Guide to the Papers of Gordon Hannington Luce

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MS 6574

National Library of Australia View Catalogue Record

Collection Summary

Creator
G. H. Luce
Title
Papers of Gordon Hannington Luce
Date Range
c.1912-1978
Collection Number
MS 6574
Extent
7.84 metres (57 boxes + 6 folio boxes + 1 map folio)
Language of Materials
English
Repository
National Library of Australia

Introduction

Scope and Contents

The books and papers of Gordon H. Luce, the eminent scholar of Burmese history, were purchased from his family in 1980, one year after his death. Further additional papers were received in 1985 and 1987.

The papers include drafts of his magnum opus, Old Burma - Early Pagan (3 vols.) and also of his second main work Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma, published posthumously in 1985 (2 vols.). Another important group comprises word tables, word charts, word lists and card indexes, comparing the languages of Burma with the classical traditions of China and India, as well as cognate languages of the region. Many of these word lists have never been published. There are also lectures and articles and some diaries and notebooks.

Although much of Luce's earlier correspondence was lost, the collection contains over 1,500 letters received by him, as well as drafts of his own letters to friends and colleagues. The correspondents include well known historians and South East Asian scholars such as D.G.E. Hall, Oliver W. Wolters, G.E. Harvey, A.B. Griswold, Charles Otto Blagden and some Burmese writers and academics. Family letters include letters from his wife Daw Tee Tee, who did valuable social welfare work in Burma setting up and running a Home for Waifs and Strays. There are also letters to and from Luce's sister Dr Ethel Luce-Clausen and Luce's children, John Luce and Sandra Harding.

Some material on Luce, his life and writings are also in the collection, like the special issue of New Burma Weekly, v.4. no.4 (24 Jan. 1959) in honour of his 70th birthday, reviews of his book Old Burma - Early Pagan and bibliographies of his work, such as DrThan Tun's 'Luce's Contribution to Burmese History'. There are also a few pamphlets and articles on Mrs Luce (Daw Tee Tee) and her work.

Luce collected many articles on South East Asia by scholars, mainly on history, culture and languages, and offprints and photocopies are in the collection. Finally, there are papers he gave or heard at conferences and some newspaper cuttings on Burmese history and archaeology.

Apart from history, Luce had wide interests ranging from classical music, poetry, classical and English literature and the translation of the Bible into Asian languages. These interests are reflected in some of the material in the Luce Papers.

Unfortunately, Luce lost his earlier collection of research materials during the Second World War: readings of old lithic inscriptions and card indexes to Chinese, Mon, Burmese and Pyu languages, as well as his earlier letters, diaries and notes. The present collection therefore does not have much material from the period 1912 to 1941.

Luce was a member of the Bloomsbury group of scholars and writers: friends from Cambridge and London included Rupert Brooke, E.M. Forster, John Maynard Keynes, Arthur Waley and others. Only some letters of E.M. Forster and Arthur and Hubert Waley survive in the collection.

U Thaw Kaung, formerly Chief Librarian, Universities Central Library, Rangoon, was awarded a 1999 Harold White Fellowship at the National Library. He arranged and listed the papers and manuscripts of G.H. Luce and was the compiler of this finding-aid.

Conditions Governing Access

Please refer to the collection's catalogue record for the access conditions (http://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn662497).

Conditions Governing Use

Copying and publishing of unpublished manuscript material is subject to copyright restrictions. For such material, written permission to publish must be obtained from the copyright holder(s). Copying of unpublished material for research purposes is permissible 50 years after the death of the creator of the material.

Preferred Citation

Items from this collection should be cited as '[Title or description of manuscript item], Papers of Gordon Hannington Luce, National Library of Australia, MS 6574, [box number and series and/or file number]'.

Biographical Note

Gordon Hannington Luce was born in Gloucester, England, on 20 January 1889. He was educated at Dean Close's School, Cheltenham, and Cambridge University, where he read Classics and English Literature. In 1912 he was appointed Lecturer in English Literature at Rangoon College in Burma, which became the main University College when the University of Rangoon was established in December 1920. He soon developed a strong interest in Burmese culture and history and from 1916 onwards published numerous articles on Burmese history, language, art and antiquities. His writings mostly appeared in the Journal of the Burma Research Society, published by the premier research society on Burmese Studies established in 1911. He became a close friend of U Pe Maung Tin, a prominent Burmese and Pali scholar, and later the Professor of Oriental Studies, Principal of University College and Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission. Luce was a founder member of this Historical Commission. He married U Pe Maung Tin's sister, Daw Tee Tee, in 1915.

In 1921 Luce was appointed a Lecturer in Burmese and Far Eastern History at the newly-established University of Rangoon. Daw Tee Tee set up the Home for Waifs and Strays in Rangoon in 1928. The Luces escaped from Burma in 1942 by trekking overland to India, recording languages en route. Luce retired from the Indian Education Service in 1944 and returned to Rangoon after the War. Luce was Visiting Professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London from 1951-53 and was given a personal Chair at the University of Rangoon in 1953. In 1957 the University of Rangoon awarded him an Honorary D. Litt. for his life-long contributions to the study of Burmese history.

Luce was forced to leave Burma in 1964 and he and his wife settled on his sister's farm in Jersey in the Channel Islands. He continued to write on Burmese history and language and art and architecture. His great work Old Burma - Early Pagan was published in 1969-70. He was awarded the CBE in 1952 and the Gold Medal of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1966. He was invited to Paris in 1967 and 1968 to deliver a series of lectures on Old Burma. To the end of his life he maintained correspondence with scholars all over the world and was visited by old and new colleagues. He died on 2 May 1979.

Luce, together with his collegues and friends D.G.E. Hall, G.E. Harvey and a few others brought modern methods of Western historiography and epigraphy to the writing of Burmese history and exerted a big influence on later historians of Burma. But he was often criticised and attacked by the “old school” of Burmese historians who accepted the Burmese chronicles, even though they were legendary in many parts.

See also 'Burma and Beyond', by Andrew Gosling, National Library of Australia news, October 1996: 3-5.

Item Descriptions

Series 1. General Correspondence, 1922-79

There are over 1,500 letters written to Luce by relatives, scholars and friends over a period of 57 years, from 1922 to 1979 (in 92 Files). Only 8 Files are from the period 1912 to 1945, as Luce lost all his library, his research notes and letters during the Second World War. So although Luce had been closely connected in his younger days with eminent English intellectuals and writers, only a few letters from

E.M. Forster (File 56), Eric Blair ('George Orwell') (File 5), Arthur Waley and Hubert Waley have survived. There are also some letters of Maurice Collis, who wrote many books on Burma.

Among the correspondents are South East Asian scholars such as D.G.E. Hall (who was a colleague of Luce in the University of Rangoon before World War II), Professor Oliver W. Wolters, Charles Otto Blagden, H.L. Shorto, J.A. Stewart, H.G. Quaritch Wales, Dr Eugenie J.A. Henderson, Denise Bernot, Isaline B. Horner, Paul Wheatley, G.E. Harvey, Alexander B. Griswold and Dr Pamela Gutman. There are letters from well-known Burmese scholars and writers like U Pe Maung Tin, U Tet Htoot, U Thein Han (pen-name Zawgyi), U Wun (pen-name Minthuwun), U Kaung (first Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission), Dr Htin Aung, Dr Daw Thin Kyi, U Thant (later Secretary-General of the United Nations), U Tin Htway, U Lu Pe Win, U Aung Thaw, U Bo Kay, Nai Pan Hla and others. Luce also corresponded with the Burma Research Society, the Burma Historical Commission, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Royal Asiatic Society and other organizations.

Through his knowledge of all areas of old Burmese culture, Luce was able to elucidate many matters, answer thousands of questions with patience and erudition, and place the history of Burma in the context of wider South East Asia and its neighbours.

In this series there are also many drafts of Luce's own letters to relatives, friends and scholars. Of special note are two interesting series of letters. In 1944-45 he corresponded with the Allied Military Authorities to spare Pagan, Mandalay and other prominent historical sites of Burma from bombing and other destructive shelling during the 'Reconquest' of Burma. The second series, dating from 1945-46, is his correspondence with the Military Administration Authorities and the Burma Office in London, trying to trace his library of precious manuscripts and rare books. The collection, which included Chinese and Tibetan material and 25 years of research notes compiled in Rangoon University Library, was taken to Japan during the War.

Some notes and short articles by Luce and others are attached to some of the letters. For example, there is a note entitled 'Old Burma Research', dated 22 May 1970, attached to a letter in Burmese by U Tin Htway dated 24 June 1970 (File 58) and an article 'The Wedding of Aung San Suu Kyi and Michael Vaillancourt Aris on New Year's Day 1972', by Lord Gore-Booth, attached to a letter sent by Gore-Booth to Luce on 14 January 1972 (File 63).

1922-29 (File 1) - Box 1

1930-41 (File 2) - Box 1

1942 (File 3) - Box 1

1943 (File 4-5) - Box 1

1944 (File 6) - Box 1

1945 (File 7-8) - Box 1, 2

1946 (File 9-11) - Box 2

1947 (File 12-13) - Box 2

1948 (File 14-15) - Box 2, 3

1949 (File 16) - Box 3

1950 (File 17-18) - Box 3

1951 (File 19-22) - Box 3, 4

1952 (File 23-25) - Box 4

1953 (File 26-27) - Box 4

1954 (File 28) - Box 4

1955 (File 29) - Box 5

1956 (File 30) - Box 5

1957 (File 31) - Box 5

1958 (File 32) - Box 5

1959 (File 33) - Box 5

1960 (File 34) - Box 5

1961 (File 35) - Box 5

1962 (File 36) - Box 5

1963 (File 37) - Box 6

1964 (File 38-42) - Box 6

1965 (File 43-45) - Box 6, 7

1966 (File 46-48) - Box 7

1967 (File 49-51) - Box 7

1968 (File 52-55) - Box 8

1969 (File 56-57) - Box 8

1970 (File 58-59) - Box 8, 9

1971 (File 60-62) - Box 9

1972 (File 63-66) - Box 9, 10

1973 (File 67-69) - Box 10

1974 (File 70-72) - Box 10

1975 (File 73-75) - Box 11

1976 (File 76) - Box 11

1977 (File 77-78) - Box 11

1978 (File 79-81) - Box 11, 12

1979 (File 82) - Box 12

Condolence letters and cards, 1979 (File 83) - Box 12

Correspondence regarding the Festschrift in honour of Professor D.G.E. Hall, 1971-75 (File 84) - Box 12

Burmese Dictionary – correspondence 1943-52, printed material and related notes (File 85) - Box 12

Correspondence on World War II, 1943-50 – cultural losses to Burma (File 86) - Box 12

Mainly Old Burma correspondence 1960-62 (A.B. Griswold) (File 87) - Box 13

General correspondence - undated (File 88-89) - Box 13

General correspondence - undated (probably 1960s) (File 90) - Box 13

General correspondence - undated (1960s or 1970s) (File 91) - Box 13

General correspondence - undated (some possibly as early as 1966) (File 92) - Box 13

Series 2. Diaries, Notebooks and Personal Documents

Luce left some small appointment diaries of the period 1945 to 1966. The pre-war diaries were probably lost during the Second World War. There are only a few pages of a diary written in pencil during the evacuation journey from Burma to India in 1942. There are no extensive or fuller diaries in the collection.

The notebooks cover a number of subjects in which Luce was interested, especially Pagan history and languages of Burma and neighbouring countries. Other subjects include Burmese history, culture, art, architecture and Chinese. There are also some notes on Western classical music, English literature, old cathedrals and churches of Gloucestershire and Jersey.

The notes are in two forms, being either written in small notebooks and some larger exercise books, or written on loose leaves of paper.

The personal documents include Luce's Appointment Order to the Indian Education Service in 1912, service records, stay permits for foreigners in Burma, Retirement Order, Termination Order of Service with the University of Rangoon and the Burma Historical Commission in 1966 and other important records.

Diary, notes, correspondence 1942 – Luce's departure from Burma (File 1) - Box 14

Diaries (7) – 1945, 1946, 1950-53, 1966 (File 2) - Box 14

Notebooks (File 3-4) - Box 14

Notebook entitled 'Old Thai' (File 5) - Box 14

Note-book and exercise books entitled 'Taungthu : St. John's Gospel' (File 6) - Box 14

Notes on architecture and historical inscriptions. Jottings, draft of History of Burma (File 7) - Box 14

Research notes – Chinese (File 8) - Box 15

4 notebooks containing vocabularies, notes on readings, language tones and other notes (File 9-10) - Box 15

Two of the notebooks are entitled 'Arakan tour Apr 23rd-May 1963' and 'Danaw Nov 8th-18th 1963'

Notes of field research trips, 1958 (File 11) - Box 15

Pagan field research (File 12-13) - Box 15

Sri Bisanannarac plaques - notes, typescript, correspondence, 1977-78 (File 14) - Box 15

Miscellaneous handwritten and typed notes (File 15) - Box 16

Personal documents (File 16) - Box 16

Certificates, history of service and other personal documents (File 17) - Box 16

Series 3. Old Burma-Early Pagan

Luce's magnum opus was published in 1969-70 in three volumes by Artibus Asiae and the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. Luce's life-work on the history, iconography and architecture of Pagan is in vol. 1 (text). Based on lithic inscriptions and other primary sources, it radically changed the history as presented in the Burmese chronicles. He acknowledged the assistance of Bo-hmu (i.e. Colonel) Ba Shin, U Tin Oo (for the photographs in vol. 3 ) and the staff of the Burma Historical Commission and the Burma Archaeological Department.

This comprehensive work remains the only scholarly research treatise on Pagan (now spelt Bagan), although there are now a number of more popular books. Vol. 1 (text) is in three parts: Part A. History, chapters I to VII, pp. 1-128; Part B. Iconography, chapters VIII to XI, pp.129-227 and Part C. Architecture, chapters XII to XX, pp.228-422. The manuscripts show these parts as I, II and III.

Files have sometimes been labelled just as “Old Burma” or “Early Pagan”, rather than the full title.

The entire manuscript has been preserved, with corrections and additions. There are also proof copies and correspondence relating to this work. Reviews of this work can be found in Series 9, File 2.

The work was reviewed by U Lu Pe Win (retired Director-General of Archaeology, Burma), in Journal of the Burma Research Society, vol. LIV, parts I and II (Dec. 1971), pp.1-30. Some critical reviews, for example one by Katika U Thet Tin, are also in the collection.

Exercise books - Drafts of Old Burma (File 1-13) - Box 16, 17

2 exercise books - Drafts of Old Burma - Early Pagan (File 14-15) - Box 17

6 exercise books entitled 'Catalogue of plates' (File 16-21) - Box 17

Notebook entitled 'Supplementary plates for Old Burma. 1963 Sept' (File 22) - Box 17

Notebook entitled '2nd supplement. Plates for Old Pagan. 1964 March' (File 23) - Box 17

Old Burma - Early Pagan Part I. History (handwritten manuscripts) (File 24-25) - Box 18

Old Burma - Early Pagan Part II. Iconography (handwritten manuscripts) (File 26) - Box 18

Old Burma - Early Pagan Part III. Architecture manuscript (File 27-29) - Box 18

Old Burma - Early Pagan. Errata et corrigenda; Frontispiece vol. 2 - photograph and offprints (File 30) - Box 18

Old Burma - Early Pagan. Offprints of some plates (File 31) - Box 18

Old Burma - Early Pagan. Catalogue of plates (File 32-33) - Box 19

Old Burma - Early Pagan Maps and map lists; printed material and notes (File 34-35) - Box 19

Early Pagan Vol I. Personal (White) (File 36-40) - Box 19, 20

Early Pagan Vol. I. Personal (Red) (File 41-42) - Box 20

Early Pagan Vol.II. Personal (Incomplete) (File 43-45) - Box 20

Early Pagan Vol.II. Personal (Red) (File 46-47) - Box 21

Old Burma - Early Pagan (Personal finalized proofs) (File 48) - Box 21

Early Pagan Vol. I. Press (White) (File 49-53) - Box 21, 22

Early Pagan Vol. I. Press (Red) (File 54-55) - Box 22

Early Pagan Vol. II. Press (Incomplete) (File 56-58) - Box 22

Early Pagan Vol. II. Press (Red) (File 59-60) - Box 22, 23

Vol. II. Press. Botanical index. Old Burma Calendar (File 61) - Box 23

Glossaries and language charts (File 62-65) - Box 23

Correspondence re Old Burma printing ,1955-69 (many letters from A.B. Griswold) (File 66) - Box 23

Plates (File 67-72) - Box 24

Pagan votive tablets (File 73) - Box 24

List of plates, etc. for Old Burma (File 73) - Box 24

Hmawza Votive tablets. (File 74) - Box 25

Sri Ksetra bronzes – list. (File 74) - Box 25

Printing instructions and correspondence on Old Burma re plates. (File 74) - Box 25

Instructions for the press concerning plates for Old Burma. (File 74) - Box 25

Notebook titled 'Photography : exposures' (also contains mini diary of 1947 field trip) (File 74) - Box 25

Old Burma handwritten notes (File 75) - Box 25

Miscellaneous papers (File 76) - Box 25

Reviews of book (File 77) - Box 25

Series 4. Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma

This book was based on lectures delivered by Luce in 1966 at the Ecole des Langues Orientales Vivente at Paris. Having published Old Burma - Early Pagan in 1969-70, he had intended to complete similar works on the earlier and later periods. Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma was still incomplete when he died in 1979 and it was subsequently edited by Dr Eugenie Henderson. The work, including numerous word lists, was published posthumously in two volumes in 1985 by Oxford University Press and the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London

The eight chapters of the text (vol. 1) cover Southern Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Annam, Karens, Sak-Kantu (Thet-Kadu), Tircul, Pyu, Piao, Kyan (Chin), Mru and K'umi (N. Arakan), and Burma-Lolo.

Luce compared old Burma to the moon: one can see phases of the ancient history only and not the complete picture. “But it may yield partial glimpses of various phases of genuine history. In particular, it may show that some half-forgotten peoples, still surviving in remote corners of the hills, are not just primitive barbarians, but are, in reality, the fathers of Burma's civilization as it is to-day.” (Luce from Preface dated Nov. 1972.)

Up to now, this is the only work which provides a comprehensive survey of the early languages of Burma.

Phases of Old Burma. MS (File 1-3) - Box 25

Plate references. Word list: Pali/Mon. (File 4) - Box 26

Catalogue of plates. Notes (handwritten) (File 4) - Box 26

Short index of plates. (File 5) - Box 26

Short index of 100 plates and catalogue with full description (File 5) - Box 26

Languages and history. Photocopy. (File 6) - Box 26

Questionnaire d'Auteur (File 6) - Box 26

Correspondence re Tibeto-Chinese language charts, 1970-73 (File 7) - Box 26

Manuscript draft (in file) (File 8) - Box 26

Edited typescript (159 pp.) (File 9-11) - Box 26, 27

Cards for Chinese index (File 12) - Box 27

Catalogue of plates (pp. 160-295) (File 13-14) - Box 27

Language charts, notes and other papers (File 15) - Box 27

Language charts (see also folios 23-26) (File 16-18) - Box 27, 28

Comparative word lists including Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan (File 19-20) - Box 28

Comparative word lists: Old, Middle and Late Mon (File 21) - Box 28

Mon, Modern Mon, Old Khmer and Modern Khmer (File 21) - Box 28

Typescript 'Old Mon and Austroasiatic' (File 21) - Box 28

Comparative word lists: Hpun, Atsi, Maru and Lisu (File 22) - Box 28

Modern and Old Burmese, Archaic Chinese and Tibetan (File 22) - Box 28

Old, Middle and Late Mon (File 22) - Box 28

Series 5. Other Manuscripts of Luce

Luce left behind manuscripts of several talks and lectures and papers read at seminars and conferences, of which some are still unpublished. He spoke at the three annual Mon Conferences in Rangoon and Moulmein during the years 1954 to 1956 and these talks also remain unpublished.

There are also three important lectures on Pagan and early Burmese history that he gave to the commanding officers of the Burma Army at the Annual Conference of the Defence Services in Rangoon in 1956. They are also unpublished. This series contains various manuscripts of Luce, such as book reviews and short essays on various aspects of early Burmese history.

'Myinkaba Kubyauk-gyi'. Typescript proofs at different stages (File 1-2) - Box 28, 29

Bulletin II. Burma Historical Commission. 'Myinkaba Kubyauk-gyi' (File 3-5) - Box 29

Indo-Aryan vocabulary and index. (File 6) - Box 29

Notes on the history of Burma. Birds eye view of the history of Burma. (File 6) - Box 29

'Pagan Wetkyi-ia Kubyuak-gyi' for Artibus Asiae, vol. XXXI, 8 Oct 1971 (File 7-8) - Box 29

Burmese glossary (File 9) - Box 30

Proposed Burmese museum (File 10) - Box 30

Shans of Burma (File 11) - Box 30

Language exercise books (File 12) - Box 30

'A century of progress in Burmese history and archaeology'. MS. (File 13) - Box 30

'Sources of early Burma history'. Photocopy, drafts, correspondence, 1974 (article for Professor D.G.E. Hall's festschrift, Southeast Asian history and historiography : essays presented to D.G.E. Hall) (File 14) - Box 30

'Parable of the prodigal son' and 'Nursery rhyme'. -Translation into Riang-Lang. Notes, offprints, related correspondence, 1970 (File 15) - Box 30

'Kamram/Kamlam/Kamalanka'. MS, typescript and offprint. (File 16) - Box 31

MS, marked proofs and offprints for entry in Two Sino-Tibeto-Burmese notes (File 16) - Box 31

'A 15th Century inscription and library at Pagan, Burma' (co-author Tin Htway) for Malasakera volume. MS, typescript, correspondence, 1973-76 (File 17-18) - Box 31

'Pagan. Buddhist capital of Burma in the 11th-13th centuries, AD'. MS, typescript (File 19) - Box 31

'Aspects of Pagan history - later period'. MS, typescript and offprint. (File 20) - Box 31

Pagan guide book. MS, correspondence, 1954 (File 20) - Box 31

'The career of Htilaing Min (Kyanzittha), the Uniter of Burma'. MS, typescript, galley proofs, offprint and related correspondence, 1966 (File 21) - Box 31

'Introduction to the comparative study of Karen languages'. Typescript. 'Burma languages'. MS and offprint (File 22) - Box 31

'The advent of Buddhism to Burma'. MS, corrected proofs, correspondence, 1973-75 (File 23) - Box 32

'Rice and religion : a study of old Mon – Khmer evolution and culture' in File (lectures for Siam Society, Bangkok, March 1963). MS, typescript and notebook (File 24) - Box 32

'Old Kyaukse and the comings of the Burmans'. MS, notes and correspondence, 1959 (File 25) - Box 32

Common form in Burma Chin languages. MS, typescripts, exercise books (File 26-31) - Box 32, 33

'The Early Syam in Burma's history'. Abstract and related material. (File 32) - Box 33

Correspondence between Luce and the Siam Society, the British Embassy, Prince Dhaninvat of Thailand and others, 1956-63. (File 32) - Box 33

'Ballad of Aniruddha' (File 32) - Box 33

'Peoples of Old Burma', 1967-69 (lecture). Includes correspondence with A.E. Mourant, 1969-70 (File 33) - Box 33

Lectures at School of Oriental and Asian Studies (University of London) on Burma languages (File 34-36) - Box 33

'Danaw', 1963 (File 37) - Box 34

'Some old references to the south of Burma and Ceylon'. MS, typescript and offprint. (File 38) - Box 34

Mons of the Pagan dynasty. MS and typescript (File 38) - Box 34

Lectures delivered by Luce at the Annual Conference of the Defence Forces, 1956 and related correspondence (File 39) - Box 34

Miscellaneous notes and articles (File 40) - Box 34

'Miscellaneous notes and articles' file – including lectures delivered at the Mons Cultural Conferences, 1954-56 (File 41) - Box 34

Bound volume of articles by Luce, published in Journal of the Burma Research Society (File 42) - Box 34

Copy of Geography of Burma under the Pagan dynasty (File 43) - Box 34

Series 6. Paris Lectures, 1967-68

Luce gave two series of lectures in Paris in 1967 and 1968, a few years after leaving Burma. He had settled in Jersey in the Channel Islands from where he maintained contact with scholars in France and elsewhere. He had completed writing his main work Old Burma - Early Pagan.

There were four lectures in April 1967: one on Pagan iconography and three on Pagan architecture. On Pagan iconography Luce talked about 'Symbol and Representation'. Luce's three lectures on Pagan architecture were entitled (1) 'A General Survey', (2) 'Early Temples especially on Nat-hlaung kyaung, Nanpaya, Manuha and Minpaya', and (3) 'On the Old Mon Temple'.

There were two lectures given in Paris in 1968. These lectures were on 'Old Burma - Peoples and Places', and covered early Pagan and Sri Ksetra temples and pagodas. The lectures are in Luce's handwriting. No text for Lecture 1 of 1968 has been found. They have not been published as a separate monograph, though the material contained in these lectures was included in his three volume work Old Burma-Early Pagan. The lectures were all based on old Mon and early Burmese inscriptions of the Pagan period.

The lectures were vetted by Isaline B. Horner, President of the Pali Text Society, and the correspondence relating to these lectures between Luce and Horner are preserved in this series. Horner greatly praised the lectures and urged Luce to publish them.

Lecture I. (1967) Pagan Iconography - Symbol and Representation (File 1) - Box 35

Lecture II. (1967) Pagan Architecture, general survey (File 2) - Box 35

Lecture III. (1967) Pagan Architecture - Early Temples (File 3) - Box 35

Lecture IV. (1967) Pagan Architecture - The Old Mon Temple (File 4) - Box 35

Lecture I. (1968) Old Burma - Peoples and Places? (No text, only lists) (File 5) - Box 35

Lecture II. (1968?) Old Burma - Peoples and Places - Sri Ksetra (File 6) - Box 35

Series 7. Word Lists

After World War II Luce pursued his interest in the old language of Burma, with the aim of identifying the influences of the major cultures of the region on Burma, especially on Old Burmese and Old Mon. He also sought to clarify the origins of the pre-Burman languages, such as Pyu and Sak, through the languages spoken by ethnic minority groups in Burma at the time. To this end, he travelled throughout the country, finding language informants in villages and recording as much as possible, often under difficult conditions. Although he had planned to publish a book on the pre-Pagan period, it was still in draft form when he died, and eventually appeared, edited by Eugenie Henderson, as Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma in 1985.

The series contains language sheets and charts lists words in Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, Thai, Mon and Burmese, as well as other languages of Burma like Karen, Palaung and Taung-yoe.

Subseries 7-1. Language Word Lists, including Burmese dialects, Tibetan, Chinese, Lolo, Sanskrit-Pali loan words

Word lists (File 1) - Box 36
Comparative word lists (File 2-6) - Box 36
Comparative word lists - Burmese/dialects (File 7) - Box 36
Comparative word lists – Burmese, Tibetan/Chinese (File 8-10) - Box 37
Word lists – Burma-Lolo Group (File 11) - Box 37
Sanskrit - Pali Loan word glossary (File 12) - Box 37

Subseries 7-2. Language Words Lists, including Burmese, Chin, Riang, Chinese, Old Thai, Khasi, Mon, Sak-Kantu

Burmese Phonetics (File 13) - Box 37
Chin Languages. Notes and Correspondence - including Dr Henderson's re Chin Hills Linguistic Tour, 1954, and 'Need for Phonetic Type for Burma Languages' (File 14) - Box 37
Riang. Translation of Markos. Correspondence, paperback copy of Markos, related material (File 15) - Box 38
Chinese - Correspondence and related material (File 16) - Box 38
Correspondence re language types. Old Thai inscriptions. Khasi (File 17) - Box 38
Correspondence on language types and related material. Mon (File 18) - Box 38
Language Charts. Sak Kantu strips (File 19) - Box 38
Old and Middle Mon Estampages belonging to the Library of University College, Rangoon (photographed notes) and incomplete box of card indexes (2 items) (File 20) - Box 38

Subseries 7-3. Language Word Lists, including Chin, Old Mon, Middle Mon, Modern Mon, Late Mon, Old Thai, Tangthu

Comparative word lists (File 21) - Box 39
Index of words - Chin (File 22-24) - Box 39
13 Sheets on Old Mon, Middle Mon, Modern Mon. (File 25) - Box 39
Pronunciation and meaning, plus index, vocabulary and letters (File 25) - Box 39
Language tables: Old Mon, Middle Mon, Late Mon, English (File 26-27) - Box 39

Subseries 7-4. Language Word Lists, including Chin Hills Linguistic Tour, Chin, Burmese, Pali, Sanscrit, Old Mon

Chin Hills linguistic tour. Manuscript and typescript (File 28) - Box 40
Index of words (Chin) (File 29-30) - Box 40
Common form in Burma Chin languages. Typescript (File 31) - Box 40
Correspondence on language types. Burmese (File 32) - Box 40
Correspondence on language types and related material. (File 33) - Box 40
Pali- Sanskrit (File 33) - Box 40
Old Mon inscriptions (File 34-36) - Box 40, 41

Subseries 7-5. Language Word Lists, including Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Old Mon, Old Khmer, Karen

Comparative word lists, including Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese (File 37) - Box 41
Comparative word lists, including Old Mon, Old Khmer (File 38) - Box 41
Comparative word lists. Karen index (File 39) - Box 41
Karen index (File 40) - Box 41
Karen languages (File 41) - Box 42
Pre standard Old Burmese word lists (File 42) - Box 42
Old Mon (Burma) glossary (File 43) - Box 42
Burmese glossary: vowel finals, Pre standard Old Burmese comparative lists (File 44) - Box 42
Anthropometry, notes, printed material (File 45) - Box 42
Comparative word list Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan published by School of Oriental and African Studies, 1981 (File 46) - Box 42
Comparative word list Old Burmese, Chinese and Tibetan (photocopy of 46) (File 46A) - Box 42

Subseries 7-6. Language Word Lists, including Tibeto-Burman, Vietnamese Bibliographical Articles

Linguistic papers and correspondence, including papers by Theodore Stern, A.B. Griswold, David Bradley (File 47) - Box 42
Linguistic articles, including items by Eugénie Henderson, Than Tun, Pamela Gutman, Robbins Burling (File 48) - Box 43
Linguistic articles, including items by L.F. Taylor, D.G.E. Hall, J.S. Furnivall, U Lu Pe Win, together with G.H. Luce's list of books (File 49) - Box 43
Linguistic articles, including items by David Bradley, Eugénie Henderson, Janice Stargardt. Titles include Nashi and Proto Burmese-Lolo and Rapport sur les conferences de l'annee scolaire (File 50) - Box 43
Languages: Tibeto Burman (File 51) - Box 43
Languages: Tibeto Burman, also Nagari legends (File 52) - Box 43
Languages: Vietnamese (File 53) - Box 43
Linguistic bibliography - Typescript (File 54) - Box 43
Exercise books: Late Mon, Old Khmer, Old Malay, Old Javanese (File 55) - Box 44

Subseries 7-8. Miscellaneous

Tables - Unidentified (File 56) - Box 44
Pagan, Wetkyi-in Kubyauk-gyi (File 57) - Box 44
Tangut or Proto Burman word list (File 58) - Box 44
Word lists (File 59-61) - Box 44
Selung (Mawken) (File 62) - Box 45
Mon- Old, Middle and Late (File 63) - Box 45
Mon- Khmer comparisons, 1964 (File 64-66) - Box 45
Old Mon (File 67) - Box 45
Mon- Old, Middle and Modern (File 68) - Box 45
Mon-Khmer (File 69-71) - Box 46
Danaw/Riang, 1966-67 (File 72) - Box 46
Riang- St Mark's Gospel (File 73) - Box 46
Riang- Wa- Palaing (File 74) - Box 46
Tibeto Burman (File 75-77) - Box 46, 47
Tibeto-Chinese (Kachin, Maru) (File 78) - Box 47
Ch'iang (File 79) - Box 47
Sak, Kadu, Ganan (File 80) - Box 47
Maru ts'a, Awa K'umi (File 81) - Box 47
Chin vocabularies (File 82) - Box 47
Charts relating to Karen dialects, Mon-Khmer, K'umi, and other languages (File 82) - Box 47
Comparative language sheets. Tibeto Burman language charts. Chin (Zo group). Tables A-J. Chin dialects (several sheets) (File 83-84) - Map-Folio Map Folio
Comparative language sheets. Tibeto Burman language charts. Mru and Sak groups (File 85) - Map-Folio Map Folio
Comparative language sheets. Burmese, Tibetan, Chinese language charts (File 86-88) - Folio-Box 1, Map-Folio Map Folio
Comparative language charts. Austro-Asiatic languages. Annam, Khmer, Mon, Khasi, Munda. Tibeto-Chinese languages. Burma-Lolo group. Tone pattern I-III and stops (File 89-90) - Map-Folio Map Folio
Comparative language charts. Karen tone patterns and Karen/Tibeto Chinese (File 91) - Folio-Box 1
Karen names for months (File 92) - Folio-Box 1
Karen tone patterns (File 93) - Folio-Box 1
Burmese : Maru Atsi Hpua comparative sheets (blank form) (File 94) - Map-Folio Map Folio
Karen comparative list (photocopies) (File 95-96) - Folio-Box 1
100 words in Pwo Karen (3 dialects) (File 97) - Folio-Box 1
65 sheets Chin dialects (File 98) - Map-Folio Map Folio
Bodhi tree. Mss (File 99) - Folio-Box 1
Luce tables (cards in 2 boxes) (Brown box measuring 12.5 × 16 × 19 cm.) (File 100-101) - Folio-Box 2
Index cards (cards in tin) (Brown box measuring 13 × 22.5 × 24 cm.) (File 102) - Folio-Box 3
Index cards (cards in tin) (Brown box measuring 13.5 × 24 × 23 cm.) (File 103) - Folio-Box 4
Photographs (File 104) - Folio-Box 5
Language charts (File 105-108) - Folio-Box 6, Map-Folio Map Folio

Series 8. Conferences, 1958-77

Luce attended a number of conferences during the post-Second World War period. Conference papers, programmes and correspondence relating to these conferences are in this series. In particular, he attended the Asian History Congress, held in New Dehli, India, on 9-13 December 1961, sponsored by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations and gave a paper on 'Foreign relations of King Aniruddha'.

Luce also attended the Conference on Linguistic Problems of the Indo-Pacific Area, held in London on 5-8 January, 1965. It was sponsored by the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London. Papers read at this conference include Luce's paper on 'Danaw, a dying Austroasiatic language' (File 12).

There are also some papers and addresses given at conferences which Luce did not attend, such as the International Conference on Asian Archaeology, 1961 and Conferences de l'Année Scolaire, 1976-1977.

Subseries 8-1. Asian History Congress, 9-13 December 1961

Notes, programmes, list of delegates. Also Luce's paper 'Foreign relations of King Aniruddha' (File 1) - Box 48
Notebook entitled 'Foreign relations of King Aniruddha and his succcessors (11th-12th cent AD)'. Typescript 'Reign of Aniruddha' (File 2) - Box 48
Papers by Khushwant Singh, Bimla Parsad, G.C. Mendis, H.R. Gupta, Boechari (File 3) - Box 48
Papers by Radhakamal Mukerjee, R.K. Dikshit, C. von Furer-Haimendorf, Prof. P.V. Bapat, Paranvitana, Dr S. Dutt. (File 4) - Box 48
Papers by D.C. Sircar, Uka Tjandrasasmita, F.R. Farid, B. Subba Rao, Charles Pellat (File 5) - Box 48
Papers by K.S. Lal, G.M. Moraes , M. Abdulla Chaghatai, Satish Chandra, R.K. Das Gupta (File 6) - Box 48
Papers by J. Filliozat, Sourin Roy, Nicola A. Ziadeh, S. H. Askari, Mohibbul Hasan (File 7) - Box 48
Papers by P.L. Mehra, Dr H. Ros, Tomas S. Fonacier, Teodora A. Agoncillo, M. Nizamuddin, K.K. Datta (File 8) - Box 49
Papers by Dr Enam, Prof S.M. Jaffar, L. Petech, Magbul Ahmed, G.E. Wheeler, S.A.A. Rizvi (File 9) - Box 49
Papers by Irfan M. Habib, John Gallagher, Munibur Rahman, Nabih Amin Faris, Clovis Maksoud, M.S. Agwani, Anil Seal (File 10) - Box 49
Papers by B.P. Sinha, H.D. Sankalia, D.G.E. Hall, Prof. R.S. Sharma, A.K. Narain, Mir Husain Shah (File 11) - Box 49

Subseries 8-2. Conference on Linguistic Problems of the Indo-Pacific Area, January 5-8, 1965

Programme, circulars 1964-65, conference papers (File 12) - Box 49
Conference papers (File 13-18) - Box 49, 50
Miscellaneous conferences: 50th Anniversary Conference of the Burma Research Society, 28 Dec. 1961–2 Jan. 1962; Report on Conferences de l'Année Scolaire, 1976-1977 (File 19) - Box 50
Historical Writing on the Peoples of Asia - South and South East Asia Seminars, 1956 (File 20-21) - Box 50

Series 9. Cuttings and Publications

Cuttings from newspapers and magazine on subjects of interest to Luce are in this series. Even after Luce left Burma, he was sent cuttings of news items from Burma on interesting archaeological finds and on the big earthquake at Pagan in 1975 and the subsequent restoration work.

File 1 contains a copy of the New Burma Weekly, vol. 4, no. 4, 24 Jan. 1959, 'in honour of Professor Luce on the occasion of his 70th birthday'.

Press cuttings 1946-70, including the 1946 newspapers The Citizen, The Mon Bulletin, The Daily Telegraph (File 1) - Box 51

Press cuttings on the Pagan earthquake, 1975 (File 1) - Box 51

Press cuttings found in books with book title attached (File 2) - Box 51

Cards in envelope marked “Ref to dwarf people” (File 2) - Box 51

Miscellaneous printed material – some relating to Luce (File 3) - Box 51

Miscellaneous – includes press cuttings, membership cards, map entitled 'India orientalis nova descriptio' (File 4) - Box 51

Printed material on India, Singapore (File 5) - Box 51

Printed material (File 6) - Box 52

Opera and exhibition programmes, 1950-1973 (File 7-8) - Box 52

School of Oriental and African Studies book lists, 1964-65 (File 9-10) - Box 52

Series 10. Manuscripts and Publications of Other Writers

Luce acquired and kept some manuscripts and publications of other writers and they have been placed in this series.

'Man-shu of Fan Cho'. Translation by M. Blackmore (File 1) - Box 52

A Provisional sketch of Sizang (Siyin) Chin by Theodore Stern and other articles by D.G.E. Hall and Eugénie Henderson (File 2) - Box 52

Oedipus at Colonus. Translated by R.C. Trevelyan. Corrected proof (incomplete), and correspondence, 1945 (File 3) - Box 53

'The Chinese cyclical signs and the origins of the alphabet' by E.G. Pulleybank, 1975 (File 4) - Box 53

'The effects of altitudinal variation in Ethiopian populations' by G.A. Harrison et al, 1969 (File 4) - Box 53

'Ceylon's relation with South-east Asia, with special reference to Burma' by Sirima Wickremasinghe (File 5) - Box 53

'Plains Chin, a linguistic minority in Burma' by Theodore Stern (File 6) - Box 53

Articles: Vietnamese orthography; Burmese-Lolo (File 7) - Box 53

Articles on the Karen, Thailand (File 8) - Box 53

Miscellaneous papers, published and unpublished articles by J. Poonyo, Robbins Burling, Denise Bernot, Jane Terry Bailey, Judith M. Jacob, E. Michael Mendelson. (File 9) - Box 53

Series 11. Miscellaneous Papers

Tables on rubbings and related correspondence (File 1) - Box 54

Slide, photographs and rubbings - statues and tablets (File 2) - Box 54

Miscellaneous plate covers (File 3) - Box 54

Articles, Siam Society meeting notices, annual reports, correspondence, vocabularies and other papers (File 4-5) - Box 54

Scrapbook entitled 'Tibeto Burman : authorities' (on cover 'Tibeto-Burman : bibliography') (File 6) - Box 54

Miscellaneous papers including exercise books, articles, and notes (File 7-9) - Box 54, 55

Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, Dec. 1965 (File 10) - Box 55

Photographs of coins of the Candra Dynasty, sculptures and architectural features (File 11) - Box 55

Cards and letters (File 12) - Box 55

Inasmuch by Ethel M. Luce Clausen, and 'Daw Tee Tee's experiment', Eastern world, vol. 6, no. 6, June 1952 (photocopy) (File 13) - Box 55

Report entitled First annual report of the Children's Aid and Protection Society: Home for Waifs and Strays 1928-29. Includes a report and a paper by Tee Tee Luce entitled 'The street children of Rangoon'. Programme of the Boxing tournament in aid of the Home for waifs and strays, … on 3rd January 1948. (File 13) - Box 55

British and Foreign Bible Society. Correspondence, 1947-53 (File 14) - Box 55

British and Foreign Bible Society. Annual report, circulars, financial papers, publications, correspondence, 1950-53 (File 15) - Box 55

Name cards, business cards, greetings cards, newspaper cuttings, etc. (File 16) - Box 55

15 boxes card indexes (including, English, Old Mon, Modern Mon) (File 17) - Box 56

Box of cards marked 'Lisu B' (File 18) - Box 56

Papers relating to Daw Tee Tee (added 7 December 2001) (File 19) - Box 57

Includes papers and cuttings (some are photocopies) relating to the Home for Waifs and Strays including annual reports for 1954, 1955 and 1962; photocopies of cuttings about the 1959 Ramon Magsaysay Award; assorted photographs, some photocopied; and program for a memorial service held on 9 September 1982


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