Guide to the Papers of Lord Sandwich
National Library of Australia View Catalogue Record
- Sandwich, John Montagu, Earl of, 1718-1792
- Papers of Lord Sandwich
- Date Range
- Collection Number
- MS 7218
- 0.09 metres (3 folders)
- Language of Materials
- National Library of Australia
- The papers comprise: (i) a letter of John Hawkesworth, who edited the published account of Captain James Cook's first voyage (ii) a letter of Captain Cook written to Sandwich during the third voyage (iii) letters relating to the publication in 1784 of the account of the third voyage, together with some letters from the British Ambassador in St Petersburg referring to the visits of the expedition to Kamchatka in 1778 and 1779. The principal correspondents are Sir Joseph Banks, the lawyer and naturalist Daines Barrington, the Reverend John Douglas (later Bishop of Salisbury) who edited the publication, and Captain James King who commanded HMS Discovery in 1779-1780, following the death of Captain Charles Clerke.
Scope and Contents
For over 150 years the papers of Lord Sandwich were kept at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire. In the 1950s they were transferred to Mapperton House in Dorset. Some of the naval papers were reproduced in The Sandwich Papers, published by the Navy Records Society in four volumes (1932-1936). They were also referred to in the edition of Captain Cook's voyages published by the Hakluyt Society (1955-1968), Warren R. Dawson's editon of The Banks letters (London, 1958) and Phyllis Mander-Jones' Manuscripts in the British Isles relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific (Canberra, 1972).
Conditions Governing Access
The collection is available for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.
Items from this collection should be cited as '[title of manuscript item], Papers of Lord Sandwich, 1718-1792, National Library of Australia, MS 7218, [item number]'.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
For over 150 years the papers of Lord Sandwich were kept at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire. In the 1950s they were transferred to Mapperton House in Dorset. Some of the naval papers were reproduced in The Sandwich Papers, published by the Navy Records Society in four volumes in 1932-1936. They were also referred to in the edition of Cook's voyages published by the Hakluyt Society (1955-1968), Warren R. Dawson's edition of The Banks letters (London, 1958) and Phyllis Mander-Jones' Manuscripts in the British Isles relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific (Canberra, 1972).
Many of the papers were sold at a Sotheby's sale in London on 23 July 1985. Of the 17 lots, the National Library purchased three lots. Two other lots were bought by the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich.
Existence and Location of Copies
Also available on microfilm: mfm G 27755.
John Montagu (1718-1792), 4th Earl of Sandwich. Succeeded his grandfather to the Earldom in 1729.
Sandwich was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and then spent some years travelling in Europe. His political career commenced when he was appointed a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty in 1744. In 1748 he became First Lord of the Admiralty in the government led by Henry Pelham, holding the post until 1751. He was appointed Master of Trinity House in 1749.
In 1763-1765 Sandwich returned to power as Secretary of State under George Grenville. He was again briefly Secretary of State under Lord North in 1770-1771 and then became First Lord of the Admiralty again, holding the office for eleven years. In this post "his conduct was as great a scandal to public as it had been all along to private morality. Throughout his long administration he rendered the business of the Admiralty subservient to the interests of his party, and employed the vast patronage of the office as an engine for bribery and political jobbery". He was held in part responsible for the inadequacies of the British Navy in the American War of Independence. He took a strong interest in the second and third voyages of Captain James Cook to the Pacific. Cook named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him in 1778.
Sandwich left the Admiralty in 1782 and largely retired from public life, spending most of his time at his country seat of Hinchingbrooke in Huntingdonshire.
Martelli, George. Jemmy Twitcher : a life of the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1718-1792. London: Jonathan Cape, 1962.
Acknowledges receipt of first volume of journal of Sir Joseph Banks; hopes to have manuscript ready in time for sanction of Banks and Captain Cook; editing the voyages will be his principal business. (2pp)
Thanks for information about discoveries of Captain Cook; suggests expedition against Canary Islands; if any of French sugar islands were seized, white inhabitants would leave and Britain might afterwards form alliance with negroes similar to French alliance with North Americans. (3pp)
News that Resolution had reached Macao in December 1780 (sic); natural history specimens collected on voyage were destined for Sir Ashton Lever's museum; suggests when Captains King and Gore arrive they be given directions to give specimens to Leicester House. (2pp)
Acknowledges letter; suggests that crews of Resolution and Discovery should not be immediately turned over to other ships, as after such a voyage this would be used as argument against pressing. (2pp)
Reminds Sandwich of Sir Ashton Lever's interest in specimens collected on Captain Cook's voyage. (2pp)
Received from Magellan account of Spanish voyage to north west coast of America in 1775; accurate charting of many ports; offers it for service of Admiralty. (3pp)
Journal of Spanish expedition; Barrington interested in translating and publishing it if not required by Admiralty. (2pp)
Intends to translate and publish Spanish journal, as not required by compilers of new voyages of discovery. (2pp)
Interest in Captain Cook's chart of north Pacific; although Empress of Russia is permitted to have a copy, suggests publication in Russian should not be permitted until Admiralty account of voyage is published. (2pp)
Sends part of manuscript; before printing wishes to have charts and maps, a list of drawings to be engraved, and Captain King's part of the work; work has been hampered by not having access to charts. (2pp)
Work at Windsor with Captain King and Dr Douglas; suggests Sandwich meet King and offer assistance 'or the work may sleep again'. (2pp)
Returns list of engravings which he has transcribed. (1p + 3pp list of engravings)
Insufficient paper for engravings; J. Webber ready to superintend rolling press; promise by King that his work will be finished before he goes to sea. (2pp)
Progress with publication of journal of Captain Cook's third voyage; cost of French paper; difficulties with Strahan. (4pp)
Cost of French paper; draft letter to P. Stephens; suggests the bookseller Nichol be used in preference to Cadel. (4pp)
Information about engravings for Sir Joseph Banks; shortage of paper; predicts it will take a year before impressions completed; suggests Sandwich meet Webber and Byrne. (2pp)
Thanks for assistance with publication; division of proceeds between representatives of Captain Cook and Captain Clerke and Captain King; claims of J. Webber. (4pp)
Suggests Dr Douglas be asked to write inscriptions for each plate; weather and crops in Lincolnshire. (3pp)
Procurement of paper; suggests it be sought from Paris bookseller in return for printed sheets for translation; Webber and Byrne. (3pp)
Procurement of paper in Paris. (3pp) For Sir Joseph Banks' subsequent correspondence with Pancoucke concerning the procurement of the paper see MS 9/16.
Papers left with Dr Douglas; hopes publication will not be hurried at expense of all embellishments originally intended. (2pp)
Checking of Cook and Anderson's journals to ensure accuracy of description of engravings; meeting with J. Webber, King and Roberts; reasons for wording of three inscriptions; seeks reprieve of condemned name 'King George's Sound' at Nootka. (6pp)
Return to England; progress with publication; suggests Sandwich read King's part before publication; differences between Dr Douglas and Sir Joseph Banks; risks that French and German translations might follow closely on English edition; suggests Sandwich speak to Banks; division of profits; Banks' suggestions on price. (7pp)
Thanks for letter of Sir Joseph Banks; King and the engraver have written to Roberts. (2pp)
Books on Kamchatska; King's health. (2pp)
Sends draft on Captain Cook's life and services; welcomes expert advice on geographical and nautical observations. (2pp)
Failure of Dr Douglas to print a sheet in last ten days; meeting with Captain King; King wishes to take manuscript now with Sandwich to Dr Douglas at Windsor. (2pp)
Discussion with A. Dalrymple about charts; suggests Sandwich arrange meeting between Dalrymple and Captain King to resolve outstanding matters. (3pp) [Minutes of the meeting dated December 5th 1783, see MS 9/18].
Sandwich's approval of King's life of Cook; proposed amendments. (2pp)
Discussion with Dr James Burney about singing of South Sea Islanders; ideas of Burney on subject; engraving of map. (2pp)
Sends letter of Dr James Burney on counterpoint of South Sea Islanders; hopes to include portion of letter in publication; Roberts hopes he will be in time for publication. (2pp)
Extract from letter of his daughter on opinion of Captain Phillips on music of South Sea Islanders; bamboo story implies infancy in music similar to ancient Greece; has asked whether singing in parts is peculiar to any one place in Pacific. (1p + 2pp extract)
Acknowledges papers; believes singing was very different from that of American Indians, Negroes in West Indies, New Zealanders or any other islanders except those of Friendly Islands; Manby will deliver further four chapters. (2pp)
Singing of peoples of Sandwich and Friendly Islands; alterations to note by Captain Phillips. (2pp)
Sends extract from letter from Mrs Phillips with further information on music of South Sea Islanders; Captain Phillips was referring to Friendly Islands. (1p + 2pp extract)
Unable to attend meeting; has communicated all he knows on subject to Lord Howe. (3pp)
Report from Commandant at Kamchatka of account of visit by two ships to Aleutian Islands in autumn of 1778; crews were received with great hospitality; likelihood it was Captain Cook. (copy, 3pp)
Sends report from Commandant at Kamchatka; ships must have appeared in 1777. (1p extract + 3pp enclosure in French)
News of death of Captain Cook; will forward logbooks and maps when received from Behm; interest of Empress Catherine in Cook's voyage and concern at his death; her interest in charts relating to her remote dominions. (4pp)
Sends letter received from courier from Siberia; Major Behm expected in May. (1p)
No further information about expedition of Captain Clerke; Empress Catherine ordered fleet to be ready by summer; her animosity towards Spain; opportunity for britain to improve relations. (4pp)
Allegations that Harris communicated narrative of Captain Cook's discoveries to Professor Pallas; news of Captain Clerke returning to St Peter and St Paul; forwarding box for P. Stephens. (3pp)