting details of Oxford personalities.

H.R. Hogg (?) (London) to B.S., 31 March 1901 (File 30)

Asking for news of B.S.

details of work and individuals at Natural History Museum, South Kensington.

P. Baracchi (?) (Observatory, Melbourne) to B.S., 31 July 1901 (File 31)

Thanks B.S. for details of thermometer readings, and asks him to undertake further observations.

H.R. Hogg (London), 9 September 1901 (File 32)

Thanks B.S. for letter dated 18 June.

Emphasises value of B.S.'s work.

Details of work on spiders.

Reports the discovery of the Okapi in Upper Congo.

H.R. Hogg (London), 23 May 1902 (File 33)

H.R.H. has heard that B.S. is back in Melbourne - enquires about part of the country he has travelled through- will it do for grazing cattle?

H.H. Giglioli (Professor of Zoology,University of Florence) to B.S., 7 July 1902 (File 34)

Offering congratulations personally and on behalf of the Anthropological Society of Italy, on B.S's safe return

Refers to B.S.'s 'magnificent book'

Would be obliged for duplicate specimens, especially of stone implements.

G.C. Henderson (Auckland, New Zealand) to B.S., 1 March 1903 (File 35)

Thanking B.S. for a letter Describing the Maori

News of Sir George Grey's MS. papers.

H.H. Giglioli (Florence) to B.S., 27 March 1903 (File 36)

Thanking B.S. for letter and specimens received - would welcome more.

W.E. Hoyle (Owens College Manchester) to B.S., 22 May 1903 (File 37)

Thanking B.S. for letter and specimens

Has a white-washed room, but no cases for display.

Shortage of money.

Chalmers Mitchell has replaced Sclater in Zoo secretaryship.

R. Kirkpatrick (British Museum of Natural History) to B.S., 28 May 1903 (File 38)

Details of missing specimen.

R. Etheridge (Australian Museum, Sydney) to B.S., 1 June 1903 (File 39)

Enquiring about supposed discoveries of the late J.Archibald.

A.Smith Woodward (British Museum of Natural History) to B.S., 14 July 1903 (File 40)

Acknowledging letter from B.S. and two plates.

R.Kirkpatrick to B.S., 10 September 1903 (File 41)

Acknowledging letter and parcel, The specimen discussed in No.38 has been found.

A.H.S. Lucas (Gordon, N.S.Wales) to B.S., 21 December 1908 (File 42)

Inviting B.S. to accept nomination to the Presidency 'of the Assoc.' for 1911.

Mrs. H. Cross (Blackheath) to B.S., 4 May 1915 (File 43)

Thanking B.S. for taking an interest in her work

The weaknesses of R.H. Matthews' work.

A. Smithells (GHP Home Forces, Whitehall SW1) to B.S., 2 August 1916 (File 44)

Congratulations on B.S's honor (the knighthood)

News of mutual old friends.


GHP is the incorrect entry of GHQ (General Headquarters)

W.W. Merry (Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford.), 6 November 1916 (File 45)

Inviting B.S. to become an Hon. Fellow of Lincoln.

A.Keith (Royal College of Surgeons, London) to B.S., 31 October 1921 (File 46)

Thanking B.S. for sending copy of his 'Presidential Address'.

E. Thurn (East Lothian, Scotland) to B.S., 24 November 1921 (File 47)

Thanking B.S. for sending copy of his Presidential Address to the Aust. Anthropological Association.

L.K. Ward (Adelaide) to B.S., 23 March 1925 (File 48)

Denunciation of the 'Aust. Aboriginal' by H. Buselow, a German Scientist

L.K.W. has been given the task of 'searching for water for a million sheep'.

A.R. Radcliffe Brown. (University of Sydney) to B.S., 2 January 1927 (File 49)

Thanking B.S. for letter-Discussion of methods of spelling for Aust. and other natives languages.

B.Westermarck (London) to B.S., 30 October 1928 (File 50)

Acknowledging B.S's treatise on initiation cer. of Arunta.

Subseries H. Correspondence with G.C. Bourne, 8 January 1889 - 14 December 1893

3 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

G.C. Bourne (in Plymouth) to B.S., 8 January 1889 (File 1)

Encouraging B.S. to stick it out in Melbourne and not return to U.K.

'I can understand your feeling of isolation and your want of scientific sympathy'

News of academic appointments

Manoeverings for the LINACRE Professorship.

G.C. Bourne (in Oxford) to B.S., 5 December 1893 (File 2)

Regretting having missed B.S. on his visit to Oxford - 'I want to convince you that there is a kick left in Zoology yet'.

G.C. Bourne (in Oxford) to B.S., 14 December 1893 (File 3)

As above - Good wishes on B.S.' return to Australia.

Subseries I. Correspondence with (Sir) E. Ray Lankester, 1887 - 24 April 1917

8 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

E. Ray Lankester (Putney S.W.) to B.S., 29-1-(?)1897 (File 1)

Arranging a meeting

Congratulations on B.S.' achievements - 'Your films and phonagraphs are absolutely thrilling'.

E. Ray Lankester (London) to B.S., 25-3-(?)1887 (File 2)

Advising B.S. on problems of his work in Melbourne

A great scientific library must be built up.

The difficulties of scientists in Australia and U.K.

'How gross and absurd are the interests and pre-occupations of the Philistine'

ERL says that the Archbishop of Canterbury and Acland have conspired to keep him out of Oxford

'I should not like Oxford very much, but should like a fixed life income of £900 a year'.

E. Ray Lankester (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford), 20-Nov (File 3)

Thanking B.S. for specimens

Diatribe against the state of affairs at Oxford

'The state of thing's in Oxford is very bad, as bad as can be. Nearly all the colleges are dead set on running their institution as a more classical and historical upper class of a public school'.

E. Ray Lankester (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to B.S., 28 January 1898 (File 4)

Thanking B.S. for specimens

E.R.L has put him up for F.R.S.

E. Ray Lankester (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to Professor Howes, 1 January 1899 (File 5)

ERL thinks B.S. was quite right not to apply for Oxford - 'He would not like it'

Recommending an articulater the Melbourne Museum.

E. Ray Lankester to B.S., 15-Oct (File 6)

Thanking B.S. for a letter

Congratulations on appointment as Director of 'the Museum'

E.R.L.'s detailed views on the functions and organisation of a National Museum

Enthusiastically recommending Dr. J.W. Gregory for the Chair of Geology at Melbourne.

E. Ray Lankester (London) to B.S., 19 December 1916 (File 7)

Inviting B.S. to lunch or tea - 'We are all rather depressed and upset by the war conditions'.

E. Ray Lankester (London) to B.S., 24 April 1917 (File 8)

Thanking B.S. for stone implements, which are then discussed

War news, good and bad

'The Russians have ditched their treacherous Romanoffs'.

Subseries J. Correspondence with G. B. Howes, 27 July 1899 - 28 August 1902

5 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

G.B. Howes (University of London) (in Australia) to B.S., 27 July 1899 (File 1 (11))

Acknowledging letters from B.S. and explaining action taken on various commissions

News of academic personalities

References to Lord Kelvin, A.J. Balfour, and Prof. Elliott Smith

Details of the setting up of 'the London University' and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

G.B. Howes (Royal College of Science) to B.S., 24 April 1901 (File 2 (2))

Further developments at London University

Details of a new school-leaving exam

'The war still flourishes', i.e. the Boer War

2d has been added to Income Tax, making it 1/2d in the £.

G.B. Howes (Royal College of Science) to B.S., 30 May 1901 (File 3 (a))

Condolences on B.S' bereavement

Congratulations on his achievements

More complications at London University

Troubles over the Antarctic Expedition.

G.B. Howes (Chiswick) to B.S., 29 June 1902 (File 4 (6))

Congratulations on developments in Melbourne

News of Elliott Smith's work

Zoology as an academic subject

Details of Edward VII's Coronation preparations.

G.B. Howes (Royal College of Science) to B.S., 28 August 1902 (File 5)

News of academic colleagues

Edward VII's success following the Coronation.

Subseries K. Miscellaneous Papers, 7 September 1906

3 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

Page of notes in B.S.' writing (File 1)
Copy of B.S.' letter to Professor Rhys, 7 September 1906 (File 2)

Letter dealing with aboriginal beliefs, particularly the belief that child-bearing has no connection with intercourse.

Miscellaneous letters, 1894 - 1907 (File 3)


Series Box 2. Correspondence, 1894 - 1904

189 items

Box No.2 of the Sir Baldwin Spencer papers contains 185 items, almost all letters, but including a few telegrams, sent by Gillen to Spencer.

It is not known from the box where Baldwin Spencer's letters to Gillen are to be found, but it contains a slip of paper, apparently in B.S.' writing saying - 'Gillen Diaries, Barr-Smith Library in Adelaide University'

It may therefore be that Spencer's letters are there also.

Apart from their shared anthropological interests, and the contents of the well-known 'book'(s) which they produced jointly, the letters contain material of possible interest to scholars interested in Australian history, political and economic, in the general history of anthropological studies at the turn of the 19th / 20th century, and in Irish Nationalist feelings at the same era.

Archival History

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2423

Subseries. Sir Baldwin Spencer: Correspondence with F.J. Gillen, 1894 - 1904

189 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 8 September 1894 (File 1 (2))

Sending good wishes and some photographs

News of the Alice Springs community.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 12 October 1894 (File 2 (3))

Acknowledging B.S. letters

News of photographs and collections

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 16 November 1894 (File 3 (4))

Thanks for B.S' letters

Sending photographs and specimens

News of personalities.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., December 1894 (File 4 (3))

Thanks for photos sent by B.S.

Denunciation of 'Stirling' and his article in Nature

Stirling wrongly considered the scientific leader of the Expedition.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 2 February 1895 (File 5 (4))

Thanks for congratulations on birth of another Gillen child

B.S.' interest in moles

More of the Stirling dispute

Sending specimens.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 9 March 1895 (File 6 (3))

Gillen has sent more specimens

Offers to look for more, or provide information for anthropologists

Interesting details about internal Victorian politics 'the unscrupulous greed of the corrupt ruling classes of years gone by'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 12 April 1895 (File 7 (4))

Has sent further specimens

Thanks for prints

F. J. Gillen has collected a lot of Chooringa stones, and other materials which women and boys must not see

More arguments about Australian politics.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 29 July 1895 (File 8)

F. J. Gillen is on a journey to Adelaide and is sending plates and specimens.

F. J. Gillen (Mount Gambier) to B.S., 13 August 1895 (File 9)

Again writing on route to Adelaide and Melbourne.

F. J. Gillen (Mount Gambier) to B.S., 30 August 1895 (File 10)

Writing after visit to Melbourne.

Sends B.S. a copy of a negative letter F. J. Gillen has written to Stirling.

F. J. Gillen (Mount Gambier) to B.S., 1 September 1895 (File 11)

Acknowledging letter from B.S.

F. J. Gillen (Adelaide) to B.S., 11 September 1895 (File 12)

Informing B.S. of conversations with Stirling, for whom he will not provide more information

Urges B.S. not to overwork.

F. J. Gillen (Clare) to B.S., 22 September 1895 (File 13 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports an awkward discussion with 'Stirling'

Internal academic disputes.

F. J. Gillen (Charlotte Waters) to B.S., 11 October 1895 (File 14)

More complications with Stirling

Casts light on competing activities and plans for publication.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 7 November 1895 (File 15 (14))

The Gillen family is safely back at Alice Springs

Sending specimens

Gillen has lost money in stocks and shares

Reports on the additions he has made to his collections

More suspicion of Stirling

Talks with Indigenous Australians.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 20 December 1895 (File 16)

Thanks for B.S.' letter and presents

Australian Aboriginal woman refuses to be photographed

Sending specimens

Difficulties over photography

Complications over publication of results of the Horn Expedition.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 31 January 1896 (File 17 (20))

F. J. Gillen's Irish Nationalist sentiments

B.S. thanks God he is an Englishmen

F. J. Gillen thanks God he is not!

Abuse of Britain!

Sending specimens

Details of the quarrels over the Horn Expedition, Australian Aboriginal Class Systems, and sexual arrangements

Influence of white navvies on aboriginal life

One Indigenous Australian thinks black fellows are becoming as immoral as whites!

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 13 March 1896 (File 18 (15))

Condolence on illness of B.S.' wife and death of small son.

Sending notes on table of Indigenous Australian relationships which has presented many difficulties.

How F. J. Gillen got the information required.

Details of the rain-making ceremony, as well as others.

Attack on Horn for misuse of F. J. Gillen's photographs

Academic jealousies.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 14 March 1896 (File 19)

Following up No. 18 13-Mar-1896;

Sending more photographs.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 25 April 1896 (File 20 (17))

(Note: His letter has marginal annotations by B.S.)

More academic jealousies

Is Stirling poaching information?

Thanks for B.S.' encouragement.

Details of F.J.G's pattern of cooperation with B.S.

Sending specimens

Discussion of 'message sticks', and 'smoke signals'.

Marriage customs.

Missionaries (the role of) among the 'Blacks'.

Criticism of Horn.

Denunciation of Lord Salisbury.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 1 May 1896 (File 21)

F. J. Gillen makes interesting comments on ill-treatment of 'Blacks' and their exclusion from their old camping-grounds.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 5 June 1896 (File 22 (20))

(includes MS notes by B.S.)

Discussing a trip to be made together.

F. J. Gillen recommends use of camels.

The CIV (?) marriage system.

The influence of Missionaries is degrading and even 'debauching'.

The remarriage of widows.

Sending specimens, particularly lizards.

The Quapara - Criticism of Stirling

F. J. Gillen's disbelief in 'the message stick'.

Women 'doctors' among the tribes.

The Wilyara ceremony.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 14 July 1896 (File 23 (21))

F. J. Gillen is going on a six week trip and will hunt for information and specimens.

Has sent more specimens.

The Laritcha tribe.

'Cowle', his personal strengths and weaknesses.

Cowle has collected Churinga sticks.

Winnecke and his future assignments.

His dispute with Horn.

The problem of sexual promiscuity among the tribes.

Women detailed to provide 'service' at Corroborees.

The Arunta.

Eating the totem article.

their attitude to the Laritcha.

The Laritcha language.

The secret use of the names of dead warriors.

The significance of 'message sticks'.

The Engwiera (?) ceremony.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., August 1896 (File 24 (20))

F.J. Gillen is back from his trip.

Details of speciments and information sent.

Evidence pointing to promiscuity.

Male and female sub-incision operations and their name.

The Engwiera(?) ceremony.

Stirling and his newly-published paper.

The Government and 'the hospital row'.

F. J. Gillen has arranged for an 'Engwiera' (?) ceremony to be performed.

Misinformation about the aub-incision of young men.

The 'gesture language' in certain tribes.

The ban on speaking affecting women in mourning.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 8 October 1896 (File 25 (3))

F. J. Gillen's brother has died.

Preparations for the Engwiera (?) ceremony.

The problem of feeding the multitudes.

Arrangements for B.S.' visit to stay with F. J. Gillen.

Telegrams to be inserted between August'96 (No.24) and October'96 (No.25) -, 25 September 1896 - 26 September 1896 (File)
3 items


While the exact content of these telegrams is unclear, it seems that F. J. Gillen first asked B.S.' advise about standing for the Parliamentary seat left empty by his brother's death. Then F.J.G decided against this plan and informed B.S. of his decision through Mr. Mann.

P.O. telegram from F. J. Gillen to B.S. reading, 25 September 1896 (Item 24 A)

Confidential Am Urged Powerful Friends Contest My Brother's District Assured Success Advise Me If Our Work Sufficiently Important Warrant Me Declining Reply Immediately

(signature) F.J. Gillen.

Telegram to B.S. signed W.Mann, University, 26 September 1896 (Item 4 B)

Reading - Gillen Have Declined Quite Content

Telegram to B.S. signed W. Mann, University, 26 September 1896 (Item 4C)

Reading - Gillen Don't Be Uneasy Have Definitely Declined Slianthe

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 9 February 1897 (File 26 (11))

B.S. is on his way to 'boom-stricken microberidden frowsy old Melbourne'

Recollections of B.S.' visit to Alice Springs

F. J. Gillen's efforts to make money: horses and shares

His handling of a case of theft of livestock.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 23 March 1897 (File 27 (14))

F. J. Gillen has had a visit from DR Eylmann of Germany who plans to publish a book on his travels

Erkincha disease

Stone Churinga Nangas

Winnecke has used 'trickery' over the Horn pictures

B.S. is afraid that the University authorities think he makes too many expeditions

F. J. Gillen refutes this and says 'you burn the intellectual candle at both ends'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 6 May 1897 (File 28 (15))

F. J. Gillen has published a paper with plates.

An encouraging letter received from H.Balfour of the University Museum, Oxford.

Alchuringa men.

The roots of a class system?

Erkincha disease.

A good piece of detective work (tracking) by Cowle.

J. Gillen is against using fire arms in capturing native offenders.

F. J. Gillen has refused the offer of another official appointment.

Details of various Indigenous Australian beliefs.

Winnecke's journal and the charges he makes against Horn.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 18 June 1897 (File 29)

F. J. Gillen has dispatched a large collection of notes to B.S.

He thinks some point back to a time of maternal descent

A long list of topics

'It's going to be a great book'. F. J. Gillen's praise of B.S. as a collaborator.

The damage the white man has done to the aboriginals and their traditions.

He has sent specimens.

Guarded references to Stirling.

Some cave drawings.

The 'great work' is taking shape.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 30 July 1897 (File 30 (18))

F. J. Gillen has sent off 50 or more pages of manuscript.

He has just returned from a trip.

Details of axes and knives.

An Alcheringa ceremony.

Anxieties about 'the book'.

Will MacMillans the publishers accept it?.

The Winnecke-Horn dispute.

Native languages; and food.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 10 September 1897 (File 31 (16))

F. J. Gillen has dispatched specimens.

Comments on some of B.S.' drafts.

Alchuringa man and his Churinga.

Eating the totem article?

How F. J. Gillen settled a quarrel between two Indigenous Australian women.

Details of photographic work.

Criticism of 'Tate'.

He is 'a mean old dog'.

F.J. Gillen's Irish nationalist feelings.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 22 October 1897 (File 32 (7))

F. J. Gillen has dispatched photographs.

The Churinga and its markings.

Further minor corrections to B.S.' manuscript.

F. J. Gillen believes that the Indigenous Australian were once more numerous; but not in their degeneration as a result of syphilis brought in by the white man. It had existed long before his arrival.

'The flesh of man is never eaten under any circumstances'.

The relationship of men with their totems.

The danger that 'the book' may be anticipated by some other publications.

There is a drought in the Region.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 3 December 1897 (File 33 (5))

Thanking B.S. for his letter and gift of books and oranges.

News of an aboriginal ceremony which may be at the root of Western baptismal rites. F. J. Gillen has had a letter from Sir John Lubbock and asks for advice on how to reply.

A tradition pointing to the origin of the class system.

There has been only 4 1/2 inches of rain this year (1897).

F. J. Gillen's speculations in stocks and shares.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 13 January 1898 (File 34 (7))

A fracas among Indigenous Australians.

A man wounded by a boomerang and the behavior of his women.

A new development over the Churinga.

Mr.Roth's book.

The drinking of seminal fluid.

'The book is going to be a great one'.

F. J. Gillen has replied to Sir John Lubbock's letter (see No.33) saying that Mr. Frazer can give full information about B.S.

F. J. Gillen's work.

More speculation in mining shares.

F. J. Gillen has lost a lot of money.

Low salary paid to the Protector of Aborigines.

The Arltunga mine is starting up and crushing machinery has been installed.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 11 March 1898 (File 35 (a))

Problems of the mail between Alice Springs and Melbourne.

There have been rains and floods with damage to railway lines

Problems at the Artlunga mine.

Roth's book on language etc.

Facial and bodily scars of aboriginals.

A Corroboree lasting 5 nights.

Sexual ceremonies.

Sending specimens.

Indigenous Australian women who succeed in declaring themselves 'doctors'.

An Indigenous Australian cattle thief has been shot and killed in being arrested.

F. J. Gillen's concern, as Sub-Protector, about this- He has recommended that traders be forbidden to use fire-arms except in controlled circumstances.

F. J. Gillen attacks B.S. for his 'hide-bound Toryism'.

The meaning of 'Churinga'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 3 April 1898 (File 36 (2))

More about mail arrangements.

The joint book is nearly finished.

F. J. Gillen is planning to learn 'the language' throughly and hopes to become Protector.

F. J. Gillen explains the decline of interest in 'the Natives' and hence in the Department.

Their difficulties over food supply.

'If ever I get into the House (with a big H.) I will make better.

treatment of our natives my own particular fad'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 17 April 1898 (File 37 (5))

Local excitement because F. J. Gillen has sentenced 'the king's' youngest son to 6 months in gaol.

F. J. Gillen's efforts to comfort the king.

The 'Couvade' ceremony.

Customs prevailing among women in pregnancy.

Negotiations with MacMillans' over publication of 'the book'.

F.J. Gillen's political views.

He admires Lord Salisbury 'he has been a restraining influence upon the rapacity of your countrymen whom I certainly do not hate. I do hate the policy England has pursued with regard to Ireland for the last 600 years'.

Conservatives and Liberals in the Colonies.

'Kingston' and his sins against morality.

B.S.' 'lofty' 'patronising' air towards local politicians, who are in F. J. Gillen's view 'the men who are building up a nation in Australia'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 13 May 1898 (File 38 (5))

Inter-state rivalries in Australia.

F. J. Gillen urges B.S. to look after himself and work less hard.

The need for an Aborigines' Department.

News of gold-mining ventures.

F. J. Gillen's explanation of the Totem system, 'it originated in a desire to account for origin and for no other purpose'- He disagrees with Roth's explanation.

More political views.

F. J. Gillen's ambition for a political career is diminishing ;The 'Commonwealth Bill' and its plans for federation.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 28 May 1898 (File 39 (4))

Discussion of their respective sharesin 'the work'.

F. J. Gillen gives B.S. full credit.

The shooting of cattle-thieves if they try to avoid arrest.

F. J. Gillen has been speculating in shares and lost money.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., June 1898 (File 40 (6))

F. J. Gillen's Irish nationalist views and his opinion of 'Duffy's' book.

Things have been improving thanks to W.E. Gladstone.

F. J. Gillen condemns the law which prohibits Professors from sitting in Parliament.

News of 'the book'.

Federation has been set back because of 'the spineless wobbler, Reid'.

The attitude of local newspapers.

Discussion of various politicians.

F. J. Gillen's views on a referendum.

News of Dr. Eylmann's journey.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 10 July 1898 (File 41 (5))

F. J. Gillen has enjoyed correcting proofs of 'the book'.

Details of Dr. Eylmann's work.

Killing of a would-be Indigenous Australian convert to Christianity.

Indigenous Australian beliefs as to the causes of illness.

The problem of Irish Home Rule.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 7 August 1898 (File 42 (5))

F.J. Gillen has been exceptionally busy with official duties.

Sending photographs of a ceremony.

'The returning of Churinga'.

F. J. Gillen tells B.S. not to be afraid of 'Fraser being disappointed with the work'.

F. J. Gillen and B.S. differ about the merits of Gladstone and Disraeli.

F. J. Gillen admires Gladstone and loathes Disraeli.

F.J. Gillen on two Australian politicians; Burton and Reid.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 22 August 1898 (File 43)

F. J. Gillen writes to say that he is leaving Alice Springs with his family next morning.

F. J. Gillen (Clare)? to B.S., September 1898 (File 44 (2))

F. J. Gillen has given a successful lecture in Adelaide - which was well reported in the newspapers.

F. J. Gillen stressed 'the want of encouragement of scientific workers in Australia'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 3 October 1898 (File 45 (3))

F. J. Gillen hates being back at Alice Springs without his family.

He wants to sell his collection of native weapons etc.

B.S. has gone back to England and is trying to get an appointment there.

'The Book' is to come out shortly.

F. J. Gillen thinks B.S. may inherit the mantle of 'Huxley'.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 13 November 1898 (File 46 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports that it is 106° in the shade at Alice Springs

References to help received from Fraser

F. J. Gillen's opinion of Tylor 'has sunk to Zero'

F. J. Gillen is going to take photographs of an initiation ceremony.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 23 December 1898 (File 47 (3))

An outbreak of measles among the local Indigenous Australian tribe.

6 deaths in the last fortnight.

Murder and cattle stealing among the tribes.

F. J. Gillen has applied for a new posting.

F. J. Gillen has applied for a new posting.

He is reading Fraser's Golden BoughNews of Dr. Eylmann who is returning to Germany.

More newspaper praise of F. J. Gillen's lecture (see No.44).

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 8 January 1899 (File 48 (2))

F. J. Gillen has been appointed to Moonla (?), which he describes as a 'nest of Cousin Jacks and rigid methodism'.

Emoluments are improved.

The measles epidemic has continued.

F. J. Gillen has been invited to write a series of articles on the Aboriginals, but has declined pending publication of 'The Book'.

The Southern Australian Government is providing funds for a comprehensive work on the Australian race.

F. J. Gillen claims some credit for this.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 19 March 1899 (File 49 (3))

F. J. Gillen has been on an 800 mile trip and collected many specimens.

His successor at Alice Springs is to be a Mr Bradshaw.

F. J. Gillen has received a copy of 'The Book'; he thinks it is splendidly got up, but the illustrations a little disappointing.

He has had a letter of commendation from a Minister (The Hon. J.H. Gordon).

B.S. has decided to stay in Australia.


to B.S.

F. J. Gillen (Alice Springs) to B.S., 15 April 1899 (File 50)

F. J. Gillen has seen the criticisms of 'The Book'.

Howitt has praised it enthusiastically.

'Federation' of Australia is on the way.

F. J. Gillen is resigning the office of Sub-Protector, but hopes to retain the title.

The Aboriginals are sorry to see him go: ' I shall shall feel parting with the blacks more than with whites.'


to B.S.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 29 April 1899 (File 51)

Telegram reading 'Leaving for Adelaide Tomorrow Taking Last Look at Engwura Ground Today Fixing Site For Erection Stone Pillar There Slianthe (signature F.J. Gillen).

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 19 July 1899 (File 52)

F. J. Gillen has taken up his new post and is very busy with official duties.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 22 August 1899 (File 53 (3))

F. J. Gillen renews his request for help with a lecture he has to give, but B.S. is very busy with 'a herculean task of creating order out of chaos'?

Reorganisation of the Museum - F. J. Gillen has read more reviews of 'the Book'.

A bill for The Protection and Care of the Aboriginal and Half-Caste Inhabitants of the Province has been introduced in the Upper House

F. J. Gillen has to give evidence to a Select Committee - F. J. Gillen's critisms of the Bill: 'There appears to be a growing desire to do something for the Blacks'

F. J. Gillen is unhappy in the bureaucratic routine of his new post.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 7 September 1899 (File 54)

Postcard reporting on a trip to the Point Pearce Mission Station - 'Be prepared for starting statements about eating of the totem'

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 17 September 1899 (File 55 (2))

Further details of the trip to the Mission Station - Information obtained from a half-caste man.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 28 September 1899 (File 56 (3))

F. J. Gillen declines an invitation to accept 'the President-ship' and urges B.S. to accept.

F. J. Gillen has been disappointed over better postings.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 11-Oct (File 57 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports on his appearance before the Select Committee.

The importance of guaranteeing access to waterholes for the Indigenous Australians.

F. J. Gillen may agree to accept the 'Presidentship' if B.S. will write his Address for him.

He feels that the Government has not recognised his services properly.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 15 November 1899 (File 58 (4))

F. J. Gillen urges B.S. to work less hard.

F. J. Gillen has been made President of the 'Ethnological Section'.

The points he would like included in his Address.

The 'path to extinction, which we all agree is inevitable and rapidly approaching', should be made as pleasant as possible for the Indigenous Australians.

Discovery of a vast man-made Amphitheatre.

The Boer War, the reaction of the Irish Nationalist party to it.

The injustices done to Ireland.

The Land Laws.

F. J. Gillen's lecture at Wallaroo was a success.

Political maneuvers in the State Parliament.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 28 January 1900 (File 59 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports on a trip to Adelaide. A meeting with Stirling.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla)? to B.S., 30 May 1900 (File 60 (3))

Discussion of a joint trip to the Northern Coast.

F. J. Gillen doubts whether he can go because of financial difficulties.

'Wire just to hand announcing capture of Johannesburg'

'What a great little man is Bobs'.

F. J. Gillen's share speculations have gone wrong.

'Kingston' and his political future.

Will he be Prime Minister of Federal Australia?

Lord Salisbury's attack on the Irish.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 16 June 1900 (File 61)

Telegram reading 'Delighted to Hear of Both Distinctions Heartiest Congratulations From Us Both Forgive Gillingham Slianthe' (signature) Gillen.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 21 June 1900 (File 62 (2))

Sending congratulations on B.S.' 'Dual honour'.

F. J. Gillen now thinks he can come on the Northern trip, provided that he can get leave.

Things are not going well at Alice Springs, under his successor Bradshaw.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 July 1900 (File 63)

Prospects for the joint Northern trip are good.

F. J. Gillen's anti-Methodist feelings.

His lecture on 'Magic' went well.


to B.S.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 7 September 1900 (File 64 (2))

F. J. Gillen's problems over leave and making up his pay, if he goes on the trip.

There has been a public petition to the Government to allow him to go.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 10 September 1900 (File 65)

Problems of raising funds for the Northern trip. At least £1000 is needed.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 11 September 1900 (File 66)

Still no news from the Government about F. J. Gillen's leave.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 11 September 1900 (File 67)

Details of tables of inter-marriage relationships.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 12 September 1900 (File 68)

Still no news from the Government.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 13 September 1900 (File 69)

A private letter has come from Sir C. Todd about F. J. Gillen's leave.

Stirling has not been co-operative about fund-raising for the trip.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 15 September 1900 (File 70 (2))

F. J. Gillen's terms for joining the expedition.

He hopes all the funds needed will not be raised from Victoria only.

His views on Stirling's unhelpfulness.

Logistic arrangements.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 16 September 1900 (File 71)

Still no news from Sir C. Todd.

'Cinematograph idea is good if the funds will run it, but I think photographic records of corroborees are even more important'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 16 September 1900 (File 72)

No official news yet.

F. J. Gillen would like costs shared equally between Victoria and South Australia.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 21 September 1900 (File 73)

F. J. Gillen is going to Adelaide to see Sir C. Todd - He feels 'unsettled and anxious'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 24 September 1900 (File 74)

Details of interviews with Kingston and others, which F. J. Gillen plans to have in Adelaide.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 24 September 1900 (File 75)

F. J. Gillen is uneasy about his leave and suspects hostile influences.

He thinks Stirling wants to join the expedition, but does not want to have him.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 24-9-1900(?) (File 76)

Chance has been told that he is to join the expedition.

F. J. Gillen thinks £1500 is now needed.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 5 October 1900 (File 77)

Details of the terms on which Chance is joining the expedition - There have been many other applications to join.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 10 October 1900 (File 78)

Dr. Kennedy has applied to join the expedition.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 11 October 1900 (File 79)

Administrative arrangements.

The expedition is opening a Bank account.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 15 October 1900 (File 80)

More banking and administrative details.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 25 October 1900 (File 81)

An approach from The Register newspaper for photographs and information material.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 26 October 1900 (File 82 (2))

Another possible recruit for the expedition. Who will pay for the additional cost?

Buying horses and 'a light hooded buggy'.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 1 November 1900 (File 83 (2))

A letter from Sir C. Todd - Looking for a suitable vehicle (a buggy) for the expedition.

Horses and saddles have been bought.

Official information received that F. J. Gillen will be paid at £400 p.a. during his absence.

One country newspaper has ridiculed the expedition, saying that it will not benefit humanity one straw.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 20 November 1900 (File 84 (2))

F. J. Gillen suggests a book for B.S. to write - More preparations for the expedition.

'The Book' has begun to show a small profit.

Davidson has explored '30,000 miles' of hitherto unknown country.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 4 December 1900 (File 85)

The need for rain.

The case of Marshall Hall, who has lost a University appointment because of his religious (or irreligious) opinions.

F. J. Gillen is keen on taking a phonograph on the expedition, but is unhappy about cinematograph films in the heat.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 11 December 1900 (File 86 (2))

F. J. Gillen has changed his mind and now wants a cinematograph.

Horses and vehicles.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 20 December 1900 (File 87)

'Still infernally dry up North'.

A list of camp equipment required.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 21 December 1900 (File 88)

An 'Abbott' buggy is available for £35, Shall F. J. Gillen buy?

News of government postings.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 30 December 1900 (File 89)

F. J. Gillen has not heard from B.S. for 3 weeks.

F. J. Gillen (Adelaide) to B.S., undated (early in Jan. 1901) (File 90)

F. J. Gillen writes from Adelaide where he has had meetings with the Premier and other V.I.P.'s.

The Government is being helpful over equipment.

The weather in the North is bad (drought).

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 7-1-1900 (a mistake for 1901) (File 91)

F. J. Gillen is planning a trip to Melbourne to meet B.S. - he fears trouble with 'the Mission Stations', who are 'an unreasonable lot of brutes'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 8 January 1901 (File 92)

F. J. Gillen suggests another point of departure for the expedition.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 2 January 1901 (File 93)

F. J. Gillen has ordered supplies of fodder and horsefeed.

Chance is going ahead to feed up the horses.

Still no rain in the North, which will make difficulties.

Transportation arrangements.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 22 January 1901 (File 94)

More problems of transportation and fodder, hinging on the possibility of rain.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 25 January 1901 (File 95)

Grave anxiety about the drought.

F. J. Gillen (through R.J. Besley) to B.S., 14 February 1901 (File 96)

Mr. Besley forwards the text of a wire from F. J. Gillen giving details of rainfall in the North.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 18 February 1901 (File 97 (3))

F. J. Gillen's happiness because rain has fallen.

Details of transportation arrangements and equipment.

Financial arrangements.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 February 1901 (File 98)

F. J. Gillen reports more Government help over transportation.

There has been more rain.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 20 February 1901 (File 99)

There has been more rain in the North.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 21 February 1901 (File 100)

More news of rain.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 22 February 1901 (File 101)

More rain.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 23 February 1901 (File 102)

Details of newly bought horses and buggy.

Cave has been very helpful.

F. J. Gillen denounces B.S. 'and English assumptions of superiority over the Irish'.

F. J. Gillen hopes for another Parnell, 'killed by that hybrid monster, the nonconformist conscience of England'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 25 February 1901 (File 103)

More news of rain.

F. J. Gillen is going to Adelaide to attend the Proclamation of the King (Edward VII).

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 1 March 1901 (File 104)

F. J. Gillen has returned unwell from Adelaide.

He has seen Chance off with the horses.

More purchases of equipment.

Further help from Government.

Mrs.Gillen to B.S., 19 June 1901 (File 105)

Mrs. G. sends good wishes to B.S. 'I hope you have been able to look after and manage Frank, take great care of him'.

Statement of expenditure of the 'Spencer Gillen Expedition' (File 106)

Amounting to £1224/2/3.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 7 April 1902 (File 107)

F. J. Gillen is back 'in harness'.

Death and burial ceremonies.

F. J. Gillen appears to have been made a Fellow of the Anthropological Society, which he would sooner have 'than a KCMG'.

Interviews with the Press on return from the Expedition.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 9 April 1902 (File 108)

F. J. Gillen has sent B.S. a present of local wine.

His criticisms of The Magic Rose by E. Crawley.

His kindly reception as 'a scientist' by the people of Moonla.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 11 April 1902 (File 109 (2))

Details of a Reception in F. J. Gillen's honour.

The excessive cost of 'preparing photographic film'.

Bad conditions in the centre of the country: drought and famine.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 14 April 1902 (File 110 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports that gramophone 'cylinders' have arrived.

There is a credit balance of £110 in the Expedition account, which he intends closing.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 21 May 1902 (File 111)

F. J. Gillen urges B.S. not to overwork.

Disposal of the collection of specimens made on the Expedition.

'The Mine' at Moonla is to be temporarily closed, and some hundreds of men will be thrown out of work.

News of mutual acquaintances.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 28 May 1902 (File 112)

F. J. Gillen sends newspaper cuttings about the Expedition.

He is to lecture to the Geographical Society.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 2 June 1902 (File 113)

The Expedition's horses are to be sold.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 18 June 1902 (File 114 (2))

F. J. Gillen is preparing for his lecture.

'Funk is the dominant note in our social and political life just now'.

Retrenchment in the Civil Service.

Much unemployment in Adelaide and 'suffering amongst the poorer classes'.

F. J. Gillen has never been so hard up in his life.

He has had a gratifying letter from 'Professor Haddon'.

An American evangelist and his methods.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 June 1902 (File 115)

The beliefs of Warramunga women.

F. J. Gillen appreciates that B.S. has always kept him in the foreground of their joint work.

Threats of cuts in all official salaries, including F. J. Gillen's.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 25 June 1902 (File 116)

F. J. Gillen is planning his lecture to the Geographic Society and wants help from B.S.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 27 June 1902 (File 117)

F. J. Gillen has been reading a portion of B.S.' manuscript and provides information.

The Arltunga mine looks like being a boom.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 'Wednesday' ? June 1902 (File 118)

F. J. Gillen asks B.S. for his definition of religion - Is Totemism a form of religion?.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., Saturday (File 119)

F. J. Gillen has been reading and correcting B.S.' manuscript.

Sends a cutting from the Adelaide Advertiser about the discovery of an Australian Aboriginal shelter containing drawings of birds, reptiles etc.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 30 June 1902 (File 120)

Details of F. J. Gillen's and B.S.' forthcoming lectures.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 3 July 1902 (File 121)

Cuts in Professorial salaries are being threatened.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 8 July 1902 (File 122)

F. J. Gillen has heard that B.S.' lecture was a great success.

F. J. Gillen to B.S., 14 July 1902 (File 123)

More about the lectures.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 16 July 1902 (File 124 (2))

F. J. Gillen thanks B.S. for sending him a full Account of his (B.S.) successful lecture - He is still making plans for his own lecture.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 17 July 1902 (File 125)

F. J. Gillen is delighted with all the slides sent for his lecture.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 18 July 1902 (File 126)

Plans for F. J. Gillen's lecture - It is to be held in Adelaide Hall, which seats 1500 - Stirling has offered help.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 21 July 1902 (File 127 (2))

F. J. Gillen is anxious about his lecture; 'unhappily I have not your frog-like placidity of temperament'.

Political disputes in the State Government.

F. J. Gillen is delighted at the retirement of 'that old pig Salisbury', and Balfour coming to power.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 22 July 1902 (File 128)

F. J. Gillen sends newspaper cuttings advertising his lecture.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 27 July 1902 (File 129)

F. J. Gillen reports that his lecture was a great success before a magnificent audience.

He has been given reason to hope for a better posting.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 29 July 1902 (File 130)

Domestic details.

More news of the lecture and a possible repetition.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 30 July 1902 (File 131)

F. J. Gillen has had a talk with the State Prime Minister about future postings.

Full details of the lecture.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 14 August 1902 (File 132 (2))

B.S. has done a 'kitchen midden' dig.

A dispute between the 'Railway people' and the Government.

A row in the local Railway Workshop.

F. J. Gillen's comments on beliefs 'and other parts of B.S.' new draft'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 22 August 1902 (File 133 (3))

F. J. Gillen sends B.S. 'Brockman's' report on his explorations N.W. of Kimberley.

F. J. Gillen is to lecture at Adelaide University, and asks B.S. to write a new peroation.

The 'May-Ives' scandal.

Frazer has proposed F. J. Gillen for 'membership'? of the Royal Anthropological Society.

References to Ethnological books, including Lang's Custom and Myth and Lubbock's Prehistoric Times.

'The pendulum has swung round here with a vengeance.

The Labor party is practically dead, done to death by their own greed.

All Australia is in a parlous condition'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 27 August 1902 (File 134 (2))

F. J. Gillen copies extracts from his Record of the Expedition for the information of B.S.

A curious tradition about the rain totem.

The Mara table of relationships.

The Warna ceremonies.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 3 September 1902 (File 135 (2))

B.S. has not accepted F. J. Gillen's suggestion for disposal of any cash surplus from the University Lecture.

It is to go to the relief of Central Australian natives - More details of the rain ceremony.

F. J. Gillen's comments on the Boer War, and its end.

More about the Mara table of relationships.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 4 September 1902 (File 136)

Sending photos of two of the oldest survivors of an almost extinct tribe.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 8 September 1902 (File 137)

Recollections of the expedition a year ago.

The Nathagara ceremony.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 9 September 1902 (File 138)

F. J. Gillen is glad to have heard from B.S. by telegram, of the solving of a relationship problem - (The Mara table).

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 10 September 1902 (File 139)

Further discussion of the relationship table - B.S. has made a 'great find'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 12 September 1902 (File 140)

F. J. Gillen has been confused over the relationship table by a further letter from B.S.

Winnecke has died.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 12 September 1902 (File 141)

Telegram from F. J. Gillen to B.S. reading: - 'Hopelessly Tied Up Can't Get Grip Of It At All'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 September 1902 (File 142)

F. J. Gillen reports an earthquake shock at Moonla - His lecture at Adelaide went off well.

'The slides were shown splendidly by means of electric light'.

F. J. Gillen has lunched with Sir Samuel Way (?) the Governor of the State.

Will F. J. Gillen and B.S. get recognition from 'The Home Authorities'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 2 October 1902 (File 143 (3))

More about the possibility of 'recognition'.

F. J. Gillen has received a 'humiliating' note about the lecture from the Registrar of Adelaide University.

An electoral victory by 'Irvine'.

F. J. Gillen's views on certain Irish Nationalists.

A curious but helpful letter from A. Grainger, Agent-General for the State in London.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 12 October 1902 (File 144 (3))

F. J. Gillen has recovered from pleurisy - B.S. is depressed about conditions in Melbourne University.

'Melba' and 'Sandow' have been in Adelaide.

An interesting English rolling stone named Keane, the son of a Church dignitary.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 October 1902 (File 145 (2))

News of visitors and mutual friends.

The need for Professors not to lose touch with the people.

B.S. has successfully arranged the Ethnological exhibits at the Melbourne Museum.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 26 October 1902 (File 146 (3))

F. J. Gillen's recollections of the Expedition a year ago.

He sends B.S. material drawn from his notes.

The meaning of particular terms.

Discussion of Crawley's Mystic Rose

Details of other books.

An economy drive by the State Government, bringing cuts and redundancies, and increased taxation.

Rising cost of living.

University salaries are being cut.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 29 October 1902 (File 147)

F. J. Gillen has finished reading Crawley's Mystic Rose with its criticisms of the Gillen-Spencer book.

References to the problem of primitive sexual promiscuity.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 3 November 1902 (File 148 (3))

F. J. Gillen has happly received a cheque from MacMillans (proceeds of 'the book').

B.S. has sent him the Manuscript of another book.

F. J. Gillen makes minor corrections - Press comment on Melbourne University.

An attack in The Age.

The University's friends do not fight for it.

Dr. Gregory's book British East Africa and its references to religious troubles in Uganda.

The 'Transcontinental Land Grant Railway' Bill has passed the Lower House in the State Parliament.

F. J. Gillen's new suit of clothes and its effect on Moonla society.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 8 November 1902 (File 149)

More about Crawley'sMystic Rose.

Dr.Haddon's address to the Anthropological Section of the British Association at Belfast.

F. J. Gillen's conversation with Sir F. Holden.

Interesting assessments of Australian (Federal) Politicians and Ministers Holden supports Melbourne University against the Press.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 17 November 1902 (File 150)

Gillen family news, including daughter's illness - A successful operation.

B.S. disagrees with Haddon's interpretation of totemism.

F. J. Gillen's theory.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 4 December 1902 (File 151 (3))

F. J. Gillen reports that the long drought is breaking up.

Aboriginal traditions about droughts.

Reminiscences of the expedition and mistakes made on it.

The possibility of appealing to 'Carnegie' for financial support for more joint work.

The Age newspaper and its attacks on university staff.

News of the Transcontinental Railway project, and the routes it should take.

Fraud and laxity in the Australian Customs administration.

Kingston's attempts to put things right.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 18 December 1902 (File 152 (2))

F. J. Gillen reports plenty of rain.

News of personal contacts.

The disposal of Winnecke's collection.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 22 December 1902 (File 153)

Christmas wishes from F. J. Gillen to B.S.

Recollections of the expedition.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 6 January 1903 (File 154 (2))

F. J. Gillen has been working on B.S.' manuscript.

Queries about the material to be included.

Details of plans for the Transcontinental Railway.

F. J. Gillen doubts the possibilities of opening up mines and 'splendid pastoral land'.

Discussion of the Irvine Government's scheme to give Civil Servants special representation.

Praise of the Commonwealth Act dealing with the Civil Service.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 11 January 1903 (File 155)

The unsolved problems of the Mara relationship classifications - F. J. Gillen's anxiety about it.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 12 January 1903 (File 156)

The problem still unsolved.

Totemic restrictions on marriage.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 13 January 1903 (File 157)

More thoughts about Totemic restrictions on marriage.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 19 January 1903 (File 158 (3))

Different accounts of the Chilchingalla corroboree.

F. J. Gillen has found a page from a small notebook which appears to solve the problem (attached to Letter).

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 29 January 1903 (File 159)

F. J. Gillen has been looking at photographs as illustrations for the new book.

Tribal names and their origins.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 1 February 1903 (File 160 (4))

F. J. Gillen has been going over B.S.' MS.

The meaning of tribal names.

Information about beliefs and traditions F. J. Gillen has gathered on a visit to a local Mission Station.

News of mutual acquaintances.

Developments in the Goldfields.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 4 February 1903 (File 161)

The question of inheritance of implements of an Arunta man

Details of photographs to be used in the book.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., February 1903 (File 162)

B.S. has been unwell.

F. J. Gillen refers to Methodist versus Roman Catholic disputes.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 4 March 1903 (File 163)

An imminent boom at the Arltunga goldfield.

The need for a telegraph line.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 23 March 1903 (File 164 (2))

Photographs of an Australian Aboriginal Council are described by F. J. Gillen. More news of the Goldfields boom.

F. J. Gillen may make a prospecting trip - A large bequest to the Adelaide Museum and Library.

News of Customs frauds.

Adelaide plutocrats give handsome donations to educational institutions.

F. J. Gillen asks why this is not so in Melbourne.

Correspondence in Adelaide papers about brutal treatment of Indigenous Australians.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 28 March 1903 (File 165)

F. J. Gillen defends himself against B.S.' stern criticism of his proposal to go prospecting for gold.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 7 April 1903 (File 166)

The Winnecke Depot Goldfields claims have been dissipated by an adverse report.

F. J. Gillen puts his hopes on Arltunga.

The Robert Reid and Co. Customs evasion case.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 26 April 1903 (File 167)

F. J. Gillen is sending examples of Tonkin's drawings of animals and insects.

F. J. Gillen wants him to take a course at the School of Art.

So far he has never done anything except copper mining, but F. J. Gillen believes he has a future as an artist.

'The Peninsula farmers have done splendidly this year, good crops and high prices'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 6 May 1903 (File 168)

B.S. has given a favorable opinion on Tonkin's work, and F. J. Gillen intends to try and raise finance to support him while studying.

B.S. has prepared a glossary of Indigenous Australian words, which F. J. Gillen is to go through.

Troubles (including a possible strike) on the Victoria railways.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 6 May 1903 (File 169)

Development over Tonkin.

Roth and his views on the Australian Aboriginal problem, including a proposal for large reservations.

The Railway strike has begun.

'Moonla' is a stronghold of labor'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 31 May 1903 (File 170 (2))

The Railway strike has ended.

F. J. Gillen's praise of Irvine, the Irish Prime Minister of Victoria.

Comments on the reactions of other State governments to the strike.

The State Governorship, why should it not be given to a local man?

Will Commonwealth of Australia civil servants have to retire at 65?

F. J. Gillen's views on the State school system.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 10 June 1903 (File 171)

Tonkin has been awarded a free place at Art School but how is he to keep himself?

B.S. has bought Tonkin's picture 'The Maniac'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 18 June 1903 (File 172 (3))

B.S. has sent F. J. Gillen a very interesting letter from 'Frazer'.

The reincarnation theory among tribes with maternal descent.

A tribe from which information could be obtained in the vicinity of Anna Creek - Plans for a possible 3 month joint Expedition.

'F. J. Gillen would give much to roll old Lang in the Anthropological mud'.

F. J. Gillen's views on Australian politicians, Kingston and Deakin.

His views on the Public Service and the recent strike.

He is against making a strike a criminal matter.

'A more stringent and retrograde measure could not have emanated from a Russian Council of State'.

F. J. Gillen's delight at Lord Salisbury's retirement and his Nationalist feelings.

Parnell, Joseph Chamberlain, and the problem of Irish Home Rule.

'Poor working man. According to a recent authority, 11 millions of the English people are in a chronic state of semi-starvation'.

More about the planned expedition to N.Australia.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 25 June 1903 (File 173 (2))

Discussion of the meaning of certain native words - More planning of the expedition.

F. J. Gillen's views on the 'Wyndham's Bill'.

The arrogance of the English Governing Classes on the Irish Problem!; the policy all along has been 'Repress, Repress, Repress'.

His views on the Boers.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 9 July 1903 (File 174)

F. J. Gillen has received a first instalment of proofs.

Planning arrangements for the expedition.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 14 July 1903 (File 175)

F. J. Gillen sends a newspaper cutting claiming that Adelaide University is the best School of Science in Australia.

Free railway passes have been granted for the expedition.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 22 July 1903 (File 176)

F. J. Gillen has been reading proofs and makes a suggestion.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 29 August 1903 (File 177)

F. J. Gillen has read through the Past instalment of B.S'. opus magnum.

He thinks it is written 'in a lighter vein'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 1 September 1903 (File 178)

F. J. Gillen provides certain native names.

'The Ramsay Smith' enquiry begins tomorrow and may 'develop into a huge scandal'.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 7 September 1903 (File 179)

An Adelaide bookseller has offered to buy the right to reproduce F. J. Gillen/B.S.' photographs of Indigenous Australian ceremonies for postcard reproduction.

B.S. has been appointed President of the Professorial Board at Melbourne.

Details of personalities concerned in the Ramsay Smith Enquiry.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) B.S., 28 September 1903 (File 180 (2))

F. J. Gillen has been ill.

Another letter to B.S. from 'Frazer'.

F. J. Gillen hopes Frazer will not prune his book of purple patches.

More about the Tonkin problem.

Ramsay Smith has been re-instated.

The appointment of a new Commonwealth Chief Justice.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 16 October 1903 (File 181)

F. J. Gillen has received photos taken on the expedition.

No progress on making Art training for Tonkin possible.

F. J. Gillen's illness.

F. J. Gillen (Adelaide) to B.S., 1903 'Monday night' (File 182)

F. J. Gillen has gone to Adelaide to see the Commonwealth Inspector about staff reductions.

There may be reductions in pay.

He thinks he has solved the Tonkin problem.

He is to have an operation.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 28 October 1903 (File 183)

F. J. Gillen is feeling better since his trip to Adelaide, but has had a disappointment about the possibility of a transfer to a post in an Adelaide suburb.

'Everyone, politicians and civilians in Adelaide are sick of the Commonwealth'.

News of mutual acquaintances.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 5 November 1903 (File 184)

F. J. Gillen is about to go to Adelaide for his operation.

F. J. Gillen (Moonla) to B.S., 10 November 1903 (File 185)

As above - He has had a wire from B.S.

B.S. (Melbourne) to F. J. Gillen, 28 July 1904 - 3 August 1904 (File A. (3))

B.S. has been trying to help F. J. Gillen over certain cuts he has suffered in allowances.

He comforts F. J. Gillen by saying that his claims to the better post will be recognized when one becomes available.

B.S. has been having a very busy term '3 or 4 days a week I have been at it from 9-6:30, teaching without a break and one evening a week a lecture from 8-10 p.m.'.

Also a Senate meeting one day from 4:30-11:15 p.m.

Obstructionism within the Senate.

The clash between State and Commonwealth over 'Honours' granted by the Home Authorities.

B.S.' views on the reasons why F. J. Gillen's work has not been recognised.

B.S. is against Democratic Government 'such as we have out here in Australia'. He has got his new scheme of Entrance Examinations through the University Senate. An interview with 'our swollen-headed, muddy-minded, Minister of Education'.

B.S. has seen reviews of the opus magnum in the Argus and the Age.

He modestly disclaims too much mention of his name and not of F. J. Gillen's.

Series Box 3. Correspondence, 7 October 1880 - 24 November 1921

129 items

Archival history

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2424

Subseries. Oxford in the 1880s: Letters from Baldwin Spencer to Howard Goulty, 7 October 1880 - 10 July 1900

93 items

Letters from Baldwin Spencer to his friend Howard Goulty over a period of 20 years between 1880 - 1900. They had studied together at Owens College, Manchester.

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

Related Materials

Spencer's correspondence with Howard Goulty is outlined on pages 17-23 of Spencer's Last Journey edited by R.R.Marett and T.L. Penniman (Oxford, 1931).

B.S. (Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 17 October 1880 (File 1)

Both B.S. and Howard Goulty are facing exams.

B.S. is despondent about Oxford exam that he is taking, particularly about the Physics and Physiology papers.

An interview with the examiner - 'This is such a grand place'

B.S. (Matlock) to Howard Goulty, 28 August 1881 (File 2)

Plans for a visit to Howard Goulty.

'I want all the time for my work at home that I can possible get before going up'

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 8 September 1881 (File 3)

Thanks for a week's stay with Howard Goulty

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 5 October 1881 (File 4)

B.S. is in Oxford for an entrance exam.

Comments on exam papers: grammar, Latin, Prose, mathematics.

The 'viva' is still to come - (end of letter is missing).

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 17 October 1881 (File 5 (2))

B.S. has been successful, and is living at Exeter. - 'Everything is very strange'.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 3 November 1881 (File 6 (2))

Life at Oxford.

The weather.

An afternoon's boating.

An undergraduate breakfast-party, 'The conversation turned on such subjects as the girls of Oxford tobacconists shops'.

The fate of 'aesthetics' up at Oxford.

B.S.' reading programme - He is taking things a little easily, 4 hours work a day and a little harder in the last part (of the year).

'6 hours per diem is very good at Exeter. 7 hours denotes a 'smug', anything beyond that is considered the mark of a madman'.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 11 November 1881 (File 7)

B.S.' daily programme of work, ending at night with 'some Swinburne'.

B.S. had thought of reading history but came to the conclusion to devote himself to science alone.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 18 November 1881 (File 8 (2))

Accepting an invitation to stay with Howard Goulty.

'All my real work must be done in the vac.' His attention is turning increasingly to science.

The lack of relevant books.

Comments on 'Ernest Maltravers' and 'Rienzi' which he has been reading.

Musical activity at Exeter.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 7 December 1881 (File 9)

B.S. is facing end of term exams and a viva voce.

Looking forward to his visit to Howard Goulty.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 25 December 1881 (File 10)

Sending Christmas wishes.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 3 January 1882 (File 11)

Sending a 'birthday book' to the Goulter family.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 8 February 1882 (File 12)

B.S. is back at Oxford.

Morning chapel and cold baths.

A reference to the Stapledon Debating Society at Oxford.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 2 March 1882 (File 13)

Exeter has gone up four places in the 'Torpids'.

B.S. has been to a lecture on 'Fugues', the Professor of Music.

He is to move a resolution in favour of 'Local Option' at the college debating society.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 8 March 1882 (File 14)

News of family and friends.

B.S. would favour the discarding of exams, if that were practicable.

The Oxford (or Cambridge) exams are less unsatisfactory than the Preceptors.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 16 March 1882 (File 15)

B.S. has seen the sub-Rector and got off 'Collections' - he is returning to College to read through the vac.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 21 March 1882 (File 16)

B.S. has met Howard Goulty's sisters at Alderley Station.

His time is 'very short and fully occupied'.

He is to give a lecture at his home and invites Howard Goulty to come and spend the night.

He has been playing football.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 28 April 1882 (File 17)

A hurried note from B.S.

He has sent flowers to Howard Goulty's sister Emily.

'Harry Bowman' is safely through prelim. Med.

B.S. has dined at Keble with 'Fairbrother' and old Owens College man.

He has been playing tennis.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 9 May 1882 (File 18 (2))

Everyone at Oxford has been full of Irish news (the murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish), whose sister is the wife of the Warden of Keble - 'Intense interest' has been aroused - 'It will tell fearfully against the Government …The great majority of the men are terribly bitter against Gladstone, and as to Chamberlain, he would have a very warm time of it were he to come here' -

'For myself I admire Gladstone if possible more than ever'

Further remarks about domestic politics, including some mild anti-Conservative sentiments - 'Lord Salisbury when he comes into power will suit these men exactly'

Congratulations to Howard Goulty on passing well in Pol. Econ. - Description of a 'stand-up' or a 'Perpendicular' evening dress entertainment given by the wife of the Rector of Exeter, 'Such agony 'and such a delightful way of spending one's evening'.

B.S. (Oxford Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 19 May 1882 (File 19)

Exeter has gone head of the River.

Description of the undergraduate celebrations - B.S. is anxious about forthcoming Mods.

'it has been awfully amusing to see the Conservatives endeavouring to make party capital out of the O'Shea Parnell business'

More about Irish problems - The Likelihood of a split in the Irish Camp.

B.S. has really been too busy this term to take much interest in Politics.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 2 June 1882 (File 20)

Apologies from B.S. for not writing enough.

Description of a Viva Voce in divinity.

Description of more howlers.

The sooner Vivas are done away with the better.

B.S.' plans for the Vacation, 'I shall be reading for my London Exam all day'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 7 June 1882 (File 21)

Inviting Howard Goulty to come and stay at B.S.' home.

B.S. is reading hard for 'London' - His 'viva' is to be on the following Friday


NOTE: A piece has been cut out with scissors from pp 3.4 of this letter. The extract appears to refer to a possible visit from Howard Goulty's sisters.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 9 June 1882 (File 22)

B.S. has got through Mods, 'after a delightfully short and sweet viva'.

He is going to visit Howard Goulty at Alderley Edge.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 26 June 1882 (File 23)

Arrangements for mutual visits and for meeting friends.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 4 August 1882 (File 24 (2))

(Written from various places during a journey).

B.S. is on holiday (?) in East Anglia - Apologies for failure to write. B.S. has been 'sketching'. He has not enjoyed reading Verdant Green, but did enjoy Mary Barton. Comments on Shorthouse's John Inglesant, which was a present from Howard Goulty and others.

B.S. (Gresford) to Howard Goulty, 6 September 1882 (File 25)

Arrangements for a stay with Howard Goulty.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 14 September 1882 (File 26)

Birthday wishes to Howard Goulty.

B.S. feels 'very dissatisfied indeed with present progress'; and concerned that he may have to wait 5 or 6 or even 7 years longer before he does something.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 19 October 1882 (File 27 (2))

B.S. has settled down at Oxford and has begun real hard work, very different to that of last year. He plans to keep 1 or 1 1/2 hours a day for exercise and Sundays for 'general reading'.

More comments on 'John Inglesant'.

B.S. 'can never understand second marriages; that is if the first marriage be such as it ought to be'.

'There is nothing in the book which would help anyone in the matter of dealing with the Lower classes'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 28 October 1882 (File 28 (2))

B.S. has been working very hard, with afternoons spent at 'the Museum'.

How he plans to organise his work.

Account of heavy floods in Oxford, 'From Magdalen Bridge nothing is to be seen save water'.

Account of a sermon from Jowett, 'He quite gave up belief in the Divinity of Christ' etc. etc.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 12 November 1882 (File 29)

Apologies for remissness in correspondence.

Account of a walk from Oxford to Dorchester, passing through Nuneham Courtanay.

Another 'stand-up' party at the 'Rector's' (Exeter) 'they is wretched institutions'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 18 November 1882 (File 30)

B.S. is going down from Oxford early as, 'Hartog has at last got his professorship'; and Owens College, Manchester, have asked B.S. to fill his place until Christmas - He must read hard so as to be able to cope with the Manchester job.

B.S. has been to hear Moody and Sankey, 'the latter is simply vulgar though he has a good voice: Moody is at all events in earnest'.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 24 December 1882 (File 31)

Apologies for not sending a Christmas card; B.S. is not sending any which he does not paint himself.

B.S. (Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 30 December 1882 (File 32)

Sending Howard Goulty best wishes for the New Year and for success in his examination.

B.S. returned to find himself alone in Exeter, so has gone into lodgings.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 12 January 1883 (File 33)

Asking Howard Goulty for advice, 'Despite the indisputable fact of this being facile princeps amongst the universities of the world, there is nevertheless no means of pursuing the study of Physiology within its 'walls'.

B.S. had wanted to take this subject for the London B.Sc. but now can not do so, and plans to take 'Logic and Philosophy or whatever they call it' instead - 'It is no good telling me I can't do it in the time for I'm going to'.

Howard Goulty is asked for hints as to what to read and how to do it.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 17 February 1883 (File 34)

A candidate for a scholarship at B.N.C. - B.S. has a high opinion of 'good classical men who are the best read all round'.

B.S.' views on George Eliot's novels; He likes Middlemarch best, and The Mill on the Floss next best.

'I fear Ruskin is not going to Lecture this term; rumour has it that he imagines himself to be Jumbo, whose removal from England has cost him much grief, we believe'.

NOTE: Meaning unclear.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 24 February 1883 (File 35)

The end of term is approaching. B.S. is 'thankful as 8 weeks of hard work (that is hard for Oxford) is quite enough at a stretch in such a climate as this'.

A discussion in Manchester with 'Wilkins' about the grammar school and its methods (Presumably Manchester Grammar School) - B.S. is mildly critical of 'the system' and its 'cram'.

The sufferings of science men who get no time for exercise.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 3 March 1883 (File 36)

B.S. has been representing his friend MacKinder (? Sir Halford Mackinder) at the poll for the Presidency of the Oxford Union. B.S. himself has been elected Treasurer/Secretary of the University Science Club.

An argument between B.S. and Howard Goulty about 'design' in nature. (second sheet of this letter is missing).

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 5 March 1883 (File 37 (2))

MacKinder has 'got in with ease'.

More about the 'design' argument - B.S. takes the evolutionist position and rejects Howard Goulty's argument for the existence of a God, 'it seems to me that we are simply landed in the Agnostics' position...I don't think our religious 'beliefs' will stand very much analysis'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 21 April 1883 (File 38)

(First sheet or sheets of this letter are missing)

B.S. has been reading Sidgwick's 'Ethics' and 'Bain'; this combined with Geology, Comparative Anatomy and 'an Oxford Exam this term' is giving him enough to do

The Science Club is giving a Conversazione this term.

B.S. expects to visit Oxford by Howard Goulty

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 29 April 1883 (File 39)

B.S. has been reading the text of the lecture which Ruskin gave last term, '…the English in parts is really beautiful'. Ruskin is to give three more this term.

B.S. finds Sidgwick 'very enjoyable but indefinite; he says nothing settled, but talks in a general kind of way'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 5 May 1883 (File 40)

(First sheet or sheets of this letter are missing)

… The Prince of Wales has been visiting Oxford - 'Everything passed off swimmingly even down to the shying of lump sugar on to the cads below my window'. Salisbury, Northcote, Northbrook, Cranbrook, etc. have been on view.

Ruskin is beginning his lectures on Modern English Art again, the first on 'Burne-Jones and Watts'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 13 May 1883 (File 41 (2))

Eights Week at Oxford.

Exeter are still Head of the River.

Glorious weather to make up for recent abominable weather.

B.S.' plans for the long vacation, hard work until the London exam comes on.

'MacKinder and I have just been having a long chat about what we intend to do in life' M. wants a more or less public life, B.S. the more or less quiet life of a scientific man.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 27 May 1883 (File 42)

B.S. has been very busy, including taking 'a slight Exam', the first of his final ones - He did badly through not having worked for it - His dread of the coming Viva Voce -

Howlers committed by an examinee in Theology - Arrangements for the Science Club Conversazione - Hopes for a meeting and a chat concerning things in general 'and one in particular'.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 21 July 1883 (File 43)

Cryptic references to problems facing Howard Goulty.

B.S. is looking forward to beginning 'life in earnest' (NOTE: does this refer to marriage, cf No.42?) B.S. has lunched at 'the Rector's' (Rector of Exeter). 'I should hardly call them intellectuals'. He has dined with several Dons, including By water, who 'is supposed to be about the cleverest Don in Oxford' and is looked up to by German scholars.

A vivisectionist argument with a Don's wife. In Convocation a bill to give Burden-Sanderson money for his new labs was nearly thrown out by anti-vivisectionists.

B.S. (Exeter College) to Howard Goulty, 10 November 1883 (File 44)

A gap follows until -

B.S. and MacKinder have both been ploughed, 'Our time has been too much taken up with other things' and other reasons. 'However, it is over and I am now beginning to read for an exam here in Chemistry'.

A lecture by Ruskin and B.S.' comments on his egotistical style.

Criticism of 'those buildings erected by the University for the torture of her sons' i.e. the Examination Schools.

B.S. has been taking part in discussions which interfere with his sleep.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 17 November 1883 (File 45)

B.S.' difficulty in finding time to write letters.

His plans to keep Sundays free throughout his life.

His concern with social work and the condition of the poor, 'We may be drifting on to a great revolution'.

B.S. wants more time to read and think about these things.

Beautiful weather in Oxford.

B.S. wants to sit down and draw, but has gone to cram up on chemical formulae 'which of all occupations is about the one I most abhor'.

Details of B.S.' ploughing in the London exam; he failed in 'Moral Science'.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 25 November 1883 (File 46 (2))

B.S. is feeling rather 'muddled' and tired of this term

The problems occupying Oxford attention at present: (a) Vivisection - There is strong opposition to the carrying on of vivisection in the university. This is to be debated in the Union; MacKinder will defend vivisection. (b) The Social Question - 'What is to be done with and for the lower classes'. There is much talking and lecturing about this in Oxford. A great movement is coming before long, and 'we shall be able to do our share in the work'

A description of the 'University Settlement' idea, 'It is really a modified form of Socialism …'. 'We shall yet see Oxford at the head of a new and this time social movement'.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 4 February 1884 (File 47)

B.S. and MacKinder have just been to a lecture by Tylor on 'The Arts of Civilisation'. The value of the practical part of his lecture.

B.S. has been doing a little 'original investigation'.

The danger of becoming too much involved in detail.

More about the Vivisection dispute. Country persons are being whipped up by the anti-vivisectionists.

B.S. has been to lectures by Hycoman and Morris on 'Constructive Socialism'. Description of their plans and objectives. B.S.' views, 'Injustice has been done in the past and doubtless will have to be done in the future to landowners before things are at all satisfactory'. B.S. would like to see co-operation take the place of competition.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 12 February 1884 (File 48)

The death of a mutual friend's father, and the problem of daughters left with insufficient means.

A visit from Howard Goulty is expected.

The vivisectionists debate was won by the vivisectionists by a large majority, 'quite contrary to expectation'. B.S.' views on the problem.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 18 February 1884 (File 49)

Howard Goulty's coming visit and the problems of travel by rail.

B.S. has been to a second lecture by Tylor. He does not agree with all Tylor's views on the sequence of stone, bronze and iron in primitive culture. This may be due in part to 'being prejudiced beforehand'.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 14 May 1884 (File 50)

'Schools' are approaching. B.S.' expectations for a First or Second; 'in an Oxford exam where beyond a certain point of necessary knowledge, it is not mere facts which pay'

(the second page of sheet 1 is missing)

Mention of Eights Week, Exeter is head with fair prospects of remaining so. The pleasures of Summer Term.

The Australian cricket team and an expected defeat for Oxford.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 22 May 1884 (File 51 (2))

Excitements of the Australian cricket match, 'Of course, all the men went and got drunk and perfectly out of form and made a poor show against the weak gentlemans team which they ought easily to have smashed'

(the second page of sheet 1 is missing)

A reference to a riot by an Oxford mob which amused itself by smashing all windows which could bewrecked with stones, 'On the whole it was disgusting' ,'You ought to be in such a riot to understand what we mean by 'a ragging'.

A concert in the Fellows garden.

B.S. is getting anxious about 'Schools'.

B.S. (Exeter Coll.) to Howard Goulty, 13 June 1884 (File 52)

B.S. has got a First, A 'most enjoyable viva' as Moseley and Gamgee simply congratulated me 'on the excellence of my work'.

B.S. is returning next term as Moseley has offered him a little work, and he hopes to get pupils to coach.

B.S. (Earls Colne, Essex) to Howard Goulty, 2 December 1884 (File 53)

A gap follows until -

Apologies for remissness in correspondence. B.S. has had 'almost more work in Oxford that I could get through'.

The Science Conversazione has taken place in the Science Museum.

The strictness of the British Customs Officials.

Professor Moseley has offered B.S. the post of his Assistant. B.S. has accepted, and will have to 'superintend the mens work in the laboratory and give courses of lectures as well'.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 19 January 1885 (File 54)

B.S.' negotiations with Exeter College about the continuance of his scholarship; He has been working at Manchester with 'Marshall'.

Unfavourable comparison of the 'spirit of work' at Oxford with that at Owens College; 'Perhaps the best thing is a mixture of both places'.

B.S. (Whalley Range) to Howard Goulty, 29 January 1885 (File 55 (2))

B.S. is remaining in Manchester, probably until half-term at Oxford, as he does not feel fully fit.

More about his work with Marshall; problems of the latter's scepticism.

B.S. father's plan for Howard Goulty's future - as a solicitor. A proposed meeting.

B.S. (Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 22 February 1885 (File 55 (2)/1)

B.S. has moved to lodgings at Museum Terrace, 'somewhat out of the general run of lodgings, that is a good distance from college', but he needs to be near the Museum. 'It is also close to Keble which I was forgetting to count as a college'.

B.S. has got two pupils, one of whom is a 'she', he would prefer not to have her since she can not be coached without the annoyance of having a chaperon in the room. He will probably get about 5 pupils every year, which will mean an addition of £50. to his income.

B.S. (Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 8 March 1885 (File 57 (2))

A visit to Oxford from 'Stuart Reid' - 'Away from the pulpit he is certainly a nice man whatever he may be in it'.

B.S. has a good deal of Museum work to do in the vacations, arranging the zoological collection etc, and he will be busy preparing for his lectures.

Some details of the 'Varsity Sports'. A forthcoming debate in Convocation at which the Vivisection issue will arise.

B.S. (?) to Howard Goulty, 18 March 1885 (File 58)

Inviting Howard Goulty to tea.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 27 March 1885 (File 59)

News of family and friends.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 7 April 1885 (File 60)

B.S. has been seeing a lot of Bourne, an Old Etonia, 'Coming in contact with public school men makes one see more clearly than ever the very distinct advantage of a public school life and training'.

The Cohens (Julius and 3 sisters) have been in Oxford and B.S.' work programme was interrupted.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 26 April 1885 (File 61 (2))

B.S.' views on the problem of Herat, 'to give in to Russia means certain war in a very few years …' '…our future peace and welfare depends upon our not giving in at the present time'.

Views on the state of British politics.

B.S.' lecturing has begun.

Ruskin has resigned his Professorship in consequence of the recent pro-vivisection vote in Convocation, '…his second term of the Professorship here has not been at all a success. He has outlived his power'. Lowell, the American Minister, is mentioned as a probable applicant for the Professorship of English.

The Summer Term at Oxford.

B.S.' few relaxations from work.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept., Museum) Oxford to Howard Goulty, 9 May 1885 (File 62)

News of Howard Goulty's future prospects and family.

A cryptic reference to 'someone's' illness.

'The Ship Canal so far seems rather a success - may it go on' (NOTE: presumably the Manchester Ship Canal).

Failure of a scheme to relieve 'poor science men' of one classical exam, 'Which acts as a heavy drag on our work'. 'These wretched people here' have defeated it by one vote.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 16 May 1885 (File 63)

News of Friends and Eights Week. Exeter College has not done so well, but 'my connection with the place is practically severed now'.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 4 June 1885 (File 64)

B.S. envies Howard Goulty his trip to the Welsh Mountains.

Oxford climate, the effects of hot weather.

B.S. is beginning 'some special original or quasi-original work which Ray Lankester suggested to me, and the great man promised to publish it for me'.

'Hoyle' has been working hard and ought to get a good place soon.

Surrey -v- Oxford University at cricket.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, 21 June 1885 (File 65)

B.S. has been helping Professors Moseley and Tylor in London with superintending the removal of 'a very valuable Anthropological collection given to the 'Varsity from South Kensington. The task of labelling items, 'a heavy's day's work for all three'.

B.S.' views on Tylor and Moseley; Tylor himself 'is of course the best anthropologist in England and a very nice man indeed', Moseley 'really knows considerably more concerning anthropology then even Tylor', Moseley is 'a very remarkable man', but 'too narrow in some ways'.

Marshall has got His F.R.S. - Hartog has got a fellowship of £400p.a. in Ireland.

News and views of British politics - The Government has gone out - There is …. 'little doubt that Parnell will rule the next Parliament'.

B.S.' long walk in Surrey.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, 2 July 1885 (File 66)

Howard Goulty is starting life as a lawyer.

B.S.' plans for the summer vacation.

News of old friends from Owens College - 'We have today finished bringing here the Pitt-Rivers'.

B.S. (Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 21 July 1885 (File 67 (2))

More about B.S.' vacation plans.A trip to Scotland and the Orkneys. Another to Germany and Switzerland.

B.S. (Cromford Near Derby) to Howard Goulty, 6 August 1885 (File 68 (2))

Details of B.S.' Scottish trip.

The Forth Bridge is under construction; will it be a safe structure?

News of friends.

B.S. (Cromford Near Derby) to Howard Goulty, 9 August 1885 (File 69)

B.S. has been reading Geology with a view to the Burdett-Coutts Scholarship at Oxford.

B.S. has taken charge of all the elementary work in his department, lecturing and practical.

B.S. wants Howard Goulty to make a will for him and gives details of his intentions

B.S. and a publishing venture, 'a series of drawings with letterpress descriptive of them' on 'Embryology of the chick'. Financial details. The idea was suggested to B.S. by Lankester and Moseley.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, 26 September 1885 (File 70)

B.S. has been exceptionally busy and will be busier still when term begins -

(NOTE: some passages apparently referring to a 'she' have been inked out of this letter). A mistake 'the Grammar School' is making - Howard Goulty's advice is wanted regarding an invitation to read a paper on Evolution at Chorlton Road.

B.S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to Howard Goulty, 18 October 1885 (File 71)

News of old Owens College men - Oxford and Cambridge rivalries. References to internal political issues, speeches by 'the Noble Duke' and 'Chamberlain' (presumably Joseph).

Evolution, and the non-viability of ideas of 'a special creation'. The contribution of Darwinism, The possible identity of 'what you call 'the will of God' and we - 'the laws of Nature'.

B.S. (Museum Terrace) to Howard Goulty, 31 October 1885 (File 72)

B.S. sympathises with Howard Goulty about the grave illness of his mother.

B.S. (Museum Terrace) to Howard Goulty, 13 November 1885 (File 73)

B.S.' condolences on the death of Howard Goulty's mother'.

B.S. (Museum Terrace) to Howard Goulty, 15 November 1885 (File 74)

B.S. is unable to attend the funeral, but sends more condolences.

B.S. (Museum Terrace) to Howard Goulty, 23 November 1885 (File 75)

The business of life at Oxford.

B.S. has attended lectures by 'Drummond', 'A man of considerable power with a splendid voice'. A suspicion that his enthusiasm is a little forced.

A sermon by the Archbishop of York on 'Stead' (presumably on his revelations of social conditions) 'My sympathies are pro-Steadist'.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 29 November 1885 (File 76 (2))

Disappointment over election results in Manchester, depression among the Liberals. A scene of the wildest excitement at the 'Union' as the results came in. Another Tory government will not be unwelcome to B.S., 'they will put India in a proper state and get something like order in our foreign affairs'.

Lincoln College is to offer a fellowship in Biology; B.S. considers his chances - Ray Lankester will be examining.

(NOTE: a piece has apparently been cut out of the second sheet of this letter)

B.S. is to go to the Royal Society dinner as Mosely's guest, Huxley will make his retiring speech as President.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 10 December 1885 (File 77)

More election news - B.S.' views on the composition and leadership of the Liberal party.

His preparations for the Lincoln fellowship exam.

News of friends.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 28 January 1886 (File 78)

The fellowship exam, B.S.' views on his chances.

Views on the political situation, 'I for one regret the turning out of Salisbury'. 'I fancy that before long we shall begin to want a little less pure party spirit in politics'. B.S. describes himself as more or less a moderate Liberal.

B.S. (Union Society) to Howard Goulty, January 1886 (File 79)

B.S. has heard privately that he has got the fellowship.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, February 1886 (File 80)

Official news of elections to the fellowship - 50 letters to be acknowledged and 6 dinners in succession - 'they appear to be a very happy family at Lincoln and very unconventional'.

An account of 'common room' life, 'very little drinking and much more reading is done'.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, 27 February 1886 (File 81)

Sickness among B.S.' friends.

B.S. has been for a long walk with Moseley and discussed the possibility of going abroad.

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, 5 March 1886 (File 82)

News of sickness among friends.

(NOTE: second page or sheet of this letter is missing).

B.S. (Anatomical Dept.) to Howard Goulty, 18 March 1886 (File 83)

B.S. has been cramming and sitting for 'the Burdett-Coutts' - He thinks he has done badly, 'This evening I am enjoying deeply the feeling of having put behind me my last exam'. He has crammed for exams for 13 years and now wants to settle down to some real work. His future programme.

B.S. makes a comment on Mr. Gladstone and 'Home Rule'.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 20 March 1886 (File 84)

B.S. has 'missed the Burdett-Coutts'.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 14 May 1886 (File 85)

B.S. describes his temporary rooms in Lincoln.

Conversation at High Table.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 25 May 1886 (File 86 (2))

A dinner at Christ Church, 'best Burgundy and '47 Port'. B.S.' views on wine snobbery.

An anecdote of Pusey and the High Church.

A dinner at New College and talk with Sylvester, the great mathmatician. A comment on Mark Pattison.

A dinner at the Rector of Lincoln's, where B.S. met Max Muller.

B.S. is at work on 'the Lizard's eye'.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 12 June 1886 (File 87)

(NOTE: first sheet or sheets of this letter missing)

News of Dill, Bodington (Head of Leeds College), Stroud and Smithells.

B.S. has read a paper at the Royal Society- 'It is a strange place - no one seems to take much interest in anything …'.

B.S. was disappointed at the Royal Academy Show - A picture by Burne-Jones 'is far and away the most noticeable'.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 27 July 1886 (File 88 (2))

Troubles in B.S.' rooms in College. A heavy rainstorm: mice.

B.S.' planned programme for a visit to Europe.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 18 October 1886 (File 89)

B.S. is back in Oxford and extremely busy - 'We are putting up a new building as a temporary laboratory'.

Continuous rain in Oxford.

'We are just about to try and get our statutes changed here in Oxford, if which attempt be successful, it will be possible for fellows to marry...' - Likely opposition from King, the Bishop of Lincoln.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 24 October 1886 (File 90 (2))

B.S. has produced an article on the extra eye of Lizards which 'is attracting some little attention among biologists'.

Interesting guests at the Lincoln High Table, 'With such men as these I always feel almost depressingly ignorant'.

B.S. (Lincoln College) to Howard Goulty, 16 November 1886 (File 91)

B.S. has applied for an appointment (? the Chair at Melbourne), but he thinks his chances are practically nil. It will probably go to a man who is now Professor in New Zealand.

B.S. to Howard Goulty, 6 December 1886 (File 92 (2))

'Nothing is definitely settled about Melbourne yet', B.S. knows he is among 5 names sent forward by the English Electors.

B.S.' interview with Sir Graham Bony (?), the Agent-General for Victoria, 'He looked as much as to say 'who the [unknown] are you, sir'.

Grammar School boys and their weaknesses - B.S. feels the lack of 'a real classical training'.

(NOTE: part of the second sheet of this letter has been cut out.).

B.S. (Melbourne) to Howard Goulty, 10 July 1900 (File 93 (2))

B.S. is glad to have been made F.R.S. He has reached the age of 40 but hopes 'to be able to get through a good deal of work yet'.

News of old Owens College friends.

Australia as a field for work, especially in Zoology and Anthropology.

Plans for an expedition to the North with Gillen.

Comments on Melbourne as a city.

(continued on 16 July 1900)

'one can not at times help feeling how much one misses in being so far away from the centres of civilisation'

(continued on 20 Aug. 1900)

Comments on the situation in Australia - 'We shall undoubtedly have a protective policy, and there are big questions to be worked out in regard to the opening of the more tropical parts' - '…the Australian working man dislikes both black and yellow men, and if he be not willing to do anything himself, takes good care that no one else shall do it'.

Subseries. Letters from A. Lang, 16 January 1899 - 16 December 1899

12 items

1Lang did not give the year, in addition to the day and month, when writing his letters. On some letters the year 1899 has been added by another hand (? Mr. Penniman), and the assumption is made that all the letters recorded below are dated in that year.

Lang's handwriting was notoriously bad. There may be mis-readings

A. Lang's letters to B.S. stop at 7 Sept 1899, for 3 months, but the envelope also contains 3 letters from Lang to Mr. G.A. MacMillan of Macmillan and Co., which must have been passed to B.S. (see No. 12).

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

A. Lang (St. Andrews) to B.S., 16 January 1899 (File 1 (2))

A reference to an earlier letter to which B.S., who is on his visit to England, had replied. Lang's views on Scottish 'Churinga' and other antiquities. Lang is to review B.S.' book (Native Tribes of Central Australia).

Differences with Frazer and his views. Grystal-Gazing - Would Gillen conduct an experiment in Australia?.

A. Lang (S. Kensington) to B.S., 8 April 1899 (File 2 (4))

Thanks for a letter dated 22 Feb. from B.S. Enclosing two rough sketches of stones in the Edinburgh Museum.

Thanks in advance for Churinga B.S. is sending. Lang's views on the Arunta and their totemism. His doubts about exogamy. More ideas about crystal-gazing.

(two pen and ink sketches are attached).

A. Lang (S. Kensington) to B.S., 7 May 1899 (File 3)

Lang's criticisms of Frazer's theories - He is 'open to conviction, but unconvinced'.

Differences of view about the 'great spirit' of the Arunta.

A. Lang (S. Kensington) to B.S., 9 May 1899 (File 4 (2))

More criticisms of Frazer's theory of the primitiveness of the Arunta - B.S.' book is quoted in support.

A. Lang (S. Kensington) to B.S., 12 June 1899 (File 5)

More criticisms of Frazer and B.S., as set out in Lang's article in the Fortnightly, June number - 'my objections may be rubbish, but they are such as occur to the natural man'.

A Japanese object Lang has found in a friend's rooms at Oxford - Can B.S. help with explanation?.

A. Lang (Glencoe) to B.S., 24 July 1899 (File 6 (2))

Thanks for a letter from B.S. Lang accepts a correction from B.S. in his book and will inform those interested.

Queries about totemic groups, and the many different levels of marriage institutions.

A. Lang (Penicuick) to B.S., 3 August 1899 (File 7 (2))

Thanks for Churinga and bull roarer received. More discussion about totemism and exogamy - 'I can not see that Frazer's theory of the Origin of totemism is probable'.

Queries about the theory of 'virgin birth'.

A. Lang (Whauphill) to B.S., 7 September 1899 (File 8)

Sending the (Edinburgh) Museum's thanks for B.S.' presentations.

A. Lang (South Kensington) to G.A. MacMillan, 5 November 1899 (File 9)

Thanks G.A. MacMillan for proof sheets of B.S.' book, up to p.544.

His theory about the parallel between Australian Churinga and objects just found in Scotland. Could a note and sketch be added at the end of the book?

A. Lang (St. Andrews) to G.A.M., 16 November 1899 (File 10)

More details of the Scottish discoveries - Are they fakes? - No, although the 'Official antiquaries' will say so.

A. Lang (St. Andrews) to G.A.M., 2 December 1899 (File 11)

More about the discoveries - B.S. ought to come and see them for himself.

A. Lang (St. Andrews) to B.S., 16 December 1899 (File 12)

Telling B.S. that Macmillans' have let him see the proofs of the book.

Again urging the correspondence between Churinga and the Scottish discoveries. Asks for information about Twanyirrika (?), the spirit whose voice is represented by the bull roarer.

Subseries. Correspondence with P. Cahill, 27 April 1913 - 24 November 1921

24 items

Included with these letters is a list in Spencer's writing. This list does not correspond with the items actually filmed.

The letters should be read together with two from R.J. Cooper (Joe Cooper) and a letter and a telegram from 'Solomon', which were in the same envelope.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 27 April 1913 (File 1 (2))

Replying to a letter dated 23/3/1913 from B.S. - P. Cahill has heard of B.S.' 'most successful' lecture in Melbourne.

Sending specimens including bird skins, spears and other weapons; Specimens of black kangaroo were not in good enough condition to send.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 13 August 1913 (File 2 (4))

P. Cahill has had two letters from B.S. - There has been an influenza epidemic in the Oenpelli region. P. Cahill has had to provide them with food and medicine, Honey and Friars Balsam as a cough cure and its success with the natives.

P. Cahill's building achievements, and plans for his own house, and for the natives.

Difficulties of communication, 'The boat is a month overdue'.

Visits from a Survey Party and 'The Royal Commission' to the Region. P. Cahill hopes for another visit from B.S..

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 9 October 1913 (File 3 (5))

Thanking B.S. for 3 letters and for having sent two books on birds; Answers two questions put in writing by B.S. (B.S.' manuscript attached).

Sending black kangaroo specimens.

News of mutual acquaintances

'A Survey Party is running a survey line along the river bank, right down to Aller-Wangii-Wan, with a view to putting settlers on the reserve at the lower end'.

Miss Masson has visited Oenpelli and was the first white woman Mrs Cahill had seen for nearly a year.

A sumptuous meal given to the natives. Vegetables in the Cahill's garden.

P. Cahill (Darwin) to B.S., 19 October 1913 (File 4 (6))

Thanking B.S. for two letters, and three pounds sent to buy things for the natives.

Advises B.S. on the spelling to be used for certain native words.

P. Cahill has gone to Darwin to get his wet season's supplies and further instructions - Problems of mail and other communications.

Troubles with the Survey people.

P. Cahill intends building houses for the natives, 'If they give me a free hand, I am not afraid of the future of the natives in my district' - An 'Abo' school is opening in the native village.

P. Cahill has sent specimens.

Details of a ceremony connected with the death of a man's mother (Annotated in B.S.' hand) -.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 30 October 1913 (File 5 (7))

Sending answers to questions from B.S. - An encounter with two friendly natives from Bathurst Island, who asked after B.S. - Another encounter in a hospital.

P. Cahill. is indignant with 'Beckett' who has visited Oenpelli and tried to get 'underhand information' from the natives. He is hoping to be the next Chief Protector, The need for an overall Head of work on behalf of all Australian natives

P. Cahill is building more houses for the natives and hopes to get everything ready for 'Schooling'.

Tells B.S. that he is 'the only one I know who thoroughly understands the natives and the right way to treat them' -.

P. Cahill to B.S., 20 March 1914 (File 7 (6))

P. Cahill has not been able to get or send mail to Darwin since October (1913) - He has not been able to get recordings of Corroborees for B.s., but has some specimens

He has distributed the gifts bought with B.S.' money.

More building achievements.

Natives and their weakness - laziness.

News; News of personalities. A new plantation/estate is being opened up , 'It will help to keep the natives away from Burrundii and the Chinese there'. Details of the life of the local natives. P. Cahill's work for their health. His plans for a school and for native development generally.

Rainfall for 'this wet season' was 50 inches, 22 inches less than the previous season.

P.5 of this letter (No.7) speaks of sending details of a death on a separate page of this letter. This is not attached. However, there are attached -

7 A - Details in 4 pages of the Yam Ceremony (Kul-Lor-Ree or Kul-Lore-Ri)

7 B - A paper in 3 pages headed Muraian and Kul-Lor-Ee boys. At the end of this paper, P. Cahill speaks of his suspicion that a letter of his has been opened.

Also included;7A: Details in 4 pages of the Yam ceremony (Kul-Lor-Ee or Kul-Lore-Ri)7b: A paper in 3 pagesheaded Muraian and Kul-Lor-Ee boys. At the end of this paper, P.C. speaks of his suspicion that a letter of his has been opened.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 23 March 1914 (File 8 (3))

Sending some notes about the Muraian. The fate that overtakes those who break the Komali laws.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 12 June 1914 (File 9 (1))

Sending information about Muraian totems, and copies of rock drawings.

A rare species of kangaroo.

P. Cahill has had a successful interview with 'His Excellency' and is to be allotted money and cattle for Oenpelli. B.S. has written a letter describing his trip to London, and P. Cahill compares life there with that in Oenpelli.

P. Cahill is planning a trip to Melbourne - He will welcome sane lady visitors B.S. is sending.

P. Cahill agrees with B.S.' opinion of 'D. Lindsay', who is rightly described as a 'backyard explorer'.

News of P. Cahill's fruit and vegetable gardens.

The natives make Oenpelli a kind of general hospital - 27 patients in one day.

The natives at 'Carlin Beach' are busy and happy.

P. Cahill (Darwin) to B.S., 7 August 1914 (File 10)

The Cahill family has made a trip to Darwin - Difficulties of the journey. Mrs Cahill and her daughter had not left Oenpelli for 4 1/2 years, during which they saw only one white woman.

P. Cahill is planning a 2 month buffalo shooting trip.

Deaths among the natives - 'The war has upset everything out this way, and people are wondering how we will come out of it. Personally I would like to be carrying a rifle'.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 11 March 1915 (File 11 (4))

P. Cahill has received B.S.' letter dated 3 Oct. 1914 and a copy of his new book, 'I am sure that it will be accepted as a standard work as far as the Kakadoo tribes are concerned, in a very few years they poor people; will be a thing of the past'.

B.S.' gift of £3 will be spent as he wishes (on the natives).

Disappearance of an old native - a case which will interest B.S.

Mistakes made on the estate while P. Cahill was away.

Visits from natives 'each year takes a few of the oldest natives, and the worst of it is, so few children' - P. Cahill needs more power in order to protect the natives.

Parliament has at last given full powers to His Excellency Dr. Gilruth.

P. Cahill would like to flog the Editor of the Northern Territory Times, and 'all the would-be-administrators'.

Exceptionally low rainfall this year.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 30 April 1915 (File 12 (4))

P. Cahill has sent sane (phonograph) recordings and specimens of birds

A rough trip to Burrundi.

P. Cahill has had success with dairy cows which he brought to Oenpelli.

A reference to 'the moving pictures'.

The natives' reaction to B.S.' present of money. - Their first experience of milking cows.

'Darwin is the same old growling place. Workers get 14/- per day and do about 3/6 worth of work' - People make money quickly and all what to become 'Administrators'. P. Cahill thinks very little of the Northern Territory bureaucracy; with a few exceptions, they 'should be right up near the German firing line. They would not be missed'.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 26 March 1916 (File 13 (6))

P. Cahill has had a visit from the Administrator and Judge, who brought his mail, the first he has had since November

Difficulties met with in getting to Oenpelli.

B.S. has shown kindness to Mrs.Cahill who has been to Adelaide - P. Cahill is going to burrundi to meet her.

Many of the oldest natives have died, 'In a few more years, there will be no chance of writing any reliable history of the Kakadoo tribes. There will be no old men left'.

Details of B.S.' gifts of money for the natives; they have plenty and B.S. ought not to send more. P. Cahill has done a lot of building, including a good house - '(Judge Bevan said that it would cost £600 to get the same house put up in Darwin with white labour)'. P. Cahill will try to collect information and will make notes for B.S.

The importance of goose eggs in local diet

(Continued from Darwin on 28 April 1916)

A rough trip to Burrundi which took 58 hours in the saddle.

Mrs. Cahill is still in Sydney.

Deaths among whites in Darwin.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 24 May 1916 (File 14 (5))

P. Cahill has returned to Oenpelli and found 250 natives waiting in need of medicine and tobacco. Sickness among the natives. P. Cahill's special cough cure, which is very effective.

Sending parcels of specimens.

'By Jove, I do not know what things are coming to in the Northern Territory …. Wages will kill all private enterprise. Just fancy, six smillings per hour for 'wharf lumpers'. It is a pity conscription is not in force in Australia'.

Vesty (sic!) Brothers have completely changed the face of the country at Bullocky Point - 'We have four or five motor cars plying for hire in Darwin, and the people think they are getting up to date'

P. Cahill had to pay a Doctor's fee of 5/- for 7 minutes - Details of the price of whisky, and the methods adopted in 'grog shops'.

Cahill family news.

P. Cahill (Burrundi) to B.S., 21 July 1916 (File 15 (3))

Congratulations to B.S. on his knighthood.

P. Cahill is planning on return to Oenpelli to build a 'cool room', having obtained a freezing plant - He hopes to ship butter to Darwin.

Details of plats against the Administrator of the Northern Territory.

Medical work for the natives - A boy with a stick piercing his thigh.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 18 November 1916 (File 16)

Sending a list of the Muriain totems, and a photo and details of the Wild Dog or Dingo store tradition - (Note: these are dated in B.S.' writing 'May 1916' but were attached to this letter - No.16)

P. Cahill is busy with the freezing plant and other building work.

Details of the diet provided for the natives. A visit from a missionary. His plans for educating the native girls, 'I believe in doing all that I can for the natives, but their future frightens me' - The ignorance of whites about native beliefs.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 10 October 1917 (File 17)

Details of the poisoning case in which Romula, a native, was chief actor. Reasons for the attempt to poison P. Cahill and his family: the ban on beating women and on fighting, native resentment at their treatment by whites, even when well-intended.

P. Cahill to B.S., 10 October 1917 (File 18 (10))

(? is this the correct date - see date of NO.17)

P. Cahill thanks B.S. for having written a letter to 'the Bulletin' in his (P. Cahill's) defense. Mr. Beckett and his accusation that P. Cahill had tried to poison him.

Comments on B.S.' recent trip to England, and on the dangers of sea travel in wartime. General interest in war news.

B.S.' daughter has married Lieutenant Rowan.

Changes at Oenpelli.

Ample supplies of fruit - P. Cahill has been developing the dairy business.

Statistics of the number of natives who have been given medical treatment. Great variety of cases.

P. Cahill has had a severe optical illness.- He is sending some bark paintings, but will accept no payment.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 30 June 1918 (File 19 (8))

B.S.' last letter has taken 5 months to arrive.

Native reactions to war news - '…one wonders if the war will ever end. America will be a great help...'.

News of Joe Cooper who has been shooting buffalo for Vestey Brothers.

Trouble at a local Mission station. The uselessness of sending natives to Fanny Bay (a gaol?) '…. they meet with bad whites in the gaol, and are worse when they come out than when they went in'.

A visit to Romula (ref. the poisoning case, No. 17) - News of other natives: a death and cure - Details of P. Cahill's medical work.

A light-skinned native with red hair.

More statistics of medical work: 4,949 doses for influenza in 6 months.

P. Cahill is going on 8 months leave in November.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 19 September 1918 (File 20 (3))

P. Cahill is sending specimens and gives details.

Developments at Oenpelli - There is nearly a ton of butter in the cool room, 'This, I should think, should prove that the N.T. can support dairy cattle' - NOTE: B.S. has noted on this letter 'Burrowing fish. Butter at Oenpelli'.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 29 August 1919 (File 21 (3))

P. Cahill gives an account of his leave - 'Sydney struck us as a very dirty place after our visit to Melbourne'. P. Cahill was boycotted at Darwin for his defense of the late Administrator, Dr. Gilruth - Refusal to handle his luggage - A large case opened and contents stolen. Oenpelli had deteriorated in P. Cahill's absence. The native Qullp has had his portmanteau stolen, 'Just fancy, stealing a portmanteau from a native' - Mr. W.G. Stretton has been staying at Oenpelli.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 27 July 1920 (File 22 (5))

P. Cahill has had troubles at Oenpelli - 'The Royal Commission that was held at Darwin was a farce' - Some evidence was perjury from start to finish. The Judge (Ewing) seemed to side with the lawbreakers. Difficulties over P. Cahill's evidence. Attacks in court on Dr. Gilruth, whom P. Cahill defended - 'The lies that these skunks spun about him, was fearful'. Efforts to remove P. Cahill from Oenpelli because he stood by Dr. Gilruth during the riot in December 1918.

P. Cahill's sympathy for the natives - an influenza epidemic among them. P. Cahill's 'mixture'. Sending specimens.

P. Cahill (Batchelor Farm) to B.S., 29 May 1921 (File 23 (6))

P. Cahill has been busy moving cattle (800 head). Criticism of Beckett and his project with sheep on Vandaleen (?) Island at the mouth of the McArthur river.

Minister Pointen of Home and Territories is to pay a visit.

The 'I.W.W. crowd' (? International Workers of the World) have decided not to wait on the Minister.

P. Cahill has refused to join any deputations of complaint. Strong criticism of S. Smith, the Acting Administrator - His harshness to a native who died.

Two boats have come to Oenpelli last year on Jan. 3, the second on Nov. 30

'The ABO department is doing very little for the natives'.

Another blunder by S. Smith.

Stagnation in the Northern Territory.

A find of gold in the mountains, but unlikely to be large.

The train service from Darwin used to be twice weekly, but it is now once a fortnight.

News of Joe Cooper.

P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B.S., 24 November 1921 (File 24 (5))

P. Cahill and his wife are alone at Oenpelli. Their English stockman has left them

Details of specimens.

'I am afraid that the natives are in for a rough time, under the present Administration.'

False economies imposed on P. Cahill by the Administrator.

P. Cahill is defending certain natives who are not to be paid, and he will appeal to the Minister if necessary.

P. Cahill may have to resign.

A planned trip in the bush.

A sumptuous meal given to some natives.

'The natives between Oenpelli and the Railway are dying anc before long very few will be left'.

W.G. Stretton has died. Details of the grave and tombstone.

'No doubt there is a great deal to like in the natives, when one understands them'.

Series Box 4. Correspondence, 10 May 1897 - 16 July 1929

33 items

Archival history

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2424

Subseries. Correspondence exchanged between Spencer and Henry Balfour, 10 May 1897 - 16 July 1929

29 items

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 10 May 1897 (File 1 (1))

B.S. has just written to 'Dr. Tylor' about his own and Gillen's work, following the HORN expedition.

Description of the material assembled.

Tylor has been asked to help; if he cannot, would Henry Balfour do so?

'Oxford is, to me, a most depressing place to live in, despite its great attractions'.

A query about the 'concentric circle of ornamentation' of Central Australian natives.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 20 September 1897 (File 2 (2))

Thanks to Henry Balfour for his letter and offer of help. (NOTE: this letter is missing). Difficulties of finding a publisher. The book would be of interest to anthropologists only.

B.S.'s views on the comparative stature of leading anthropologists.

Criticism of 'McLennan'.

The difficulties of facing a woman anthropologist - men will not reveal secrets to her.

The poverty of Australian collections in 'art' material. A reference to 'Roth' and his work in the far North.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 2 December 1897 - January 1898 (File 3 (6))

Roth and his book on his work in Queensland. Praise and criticism. B.S. is working on his joint book with Gillen. Macmillans have offered to publish. B.S.'s collection of Central Australian objects. Haddon has returned to New Guinea.

An admirable address by Howitt, and his unique range of knowledge.

Fison and his way of dealing with 'rare old philological cranks'

Crushing criticism of Grant Allen's book 'Evolution of the idea of God'.

Comments on the Pitt Rivers Museum and its collection of Australian things.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 18 August 1898 (File 4 (4))

B.S. has not heard from Henry Balfour for ages, and asks for news of Oxford, and particularly of Tylor. Is he ill? He has not replied to letters from Howitt and B.S.

Progress of 'the book'. Praise of Frazer and the help he has given in revising proofs. Gillen's major contribution. Criticism of Roth's ideas about totems.

B.S. has had a cable to say that Lankester's former Chair at Oxford is vacant. He thought of applying but decided against it. Howitt is at work on a magnum opus.

Henry Balfour (University Museum Oxford) to B.S., 28 September 1898 (File 5 (3))

Henry Balfour's reply to No.4 above. News of Oxford and the question of Lankester's successor. The requirements for the post, and various candidates. Regret that B.S. has not applied

Views on Roth's book. Henry Balfour's delight with the specimens obtained from the HORN expedition.

Has B.S. got information about Louis De Rougemont? Tylor is getting old and may forget things.

The Museum's need for photographs.

The dangers of forming theories. 'I prefer to collect and collate'.

'Tylor really is wonderful in a way'.

Anson of All Souls is to be the next Vice-Chancellor, but B.S. doubts if science means much to him.

The British Association meeting at Bristol, and some 'No. 1 size cranks'.

Henry Balfour (Oxford) to B.S., 30 May 1902 (File 6 (1))

Congratulations on B.S.'s safe return from his trans-Australian journey, and its note-worthy achievements. Information Henry Balfour would like to have.

'The Pitt Rivers Museum progresses favourably in spite of its meagre funds, but one badly wants information at first hand …..'.

Tylor is resigning the Keepership of the Museum, and that office will probably be abolished. The University's severe need of funds.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 28 August 1902 (File 7 (2))

Reply to No.6 above. B.S.'s account of his journey.

The wide spread of 'the reincarnation theory'. Roth has changed his former views on totemism, but is unwilling to state this. His great opportunities for ethnological work, and comparatively minor results. The range of objects B.S. has succeeded in collecting.

Economic troubles in Australia caused by drought.

The University of Melbourne accountant has embezzled £30,000.

B.S. may be looking for another post. He is getting 'full-up' of the 'democratic government' of Australia. He wants news of Oxford.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 6-Jan-1903; 3-Feb 1903 (File 8 (2))

B.S. has sent two boxes of specimens to Henry Balfour, including a genuine NURTUNJA. The difficulties of work in the Northern Territory.

Critical remarks about Roth's work.

B.S. has been busy on the final stages of his book.

Nostalgic memories of the Oxford 'Science Club' of 1885 and 86.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 7 July 1913 (File 9 (1))

B.S. modestly thanks Henry Balfour for 'the honour' proposed to be done to him. (A pencilled marginal note by Henry Balfour explains that this refers to the incorporation of B.S.'s name in the design of a stained glass window to be presented to Exeter College in commemoration of Exeter scientists).

The major influences on B.S. - Moseley, Tylor and, Pater Frazer.

The progress of B.S.'s work in Australia. His collection of stone implements. The possibility of a visit to the U.K.

B.S. (Morlays Hotel London) to Henry Balfour, 7 January 1914 (File 10 (1))

Inviting Henry Balfour to come to the Royal Society for lunch and a discussion.

B.S. (The Athenaeum London) to Mrs. B., 3 February 1914 (File 11 (1))

Thanking the Balfours for a two days' stay at their house in Headington.

B.S. has been to Manchester, where they gave him a degree and a most gorgeous gown.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 22 April 1914 (File 12 (1))

Arrangements for Henry Balfour's trip to Australia - he is to stay with B.S.

(Henry Balfour was going to attend the Br. Association meeting in Melbourne).

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 30 August 1914 (File 13 (1))

B.S. has been packing prints etc. for return to Henry Balfour, after he had left Australia. Problems of the British Association meeting.

'The war news is not altogether reassuring'.

Recollections of B.S.'s stay in Henry Balfour's house at Headington.

Henry Balfour (Oxford) to B.S., 2 January 1915 (File 14(2))

B.S. has been doing 'Admiralty' work in France as well as his Museum work. 'One doesn't yet see daylight in the War…. but in the long run we are bound to win'.

Henry Balfour is anxious about his material sent off from Australia. It may be lost.

A collection of Australian implements has been put together for presentation to the Pitt-Rivers Museum.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 13 February 1915 (File 15 (1))

B.S. has still had no news from Henry Balfour, whose box has still not been sent off.

Australia is suffering from a very severe drought.

Australia is rather 'down' at present.

A big drive for enlistment in the Forces.

(contin. on 16.2.15)

A letter from Henry Balfour has now arrived. B.S. has made additions to the collections to be sent to Henry Balfour

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 26 February 1915 (File 16(1))

B.S. has been able to get 'Kenyon' to visit his Museum. Kenyon has been in charge of the distribution of wheat in drought-stricken areas.

Arrangements are in hand to send collections to the Pitt-Rivers and other U.K. Museums.

B.S.'s comments on the 'German barbarians' and their conduct in the War.

(contin. on 16.3.15)

No visit from Kenyon yet.

B.S. has nightmares about the Zeppelins dropping bombs on Oxford. He hopes to be 'home' again within a year or two.

Henry Balfour (Oxford) to B.S., 7 June 1915 (File 17 (3))

Correspondence has gone astray. Henry Balfour is keenly awaiting the collections which B.S. and KENYON are sending.

A type of stone axe Henry Balfour particularly wants 'Stone implements fascinate me'.

News of the War. 'Oxford has a bare third of its full complement of undergrads, and these are largely physically unfit, Americans, or other non-combatants'. News of Oxford casualties.

Henry Balfour's interest in Fishing Kites.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 10 June 1915 (File 18 (1))

B.S. has at last contacted KENYON. His collection, and B.S.'s own collection are now being sent to the Pitt-Rivers.

News of the GALLIPOLI casualties. The gloomy outlook.

Australians and their attitude to 'joining up'. The Australian Federal Government and its 'labour policy'. Strikes and their effects.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 28 January 1920 (File 19 (1))

B.S. refers to the long gap in correspondence, and asks if the box of collections sent on 4.1.1917 ever arrived.

He has resigned from the University and hopes to devote himself to Museum work and ethnology.

He is moving house out of Melbourne to the country. He doubts if he will see England again : 'travelling will be reserved for profiteers and the so-called 'labouring classes'

Other Australian institutions have received large benefactions but Melbourne has got nothing.

Henry Balfour to B.S., 4 August 1920 (File 20 (2))

Letters have evidently gone astray. Henry Balfour had acknowledged receipt of the collections. KENYON's series of Australian stone implements are particularly valuable. Another request for a particular type of stone axe. He had nearly stolen one in Australia but 'Consciences are incompatible with curatorial functions'

Henry Balfour gives a sad account of his time at Oxford where 'one never gets any credit for one's labours unless one perpetually thumps a big drum and makes oneself generally unpleasant by blaring away on a trumpet'.

News of Henry Balfour's health. He had damaged his heart when on war work. Meetings with Miss Stirling and Malinowski.

'Oxford has returned to normal … and has now again the semblance of a University'.

B.S. to Henry Balfour, 24 September 1920 (File 21)

The reply to No.19 above. Details of B.S.'s resignation and the reasons for it.

Details of his new country bungalow. News of his two daughters and their marriages

Nostalgic recollections of the old 'Pitt-Rivers collection, which gave him his first interest in anthropology. Memories of Moseley and Tylor. 'Tylor …. simply fascinated me.'

Henry Balfour (Oxford) to B.S., 30 August 1923 (File 22 (2))

Henry Balfour has made a trip to India. Hence correspondence has been neglected. His regrets at B.S.'s retirement but pleasure that he has begun 'a general account of Australian aborigines' Some suggestions for points to be included.

'Things have been coming in to the Museum and I want another building badly'

Details of his trip to Nagaland with Hutton and Mills. The NAGAS are 'excellent savages, some of them quite intelligent.' Head hunting. Methods of fire-making.

Henry Balfour has written to George Pitt-Rivers to say how glad he would be to have his collection. G. P-R. is 'inclined to think that no one else can do decent work, but he may grow out of that'.

B.S. (Melbourne) to Henry Balfour, 29 March 1924 (File 23 (1))

Postcard in which B.S. says that he will write soon, and is sorry not to have been asked to sign Henry Balfour's nomination form for the Royal Society.

The back of the P. Cahill is a photograph of B.S.'s former house at Armadale, Melbourne.

B.S. (London) to Henry Balfour, 6 December 1927 (File 24 (1))

B.S. has sent Henry Balfour a copy of 'The Arunta' His future plans for producing books. He will be returning to Australia in February.

Henry Balfour has been on a trip up the Amazon.

B.S. (London) to Henry Balfour, 18 January 1929 (File 25 (1))

B.S. has got his 'Wanderings' through the press. His low opinion of British Association meetings, which seem to be 'necessary evils'.

His plans for his trip to Tierra EEL Fuego towards the end of February.

B.S. (Magallanes, Chile) to Henry Balfour, 24 Apr 1929; 27 Apr 1929 (File 26 (3))

B.S.'s account of his voyage out. Some discoveries on a rubbish tip in Descado. Drawings of arrow-heads form part of the text. Also of throwing stones. The local menus. A planned expedition in a small schooner to a little settlement.

Henry Balfour (en route for South Africa) to B.S., 16 July 1929 (File 27 (1))

Henry Balfour's reply to No.23, on which he has noted in his own hand. 'This reply to Spencer's last letter failed to reach him before he died on July 14 1929, & was returned to me'

Discussion of B.S.'s finds near Magallanes. Plans for a metting in Oxford after they both return from their trips.

Henry Balfour (Oxford) to B.S. (File 28 (2))

An undated letter in which Henry Balfour wishes B.S. and Gillen well in their forthcoming expedition to Northern Australia. (Black-edged writing paper may give a clue to dating).

Suggestions as to points they should investigate.

News of the University. Acland, Max Muller and Conroy have all died.

New appointments and new buildings.

'The Museum is becoming the most heterogeneous medley of architectural horrors that can be imagined'.

'The Pitt-Rivers jogs along gaily and I have had a fine year for accessions

'Tylor and Thomson would send greetings if they were here'.

B.S. to Henry Balfour (File 29)

A cutting from a letter which does not survive referring to a lunch with Edge Partington and their joint appreciation of Henry Balfour and his work. (missing)

Subseries. Correspondence with R.J. Cooper and 'Solomon', 16 November 1912 - 10 December 1915

4 items
R.J. Cooper (Darwin) to B.S., 27 November 1913 (File 1)

Sending materials which had been asked for by B.S. -

'….. things in general are a bit mixed here at present what with the change of Government and other things, but no doubt will improve soon'

R.J. Cooper (Darwin) to B.S., 10 December 1915 (File 2)

Sending a case of materials.

Troubles about relations between mainland 'boys' and Melville Island women, in which R.J.C. has become involved.

Solomon' (Head Man of the Larakia (?) tribe) to Sir Baldwin Spencer. Letter dictated to 'Godfrey' at Kahlin Compound, Darwin, 16 November 1912 (File 1)

Thanks B.S. for having sent him a singlet, asks for a black coat and black trousers.

S. has rescued a white man from near drowning, but was given nothing in return.

'This place better now first time before Mr. Godfrey come blackfellows drunk every night' - 'I like see you come back quick'.

Series Box 5. Correspondence, 12 July 1897 - 28 May 1932

84 items

Archival history

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2424

Subseries. Correspondence exchanged between Spencer and J.G. Frazer, 12 July 1897 - 28 May 1932

84 items

J.G. Frazer had written to Mr. Fison in Australia asking for information about the joint work of Gillen and Spencer. The correspondence begins with Spencer's direct reply to Frazer.

Due to the method of filming the last page of some letters may run onto the next item.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 12 July 1897 (File 1 (4))

B.S. describes how their joint work had begun. Gillen's great interest in the Central Australian natives. Their expedition to the Arunta tribe in summer 1896. Their method of working.

Answers to particular queries raised by J.G. Frazer; The totem and its traditions. Probable origin in cannibalism. The Churinga. The three periods of Alcheringa. The delusion of imagining oneself an animal.

B.S.' warm praise of Gillen. The need for much more research, Gillen lacks money, B.S. lacks time. They are looking for a publisher.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 19 September 1897 (File 2)

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (12-Jul-1897)- Thanks to B.S. for letter and photographs. The importance of the totemic system as described by B.S.- J.G. Frazer has been in touch with MacMillans' who are willing to publish B.S.' book.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 27 September 1897 (File 3 (3))

B.S. writes to give further information on totem questions which Gillen has sent him. Can a man change his totem? Eating the totem. The UDUVIRINSITA grub totem. The IRRIAKURA bulb totem. Association with totems other than one's own.

A mourning ceremony in the Arunta tribe.

Criticism of Mr. Lang's theories.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 14 November 1897 (File 4 (2))

B.S. has received J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (19-Sep-1897) and thanks J.G. Frazer for his help over finding a publisher.

Errors in a pamphlet by a 'certain Mr. Squires', describing a festival at which human flesh is eaten.

'The book' is nearly ready to send.

The Intichiuma ceremonies.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 6 December 1897 (File 5)

B.S. sends J.G. Frazer a copy of a letter he has written to MacMillans - J.G. Frazer is asked to decide whether any counter-proposal by MacMillans regarding illustrations is acceptable.

W.E. Roth's book 'Notes on the North-west Central Australian Aborigines'

Further details of the Intichiuma ceremony in the Kangaroo totem.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 13 January 1898 (File 6 (2))

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (14-Nov 1897) - J.G. Frazer is glad to have helped over publication and offers further help. e.g. over proof-reading. Asks for further information about blood-pouring ceremonies, Also about the treatment of homicides, the availability of sanctuaries and eating together as constituting friendship

(NOTE: clear references to the ideas underlying The Golden Bough).

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 8 March 1898 (File 7 (3))

Answers J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (13-Jan-1898) - Gratitude for the offer to read the proofs. Problems that will arise. Gives answers to the requests for information made in J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (13-Jan-1898).

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 5 April 1898 (File 8 (2))

Further details of publication of the book. The MS. has been sent to MacMillans. Encloses the draft of a footnote to be added to the text.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 5 May 1898 (File 9 (2))

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (08-March-1898) - J.G. Frazer prefers not to undertake the reading of proofs. Other publication details.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 8 June 1898 (File 10)

Further publication details - Gratitude for J.G. Frazer's help.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 30 June 1898 (File 11)

Publication details - Some proofs have already been sent back.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 13 July 1898 (File 12)

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (8 June 1898) - Praise of 'the book'.

J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S., 26 August 1898 (File 13)

More details. The need to keep the descriptive side of anthropology entirely separate from the comparative and theoretical side.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 30 August 1898 (File 14)

Reply to J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (13-Jul-1898) - More details about the book.

J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S., 15 September 1898 (File 15 (2))

J.G. Frazer's hypothetical theory of totemism - If B.S. and others in Australia approve it, he may include it in the new edition of The Golden Bough. J.G. Frazer's firm rejection of a proposal by Tylor to omit from the text of 'the book' certain passages

NOTE: would appear to be a letter of considerable importance.

J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S., 21 September 1898 (File 16)

A postcard to say that on re-consideration Tylor has withdrawn his proposal for abridgment.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 6 October 1898 (File 17)

Reply to J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S. (26-Aug-1898). More publication details.

B.S. is returning to the U.K. for 3 or 4 weeks and hopes to visit J.G. Frazer

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 19 October 1898 (File 18)

Reply to J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S. (15-Sep 1898) - Gratitude for the action taken to resist abridgment. B.S. has heard nothing from Tylor.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 20 October 1898 (File 19 (3))

Important Letter

Further reply in detail to J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S. (15-Sep 1898). B.S.' views on the theories posed by F. J. Gillen. Discussion (p.6) of Tylor's theory that the souls of ancestors animate the totem animals or plants.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 21 November 1898 (File 20)

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (20-Oct-1898) - welcomes B.S. to the U.K. and invites him to come and stay in Cambridge for a week-end.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 28 November 1898 (File 21)

Important Letter

Reply to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (20-October 1898) - Invitation for a week-end renewed. J.G. Frazer wants B.S. to meet Dr.Henry Jackson and Professor Ridgway, Suggests that B.S.' views on totemism and its origin should be published during his stay, perhaps as a paper read to the Anthropological Institute.

The importance of B.S.' views not yet seen by Tylor and Lang.

J.G. Frazer's theory of totemism, and its relation to exogamy.

The order of evolution of human thought and practice is magic.

religion - science.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 8 December 1898 (File 22)

J.G. Frazer is awaiting B.S.' visit.

The Anthropological Institute has arranged a meeting to hear B.S.

Tylor has expressed the wish to do all he can 'to show honour to Spencer'.

Lang has confessed himself in a fog.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 12 December 1898 (File 23)

J.G. Frazer has enjoyed the week-end visit - Lang is still in a fog.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 16 December 1898 (File 24)

J.G. Frazer pays tribute to B.S.' pioneer work in the field of totemism - He is content that his notes on the subject should be printed at the end of B.S.' paper in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to Mr.MacMillan (MacMillan & Co.), 17 December 1898 (File 25)

Enclosing some sheets of B.S.' book sent to J.G. Frazer with queries in error - 'We had an interesting meeting at the Anthrop. Inst. on Wednesday. Spence: spoke very well and his lantern slides were excellent.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 28 December 1898 (File 26)

J.G. Frazer states the case for and against his writing an article about B.S.' book in one of the magazines. An absurd theory of Jevons - If agreed, he asks permission to use some of B.S.' points.

B.S. (at sea) to J.G. Frazer, 5-Jan-1899 (erroneously dated 5-Jan-1898) (File 27)

B.S. is having a rough trip through the mediteranian. He has written to Mr(? Andrew) Lang giving the most important points concerned with the totem hypothesis.

B.S. has had a letter from Tylor "in which he does not approve of the new hypothesis at all."

B.S. (at sea) to ? Mr.Lang, 5-Jan-1899 (erroneously dated 5-Jan-1898) (File 28 (2))

The letter (presumably a copy) referred to in B.S. (at sea) to J.G. Frazer (05/01/99)

'Whirlers' and 'bull roarers'.

The association of Churinga with individuals.

The main points of the totemism hypothesis.

B.S. (at sea) to J.G. Frazer, 15 January 1899 (File 29 (2))

B.S. has separately sent some notes on totemism for possible' publication in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute - he now offers some supplementary observations.

The views of Grey and Howitt.

B.S. makes a modest assessment of his own stock of knowledge.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 6 February 1899 (File 30 (4))

Reply to B.S. (at sea) to J.G. Frazer (15-Jan-1899) - J.G. Frazer is sending on B.S.' notes to the Anthropological Inst. He has written an article on the origin of totemism for The Fortnightly.


The problem of soul-transference.


J.G. Frazer is glad to hear that B.S. is not standing for the Oxford Chair - His work in Australia is of supreme inportance

Problems of finding a publisher for Miss Howitt's MS

J.G. Frazer believes Tylor 'may be a little sulky about totemism' - He has received a copy of B.S.' book from MacMillans.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 10 July 1899 (File 31 (2))

B.S. apologises for his long silence - His pressure of work. He has succeeded the late Director of the Public Natural History Museum and has had to draw up plans for a new Museum. He also has the Secretarial work in connection with the meeting of the Australian Association.

B.S. praises J.G. Frazer's two articles in The Fortnightly. He maintains his view on 'reconciliation' of the totem, as against J.G. Frazer, his views on the origin of totemism are becoming firmer, It has no primary connection with exogamy.

A superficial article by Lang in The Fortnightly.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 4 June 1900 (File 32)

J.G. Frazer apologises for long delay in replying to J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (06-Feb-1899), he has been working on the preparation of memorials to the governments of Victoria and South Australia, asking them to release B.S. and Gillen for a year's further work among the tribes. Do B.S. and Gillen want to go? This would be 'probably the finest piece of anthropological work that could be done in the world just now'.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 27 July 1900 (File 33)

Sending copies of the memorials referred to in J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (04-June-1900) - J.G. Frazer's book (? new edition of the Golden Bough) is being printed.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 4 September 1900 (File 34)

The memorials have arrived.

The University Council has given B.S. a year's leave, B.S. and Gillen are most grateful.

Problems of finance for the expedition. Plans for its route.

A telegram and letter dated 4/10/1900 from B.S. to J.G. Frazer are missing from the correspondence. (Note: the reference may be to 4th September, 1900, i.e. No.34 above.

J.G. Frazer (Switzerland) to B.S., 12 November 1900 (File 35)

J.G. Frazer is glad to hear that arrangements for the expedition are progressing well, and sends good wishes.

Some suggestions for points to be studied.

He is enjoying his holiday in Switzerland and Italy, but finds archaeological remains comparatively uninteresting besides the study of human beliefs and customs.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 4 February 1901 (File 36 (2))

Reply to J.G. Frazer (Switzerland) to B.S. (12-Nov-1900) - B.S. thanks J.G. Frazer for a copy of the 2nd edition of The Golden Bough, Enthusiastic praise.

Points to be investigated on the expedition.

The personal as opposed to the group totem.

Problems of drought, and financial difficulties.

B.S. (Charlotte Waters) to J.G. Frazer, 7 April 1901 (File 37)

The expedition left Adelaide on the 15th of March and is on its way. 'Phonographic' and 'cinematographic' records have been taken.

B.S. (Barrow Creek) to J.G. Frazer, 17 June 1901 (File 38)

B.S. and Gillen are working among the Kaitish tribe. Important information about the eating of the totem.

B.S. (Barrow Creek) to J.G. Frazer, 1 July 1901 (File 39)

More information about the eating of the totem.

B.S. (Barrow Creek) to J.G. Frazer, 15 July 1901 (File 40)

A further progress report. Work is going slowly but well.

B.S. (Tennants Creek) to J.G. Frazer, 6 August 1901 (File 41)

Work among the Warramunga tribe, who are conducting Intichiuma ceremonies. Different totemic practic as between them and the Kaitish.

B.S. (Tennants Creek) to J.G. Frazer, 6 September 1901 (File 42 (3))

Full details of totemism and ceremonies among the Warramunga.

B.S. asks J.G. Frazer if he can do anything to get Gillen made an Hon. Fellow of the Anthrop. Institute.

B.S. (Borroloola) to J.G. Frazer, 12 November 1901 (File 43 (2))

The expedition is now a few miles from the Gulf of Carpentaria).

Similarity of tribal organisation and customs all the way from South to North.

The idea of re-incarnation.

The eating of dead men.

No trace of belief in a deity.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 7 June 1902 (File 44 (2))

B.S. has returned from the expedition and apologises for the long delay in writing. His load of work. Lecturing and supervision of the Natural History Museum.

Criticism of Crawley's Mystic Rose.

Mr. Roscoe's interesting work.

B.S.' belief that the most primitive beliefs in Australia are to be found amongst the Central natives, the Kaitish Tribe - Details of Intichiuma ceremonies.

Praise of Howitt who has retired from the public service and is writing his ethnological work - He ought to be given a medal of the Anthropological Institute.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 14 July 1902 (File 45)

Replies to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (07-June-1902) - Agrees with B.S.' criticism of Crawley's Mystic Rose - Criticism of Westermarck 'Let us try to look the facts straight in the face, and damn public opinion'.

Asks to be allowed to do the proof-reading of B.S.' book when it appears.

He is placing the suggestion of an Anthropological Institute medal for Howitt before the President.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 23 July 1902 (File 46 (3))

Replies to a letter from J.G. Frazer complaining that he has not heard from B.S. (a letter or letters appear to be missing from this correspondence)

More about B.S.' load of work. His opinion of a paper by Mr. Cooke and one by Mr. Roscoe. Criticism of a theory of Mr. Roth.

B.S. believes that J.G. Frazer's theory of magic preceding religion is the true one.

The problem of belief among the natives in a Supreme Being - B.S., unlike Lang, can trace no such belief.

Criticism of Crawley's Mystic Rose, and its theory of danger involved in sexual intercourse.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 19 August 1902 (File 47 (3))

Replies to J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S. (14-Jul-1902), which has now arrived.

More criticism of Crawley and Westermarck.

More about the existence of 'religion' among Australian natives. The fallibility of the 'All-Father' theory - 'Sooner or later people will see that you are in the main right'.

Howitt may be in danger of using unreliable evidence for his book.

The errors of Powell's views on totemism and exogamy.

The danger of confusion in American ethnologists terminology.

A successful lecture in the Melbourne Town Hall.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 17 March 1903 (File 48)

B.S. has still been hard at work on preparing the book. Howitt has nearly finished his book, but Fison seems to have given up ethnological work.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 15 April 1903 (File 49 (2))

B.S. has sent back to MacMillans the ms. and illustrations of the book - He is not entirely satisfied with it. MacMillans have been asked to send J.G. Frazer the proof.

Description of the chapters. J.G. Frazer's advice is asked about chapter III which deals with the social organisation, and is relevant to the theories of Crawley and Westermarck - 'Chapter 16 - … will not at all please Lang', dealing with the notion of 'religion' among the natives.

There have been troubles in the University - The accountant has embezzled £55,000, and the professors have been attacked in the Press.

Guarded criticism of Australia and its 'most inordinate number of public servants'.

Howitt's book and the risks he has run in relying on second -hand accounts.

B.S. asks for suggestions for a title for his book.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 7 June 1903 (File 5C (3))

Replies to a letter missing from the correspondence - Criticism of Lang and his theories, 'We need not take him as seriously as he does himself'.

Criticism of Haddon's theory of the origin of totemism. Is the Arunta tribe to be regarded as 'a sport'? - B.S. believes not.

Remarks on Roth and his work.

Weaknesses of Howitt's book, which partly relies on correspondents for information.

Problems of terminology which will arise if Tylor takes Amerind totemism as the standard.

B.S. invites J.G. Frazer's criticism of his MS.

More criticism of Crawley's theories.

Criticism of the search for a federal capital for Australia.

Plans for further expeditions - 'I like the sunshine here, but it is a woefully monotonous and philistinic land'.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 13 June 1903 (File 51)

B.S. has been reading Lang's 'Social Organisation' and gives a warning against 'a man named R.H. Mathews', who has produced a grossly inaccurate paper. The weakness of Lang's theories.

The need for B.S. to undertake more expeditions in order to disprove the idea that the 'Arunta are a sport' - The financial problems involved.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 21 June 1903 (File 52)

Suggestions for alterations to B.S.' MS as a result of reading the proofs. Criticism of Lang's theories.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 6 July 1903 (File 53 (2))

B.S. has received the first corrected proof pages. Asks for more corrections, Admires J.G. Frazer's style and depreciates his own.

B.S. plans a visit to the Uraburna tribe, where descent is counted in the female line, in order to disprove Lang's theory.

J.G. Frazer has suggested a title for B.S.' book (in a missing letter) and this is agreed.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 14 July 1903 (File 54 (2))

B.S. acknowledges a third batch of corrected proofs. His gratitude to B.S. - Some further corrections.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 24 July 1903 - 27 July 1903 (File 55 (2))

More details of proof correction. A footnote added dealing with an error by Durkheim (sic). More discussion of the limited knowledge on which Howitt's work is founded. Discussion of J.G. Frazer's corrections.

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 21 August 1903 (File 56)

Postcard recommending The Northern Tribes of Central Australia as the title of the book.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 27 August 1903 - 31 August 1903 (File 57 (3))

B.S. reports on his expedition with Gillen to the Urapurna tribe.

Methods of work. Enquiries into a. Intichiuma and b. reincarnation - The tribe's idea of the origin of the different totemic groups.

B.S. is afraid of poaching on Howitt's ground.

Criticism of (Protestant) Missionaries in so far as they claim to understand the natives; 'No missionary, unless he is a Roman Catholic - at least this is true in Australia - ever really understands the natives'.

Continuation of B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (27-Aug-1903)

B.S. has recieved the last slips and hopes to return them all shortly. Regrets the suggestion to include a list of totems. The book will have to come out in 2 volumes, and he fears MacMillans will fight shy of future Australian work.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 8 September 1903 (File 58 (3))

More about corrections to the proofs - The danger of writing a kind of pidgin English.

A possible origin of Agriculture in the spitting out of grass seed from the mouth.

Criticism of Lang and Durkheim's views - 'There is no such thing as an all-round primitive tribe'.

A letter received from Tylor (included in this letter is a small red ink slip making a correction to the paged proof).

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 22 September 1903 (File 59 (2))

Replies to a letter from J.G. Frazer dated 17/8/1903 (?), which is missing. B.S. has written the preface and adopted some of J.G. Frazer's suggestions - More details of the proof correction.

A fundamental error by Lang in considering certain tribes (counting descent in the female line) as more primitive 'all around'.

Strong criticism of the 'incorrigible R.H. Matthews'.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 2 December 1903 (File 60)

Some slip proofs have been mislaid. B.S. hopes J.G. Frazer has corrected and sent them direct to the printer.

A reference to an objection from Tylor which seems to B.S. to be trivial.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 9 December 1903 (File 61 (2))

More about the missing proof pages. Criticism of an article by Durkheim referred to in a footnote on one of the missing pages.

Strong criticism of the work (in anthropology) of 'semi-educated German Lutheran missionaries'.

A paper by Strehlow only occupies 1 1/2 pp. foolscap 'but has more utter misleading nonsense packed into a small space than I recollect having come across before' - Lang has sent this paper to B.S. for perusal and comment before translation and appearance in Folklore.

The fallacious idea of native belief in 'a High God'.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 15 December 1903 - 16 December 1903 (File 62)

Again about the missing proof pages.

Continuation of B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (15-12-1903);The page proofs of the preface have arrived.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 23 February 1904 (File 63 (2))

B.S. has just returned from a visit to New Zealand on medical advice.

Details of an address on 'Totemism in Australia' which he prepared for the Anthropological Section of the Australian Assoc. for the advancement of Science which was meeting in N.Z.

The importance of the 'dramatic or ceremonial aspect' of totemism as distinct from the magical aspect.

J.G. Frazer has sent B.S. two lots of MS to look through - B.S. can not agree with Crawley's views on the Origin of Exogamy.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 18 March 1904 (File 64 (4))

B.S. apologises for delay in commenting on J.G. Frazer' two M.S. referred to in B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (23-Feb-1904) above - He has became President of the Professorial Board, involving much routine work. He agrees with the paper concerned with religion, save for one or two points. B.S. feels less in agreement with J.G. Frazer's paper on the meaning of certain ceremonies largely because it is supported by little evidence. A number of critical arguments are advanced.

(NOTE: J.G. Frazer has side-lined in red ink B.S.' summary of his critical arguments).

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 19 April 1904 (File 65 (2))

Replies to B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (23-Feb-1904) - Sympathy with E.S. for his excessive load of work, 'How I wish you could be set free for anthropology entirely!' - Praise of B.S.' book.

Criticism of Lang, who 'seems to me to be sinking lower and lower and clutching at any straws that may break his fall

J.G. Frazer is having trouble with the new edition of The Golden Bough. He thanks B.S. for his criticisms of his two papers (see B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer (18-Mar-1904).

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 15 August 1904 (File 66)

Discussion of the belief in an 'All-Father' among the natives, and Howitt's views on this.

Criticism of Lang and his review of B.S.' book.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 13 December 1904 (File 67)

B.S. describes the unfortunate circumstances of Fison and his family, and asks if it would be possible to get a Civil List pension for him. He gives a list of influential persons who would probably help, including Joseph Chamberlain and Professor Goldwin Smith, would J.G. Frazer take it up?

J.G. Frazer (Cambridge) to B.S., 5 February 1908 (File 68 (2))

Asking for a copy of a paper by B.S. on Exogamy and of any other of his occasional papers.

J.G. Frazer is shortly moving to Liverpool, after which he means to raise funds to finance a Spencer-Gillen expedition to Western Australia (and to broach a plan for promoting anthropological research) - B.S.' comments and estimates of cost are wanted.

J.G. Frazer is bringing out a new and much enlarged edition of Totemism, using much of B.S.' material.

Fison has died and J.G. Frazer has petitioned the Prime Minister on behalf of his widow and children.

J.G. Frazer (Scotland) to B.S., 14 March 1908 (File 69 (2))

Howitt has died and J.G. Frazer asks for facts about his early life and work for use in an obituary notice he is writing.

J.G. Frazer's petition on behalf of Mrs.Fison has failed, and he asks B.S. to try the Government of Victoria.

More queries about the possibility of a Spencer-Gillen expediton to W. Australia, Would £2000 suffice?

Would B.S. agree that the eventual book should appear as a publication of the University of Liverpool, which would also get the collections and records made? Could Spencer and Gillen go?

J.G. Frazer (Liverpool) to B.S., 19 April 1908 (File 70 (2))

J.G. Frazer writes of his grief at the death of Fison and Howitt, 'You and I, I hope, will try to stick more closely together for the loss …'

Praise of B.S.' work.

J.G. Frazer is proposing publication of a collected edition of Fison's and Howitt's anthropological papers, half the profits to go to the families of the deceased. He has been able to correct publicly and privately an unwitting injustice done to Howitt. B.S. is asked for his views on the project.

J.G. Frazer regrets that B.S. and Gillen can not yet undertake the expedition to W.Australia, but has set his heart on this.

Details of J.G. Frazer's new book on Totemism.

Condemnation of R.H.Matthews.

'It is too soon yet to say whether I shall like Liverpool or not'.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 15 September 1911 (File 71 (3))

Apologies for long failure to write. The loss of Fison and Howitt - Gillen has also become ill and helpless.

B.S. has made an expedition to the Northern Territory, under the auspices of the Common -weath Government. His main findings; The connection of Intichiuma ceremonies with a precarious food supply, A curious totemic system among certain tribes along the Roper river. Beliefs about the sound of the bull-roarer, No trace of anything like belief in a Supreme Being.

'The Commonwealth Government is about to undertake measures for the settlement of the Northern Territory, which means that the Aborigines will very rapidly become 'civilised'.

Plans for another trip to study a tribe in Melville Island.

An interesting analogy between an aboriginal belief and classical mythology, raised by Professor Tucker of Cambridge.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 27 July 1913 (File 72 (2))

B.S. has been on a year's expedition - He got good results on Melville Island, including traces of Intichiuma ceremonies. Interesting beliefs of the Kakadu tribe.

B.S. may be visiting England at the end of the year.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 3 October 1913 (File 73)

Confirmation that he will be coming to England, bringing his 'Kineimatographic and Phonograph Records'.

Critical comment on the work of Brown and Bates.

B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. Frazer, 15 November 1913 (File 74)

Arrangements for B.S.' trip to England.

He hopes to finish his book on the results of the Northern Territory trip in 1912. He is not entirely satisfied with the results, but 'they are, I think, good so far as they go, and probably represent my last contribution to field anthropological work'.

J.G. Frazer (London) to B.S. (London), 15 December 1916 (File 75)

Proposals for a meeting - J.G. Frazer suggests that B.S. should write another anthropological work, 'a sort of general view of the social organisation and totemism of the Australian natives'

(NOTE: Lady Frazer nas added in her own hand details of arrangements for a meeting).

B.S. (London) to J.G. Frazer (London), 16 December 1916 (File 76)

Acknowledging J.G. Frazer (London) to B.S. (London) (15-Dec -1916) - B.S. has been able to do little anthropological work beyond 'being, I hope, of some little help to a man named Malinowski', whose work he commends.

Criticism of Rivers' book on 'Melanesia'.

J.G. Frazer (London) to B.S., 19 September 1921 (File 77)

J.G. Frazer has received B.S.' Presidential address to the Australian Assoc. He asks for information about aboriginal modes of making fire, as he may take up the early history of fire as a subject for investigation.

He is collecting material and Henry Balfour has been of help.

J.G. Frazer is to give three courses of lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge - He asks for news of B.S..

J.G. Frazer (London) to B.S., 5 October 1927 (File 76)

An enthusiastic letter of thanks for B.S.' dedication of his book to him. Praise of B.S.' great achievements - 'My dear Spencer, I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the honour you nave done me'.

J.G. Frazer (London) to B.S., 24 December 1928 (File 79)

Thanks B.S. for his Christmas card and for sending the two volumes of Wanderings in Wild Australia.

Praise of Spencer and Gillen's work.

J.G. Frazer hopes for a meeting and asks for information about B.S.' plans.

J.G. Frazer is working on an edition of Ovid.

Lady Frazer to T.K. Penniman, 28 May 1932 (File 80)

Thanks him 'for the B.Spencer - Frazer correspondence', which presumably was loaned to her

J.G. Frazer to T.K.Penniman, 4 November 1930 (File 81)

Re: article an Spencer. His friendship with B.S.

Series Box 6. Box 6: Miscellaneous, 1 February 1895 - 1929

16 items

Archival history

Originally filmed on AJCP Reel M2425

Black notebook containing B.S.'s pencil journal of his Trip to Charlotte Waters., 1 February 1895 - 23 February 1895 (File 1)

Also contains some rough pencil sketches of specimens, and examples of foliage pressed between pages

A Black notebook containing 'Field Notes: Trip to Macdonnell Ranges, November 1896 - December 1896 (File 2)

Entries in this book fall in November 1896. It also contains a handwritten list of shade temperatures in A.S. (presumably Alice Springs) from 5 November - 23 December, 1896.

Continuation of A Black notebook containing 'Field Notes: Trip to Macdonnell Ranges (Nov-Dec 1896). Black notebook with rough journal, 8 January 1897 - 25 January 1897 (File 2B)

Note added in ink: -'With Cowle from Alice Springs via Undiara to Crown Point'.

Black notebook marked 'S and G' (Spencer and Gillen) A, 19 March 1901 - 17 April 1901 (File 3A)

Rough journal of his expedition with Gillen to the Northern Territory

Black notebook marked 'S and G' (Spencer and Gillen) B, 18 April 1901 - 10 July 1901 (File 3B)

Rough journal of his expedition with Gillen to the Northern Territory

Black notebook marked 'S and G' (Spencer and Gillen) C, 12 July 1901 - 21 November 1901 (File 3C)

Rough journal of his expedition with Gillen to the Northern Territory

Black notebook marked 'S and G' (Spencer and Gillen) D, 21 November 1901 - 16 March 1902 (File 3D)

Rough journal of his expedition with Gillen to the Northern Territory

Black notebook containing rough journal beginning on July 4, 1911 of B.S.'s trip in the Northern Territory, starting from Darwin. (File 4)

Also contains word lists. Relates to 5A below

B.S.'s MS diary of his expedition made at the request of the Commonwealth Government to study conditions in the Northern Territory, 1 June 1911 - 9 July 1911 (File 5A)

In brown folder

B.S.'s MS diary, starting with departure from Sydney by sea and ending with the words 'Here endeth the first book', 30 December 1911 - 7 April 1912 (File 5B)

(NOTE: on this expedition B.S. saw much of Joe Cooper and Paddy Cahill, two buffalo hunters, letters from whom can be found in the correspondence boxes of the B.S. papers). In brown folder

Handwritten copy of despatch from Captain J.J. Gordon Bremer R.N. to Earl Bathurst, dated 10 November, 1824,, 10 November 1824 (File 5C)

Reporting on his survey and establishment of a settlement on the North coast of Australia.

In brown folder

Small black notebook containing 'diary of Motor Trip with Gilruth: Pine Creek to Newcastle Water etc. etc.', September 1912 - December 1912 (File 6)

Also contains notes on trips made to the Flora R. (November), and Bathurst Island (November/December).

Also word lists and sketches

Black notebook containing journal of B.S.'s trip to Alice Springs, 1 June 1926 - 20 June 1926 (File 7)

Contains word lists and what seems to be subject indexes of:

Notes on 1901 - 2

Main Diary

C.W. 1895

Black exercise book containing B.S.'s Journal of his expedition to Tierra del Fuego, from leaving London, 17 February 1929 - 28 June 1929 (File 8)


Reprinted in Spencer's Last Journey edited by Marett and Penniman (Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1931)

Black notebook (File 9)

The contents of part of No.8 appear to have been roughly entered before transfer to the larger notebook. From Saturday 29th June, 1929 onwards this notebook appears to be the sole source of the diary entries printed in Spencer's Last Journey

Blue exercise book (French origin) (File 10)

Containing 'Notes of' and 'Extracts from' Baldwin Spencer's 'Last Journals' in Sir James Frazer's hand. Also contains a plan of Tierra del Fuego, and a drawing of the dissection of a Steamer Duck, both by B.S. Related to Spencer's Last Journey ed. Marett and Penniman